Reading Analysis #7

Ana Junco

College Writing

Professor Hoskins



Learning Spaces and its influence

The “Space and Consequences: The Impact of Different Formal Learning Spaces on Instructor and Student Behavior” article is a presentation of a research project that was quasi-experimental, which investigated the significance of a traditional classroom versus that of a technologically-equipped active learning classroom on the behavior of instructors, class activities and the behavior of students. The study on which this journal article was based on took place at the University of Minnesota and was conducted by D. Christopher Brooks, a Research Fellow at the University of Minnesota. The consequent research article was published in 2012, in the Journal of Learning Spaces.

The research involved time-series data that was collected during observations of classrooms at the university, with a focus on four major groups of variables which are; classroom activities, the behavior of instructors, behavior of students and the delivery modes used to deliver content (Brooks). The time-series data was collected using methods like interviewing faculty members, logs of course assignments, survey of students, photo surveys, focus groups and class observations (Brooks). These methods of data collection helped provide systematic evaluations of a range of examinable hypotheses in relation to the bigger research question (Brooks). Brooks provides an example of one of the methods of data collection, in which Brooks observed a class of an introductory biology course. In this method of data collection, one instructor offered two offerings of the same course to different sections of students. One section of the course was taught in an ALC (Active Learning Classroom) and another in a traditional classroom with a whiteboard, instructor podium and projection screen (Brooks).

Already, it has been established than flexible, technologically-enhanced classroom spaces were essential in boosting the performance of students, through the measure of course grades. However, this research, in particular, goes beyond these already established facts and explains exactly how these learning spaces matter (Brooks).

The research article embraces a unique and helpful approach by exploring a dimension of learning spaces that has not been examined before, by showing exactly how technologically-enhanced classroom spaces are better than traditional classrooms and exactly how they improve the performance of the students (Brooks). The research article further adopts the correct format, explaining in a clear, logical and well-arranged format the basis for the research, how it was conducted, its findings and other relevant information. The research article achieves this through the use of subsections, such as ‘Introduction’, ‘Literature Review’, ‘Data and Methods’, ‘Analysis’ and ‘Conclusion’. This makes it easier for the reader to navigate the research article and find the information they are looking for.

The author of the research article, D. Christopher Brooks, adopts a formal and scientific style of writing, whose effectiveness manifests itself in the presence of a formal tone. In writing the research article, Brooks includes scientific terms that describe studies and those that describe classroom spaces, making the article scientifically relevant and valid. This is important because it promotes the likelihood of the research article being considered seriously, as opposed to if it were written in an informal tone. Brooks also treats the topic with importance, which is evident in the manner in which he describes how he collected the data and the analysis of the data.

The research article is of particular appeal to academicians who are interested in the study of the impact of different learning spaces on the students. The study is also of importance to students, institutions and faculty, who may be interested in knowing which classroom spaces are most effective in improving grades and course performance.

Work Cited

Brooks, D. Christopher. “Space and Consequences: The impact of different formal learning spaces on instructor and student behavior.” Journal of Learning Spaces 1.2 (2012).

Reading Analysis #6

Ana Junco

College Writing

Professor Hoskins



The aftermath of the 2016 elections

“AFTERMATH: Sixteen Writers on Trump’s America” is an article that appears in ‘The New Yorker’, a collection to a series of articles in response to the election of Donald Trump to the White House and what his presidency could potentially mean for the country. The series of articles, published on November 21st, 2016 are authored by sixteen writers, some of whom include Toni Morrison, Hilary Mantel, Jeffrey Toobin and Atul Gawande.

Generally, the collection of articles was a reflection of the overall feelings and expectations held by many Americans towards the presidency of Trump. The first article, titled “A Democratic Opposition”, by George Packer, begins by making a reference to the Watergate Scandal, where then President, Richard Nixon, was revealed to have abused his power by using government instruments to hide financial wrongdoings and lie to the public about the war in Vietnam(Packer, Gawande and Mantel). The article further talks about Nixon could have easily gotten away with the wrongdoings but democratic institutions and public opinion kept him in check. In the article, Packer draws a comparison between Nixon and Trump, indicating that Trump could violate the constitution through means like torturing terrorist suspects and killing their next of kin (Packer, Gawande and Mantel). Packer also points that partisan advantages and weakening of institutions that stopped Nixon will help Trump violate the constitution.

In “Health of the Nation”, Gawande talks of the mismatch between Trump and his solutions and the American fundamental values, noting that for instance, abolition of Obamacare will worsen the rising costs of health (Packer, Gawande and Mantel). In “Bryant Park: A Memoir”, Mantel discusses Trump’s brutality and his disappointment on Trump’s election, drawing on his personal experiences. In “Four-Cornered Flyover”, Hessler discusses the important role played by the simple-looking state of Colorado in Trump’s election, using anecdotal evidence (Packer, Gawande and Mantel). Toni Morrison’s “Mourning For Whiteness”is a discussion of the perpetration of hate by White Americans against Black Americans, since they feel blacks pose a threat. Morrison explores why these white voters voted for Donald Trump, indicating that most voted for him because he was an expression of their fears of the decline of white superiority (Packer, Gawande and Mantel). Jane Mayer’s “The Dark-Money Cabinet”, the irony is drawn that the corrupt people he swore to remove from government are also his largest supporters, like the Koch brothers. The rest of the articles continue to provide their criticisms of Trump’s persona and demeanor, his campaign, his upcoming presidency and a contrast between him and outgoing President, Barack Obama (Packer, Gawande and Mantel).

Most of the work in this collection of articles uses anecdotal references by the writers, which help them easily present arguments and discussions that most Americans find relatable. Most of the writers adopt a two-sided approach the topic about Trump’s election, although a significant portion of the articles are an expression of distaste and dissatisfaction with his election as President.

Most of the articles mainly appeal to non-racist white Americans and people of color, since many of the articles empathize on the threat Trump’s presidency has on the liberties of the people of color and the American public in general. It is for this same reason that the articles could be taken negatively by white, conservative Americans.

Work Cited

Packer, Gawande and Mantel. “Aftermath: Sixteen Writers on Trump’s America.” 21 November      2016. The New Yorker. 1 December 2016.

Reading Analysis 3

This photograph above let us know that this bathroom can be use by any gender.

This photograph above let us know that this bathroom can be use by any gender.

His & Hers: Designing for a Post-Gender Society

          In the article “His & Hers: Designing for a Post-Gender Society,” Suzanne Tick argues how society is changing to a more inclusive environment in the modern revolution.  The space and time we are living in is changing at an alarming rate in the way we perceive gender and gender-related issues. It is in the right mind to declare that, there a particular kind of gender evolution worldwide. The moral aspect that seemed to borrow this notion of the traditional understanding of the masculine and feminine roles has undergone a complete overhaul. This change has been uniquely spearheaded by rampant advances in the realm of science and technology. Moreover, the shift within cultures taking a leaf from instances of sexual politics and gender-based media depictions has also played a critical role in gender evolution (Tick).

           Designers are critically recollecting the instances that were highly dominated by male genders such the power roles in high-end offices which made them more superior than the females. These prominent offices that bolster about 85% of male population include the offices in the world of web design and technology. However, a renaissance period is being felt because the wave of feminism is taking a toll in the current male dominated world (Tick).

          Gender equality has been recently supported by an actress by the name Emma Watson who is also UN Women Goodwill Ambassador; trying to encourage men to support her cause in enforcing gender equality. Men have been understood to be dominant all over the world and therefore, it will be extremely exceptional if they showed support in promoting the gender equality issue (Tick).

          It is also important to decipher that equality has been promoted through the LGBT rights movement which states that everyone should be treated equally no matter what his/her sexual orientation is. In addition to this, barriers and hierarchies have been understood to come down in common workplaces as women’s presence is becoming more rampant.  Aspects of the woman touch are also being felt in office niches including an emphasis on views, windows, hospitality, carpeting, and textiles. These attributes brought about by the women-folk, have in essence strengthened the bond between these genders and also resulted in high-profit margins in business forums.

           The gender parity switch has been uniquely felt in the fashion industry whereby designers have been extremely open minded in jellying these genders. One of the celebrated designers, Alexander Wang, who is chiefly known for designing women’s coat, has broken the bank by going ahead in designing men cloth line with a military touch. Concurrently, Annemiek van der Beek also took part in making Primal Skin makeup line in order to make it more appealing to the male customers. These two designers, for instance, have stopped doing what they used to do earlier and integrated more art in bringing equality in gender by the virtue of modifying their products to attract any gender (Tick).

           The world today has become jumbled in the perception of gender roles in the sense that boys are confused to be girls and vice versa. These particular instances have been experienced in learning institutions such as colleges whereby, a great number of students are standing up to institutions and urging them not to identify them with gender roles. In other words, they want to be neutral, and thus, they don’t want to be classified as either a male or female.

           In retrospect, I might add that gender roles are a thing of the past since people are also embracing the transgender ideology. Since time in memorial, transgenders were regarded as outcasts in the community especially in the American set-up. But later on in 1995, Martine Rothblat a transgender female published The Apartheid of Sex which insisted that there are a vast number of people in the world with different and unique sexual orientations (Tick, 2015). These people were to be respected and given a chance to have a favorable environment to make a living just like the normal males and females. Equality is not just a mere option or favor, but it is in entirety a right.  

Work Cited

Tick, Suzanne. “His &Amp; Hers: Designing for a Post-Gender Society.” Metropolis, Metropolis

Reading Analysis 2 Final

Analyzing Schindler’s Architectural as Regulation

          In “Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation through Physical Design of the Built Environment” Sarah B. Schindler’s point of view for “architectural regulation is that departing from tradition by focusing on architecture instead of ordinances and social norms” (Schindler 1953). She also argues the influence architecture has on the judgment of poor people and people of color.   We rarely notice every detail of the architecture of our environment, many things are made for a reason not always for decoration. As Sarah mention the armrests of a bench on a park are there to avoid people from taking naps, especially homeless, but many people would have thought it was there to separate the seats.

      Schindler’s regulatory role of architecture “The built environment does not fit within the definition of “regulation” as legal scholars traditionally employ that term; it is not a rule promulgated by an administrative body after a notice-and-comment period. However, the built environment does serve to regulate human behavior and is an important form of extra-legal regulation” (Schindler 1944). When it comes to making architectural decisions there is a lot of exclusivity. Planners sometimes make decisions without taking under considerations the effect it will have on the residents, consequently this decision simplify the prevention within cities. Lessig’s examples is a great way to understand ways in which the built environment regulates, “That a highway divides two neighborhoods limits the extent to which the neighborhoods integrate. That a town has a square, easy accessible with a diversity of shops, increases the integration of residents in that town. That Paris has a large boulevard limits the ability of revolutionaries to protest. That the Constitutional Court in Germany is in Karlsruhe, while the capital in in Berlin, limits the influence of one branch of government over the other. These constraints function in a way that shapes behavior. In this way, they too regulate” (Schindler 1947) Lessig recognize the role of physical architecture but doesn’t concentrated on it. Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein’s concept of “choice architecture” and “choice architects” acknowledges that the person that control and create the decision has an influence over it since a “neutral” design doesn’t exist.

            There are many ways building environment that are design to exclude people from accessing a community. One example Schindler mentions of architectural exclusion is when Robert Moses “set forth specification for bridge overpasses on Long Island, which were designed to hang low so that the twelve-foot tall busses in use at the time could not fit under them” (Schindler 1953). Obviously Moses purpose for this was to prevent access to the low-income groups, for the benefit of upper and middle class since they owned cars. Schindler also discusses how some upper class neighborhoods excluded public transportation.

            Schindler believe that even though walls “are generally put in place by private developers to keep out those whom they do not want to access their communities, local governments have the power to prohibit these barriers. And while some cities have taken action to actively outlaw gated communities, most have not” (Schindler 1958). For there to be a stop on exclusionary techniques like physical barriers to access or transportation infrastructure people have to stand up of human equality, sufficient citizens could make a change. Architectural decisions should consider the rights of each citizens of the community.

Works Cited

Schindler, Sarah. “Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and     Segregation through Physical Design of the Built Environment.” N.p., 2015. Web. 23 Sept. 2016

Reading Analysis 1 Final


 Analyzing Fleming’s Placelessness of Political Theory

        In the article “City of Rhetoric”, the author David Fleming has political theory argument it states that each citizen should be treated equally regardless of the worldly status, also it explains how a balance between each individual’s right and the politics authority is very important for a respectable political party. In his theory Fleming explains that an individual isn’t defined by its race, class, religion and gender. There is no better way of saying this, “We are all situated human beings with specific attributes; and bracketing may not be good for any of us. We all have bodies, we all grow up speaking certain languages, living in certain places, and occupying certain positions in the world. We are all from somewhere and affiliate with some groups more than others. Our political philosophies should not deny these “irrational” attachments; they are constitutive of who we are, of our very human being” (Fleming 22). Fleming explains two dominant traditions of modern political though: Republicanism and Liberalism.

    Republicans believe in a self-governance of their own communities and that politics is essential for our everyday. Fleming mentions John Pocock’s way of understanding republicanism, “the development of the individual towards self-fulfillment is possible only when the individual acts as a citizen, that is, as a conscious and autonomous participant in an autonomous decision-taking political community, the polis or republic” (Fleming 25). The problem with the republican tradition demands too much because it’s a conservative trend. Some republican can be classified as radical are against David Fleming’s political theory. In other hand, Liberalism, focuses on everyone’s own well-being. This tradition believes in equality of all human beings. The belief of the Liberalist is that everyone should be treated the same and that each individual’s happiness, freedom and life style has significance.  Fleming compared republican and liberal traditions when he stated: “To facilitate that project, the group needs not so much constant participation by all in public life, or even common assent to particular beliefs and values, as it does laws, procedures, and institutions that guarantee fairness and dictate as little as possible in the way of substance. Liberals therefore show less interest in qualities of character among citizens than republicans do; in fact, they sometimes seem to want to “citizen-proof” the state so that it does not depend on the virtues of particular individuals” (Fleming 26). Basically he stated that republicans concentrate excessively in politics and politicians, not in individual rights, whereas liberals concentrate in public ordinary life and not in the politics or politicians. We can see how republicans and liberal fail in their opposite strength. It’s important to acknowledge that even though the traditions aren’t alike in some aspects, the trends part with the democratic political view, “Despite these differences, however, both ideologies claim to be democratic and to support self-governing communities constituted by their members’ freedom and equality; both place a premium on debate as the mechanism of that self-government; and both recognize the role of a healthy public —a “coming together of equals”—in countering tyranny” (Fleming 26).

           When facing both ideologies democracy is a big problem, we can see limitations around a group of people that are equal to one another but in some aspect superior to outcasts. These types of communities need to understand that as Martin Luther King Jr. said “Civic identity is a matter of heart and mind rather than body or status; and citizens know one another by the content of their character rather than the color of their skin.” (Fleming 20). The community needs to be involved in the government for them to get what they want and to protect their individual rights. Restating what I said in the begging; a balance between each individual’s right and the politics authority is very important for a respectable political party.

Works Cited

Fleming, David. City of Rhetoric: Revitalizing the Public Sphere in   Metropolitan  America.  SUNY P, 2008.