Many places can have a big background story that you would never have thought when you visit it. Going to my site and researching about it made me realize many things specially how is true as Sarah B. Schindler mention in “Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation through Physical Design of the Built Environment” that we rarely notice every detail of the architecture of our environment, many things are made for a reason not always for decoration. As Sarah mention the armrests of a bench on a park are there to avoid people from taking naps, especially homeless, but many people would have thought it was there to separate the seats. Everything has is made for a reason you might not know it there is a big meaning to everything. Franklin Square has change a lot throughout the year, right now it’s not in on ts best condition but hopefully it will get better.
Every place has a story: Franklin Park and Franklin Square
Many places can have a big background story that you would never have thought when you visit it. Franklin Square is located on downtown Washington D.C. It’s a square named after the United States former president Benjamin Franklin. The square has been bounded by fourteenth Street NW on the west, first Street NW on the south, thirteenth street NW to the North, and K street NW to the north. It’s served and serviced by the Washington Metro Square Station which has been located southwest of the square. The park has a sloped upward and has been partly terraced from K street to 1 Street. It is featured with many benches, grass and large trees. There is also a dedication in the form of a statue of Commodore Barry John on the east section of the park (“Welcome To One Franklin Square’s Tenant® Portal”)
Franklin Park is located in the center of downtown Washington D.C it has a total area of 5.12 acres in possession of the United States National Park Service. It’s bordered by the Thirteenth Street NW to the North, forteen streets NW on the west, first Street NW on the south and K Street NW to the North. The parking space is available for commercial purposes, the park accommodates and host family special events yearly such as holiday events (Pollard 46-46).
Franklin Square has originally been the location of some natural springs according to the Preservation League of Washington D.C. The plan for the square was presented in 1791 and didn’t include the Franklin Park for a particular reason until 1833 when the state purchased the square and reformed it into Franklin Park. It is often assumed it was named after Benjamin Franklin, but there hasn’t been substantial proof for the claims. Until the 1870s, the park the state hadn’t work to improve the park. They added paths, benches, and landscapes at this time and in the early 1880s. The US public Work Administration issued seventy-five thousand dollars to the city to facilitate the square’s last main renovations in 1935. However, after the renovations were complete, the city didn’t maintain the park till date except for the refurbishment of the square, paths, in 1976. The 4.97 acres of the Franklin Square has been managed by the United States National Park Service. In the year 2013, significant repairs were required on the pathways and the Plaza ( Pollard 46-46). The state proposed to reengineer and redesign the square to accommodate a variety of sport and recreational activities. The request for proposal required a different design to provide flexible food kiosks, seating area, and an improved landscape. They were offered $280,000 to implement the design and engineering works (“Welcome To One Franklin Square’s Tenant® Portal”)
Franklin Park is an urban and historical park with approximately 5 acres located in Downtown Washington D.C. The park is located on a commercial hub with an increasing residential population and a flourishing commercial district. It’s owned and serviced by the United State National Park Service and has been in need of redesign to update and improve the park to serve the city. Moreover, the park’s location and size present an opportunity to impact the local economy and community by utilizing the green space. The National Park Service has been encouraging and supporting efforts to renew the park as part of the coming up with ways to partner with the community and achieve the urban agenda. In 2012, the District government, the National Park Service, and the DC Business Improvement District formed a partnership to renovate the place and establish operations and maintenance of the park in eternity. The outcome of the planning, which incorporated stakeholder input and public outreach, is a design concept and operation and maintenance plan for the Franklin Park. In August 2015, the partnership group completed an assessment of the park plan and vision. The National Park Service determined that the project won’t result in the main environmental impacts based on public comments and the EA analysis. The release a finding and recommendation of no impact for a preferred alternative design.
Franklin Square as an urban park goal is to provide and maintain passive and active essential services and recreational opportunities these services include flexible areas, food, and restrooms. They also have actively supervised evening and daytime programs and events. The vision is to respect and celebrate the historical and present sense of belonging and character through quality sites, seasonal plantings, restored historical resources and building materials. The squares has been designed as an ecological, sustainable, and maintainable are to serve the diverse users in the city. The groups include visitors, workers, and the district residents. The square should be outlined by public, streetscape and transportation modes to suit the need of all users. The square also should maximize on private and public structures to maintain, program, fund, and provide access and security to the area (Mercer 174-196).
Franklin Park vision is to transform the area into a historical, sustainable, and flexible park linked to its surrounding community. It strives to enhance urban living in Downtown D.C and serve the community. Also, they want to transform the park to become the state’s leading city park based on national models lessons including the Union Square Park and the Madison Park. To apprehend the transformation, an improvement and programming approach together with a design process in necessary to achieve the vision of a great park. Franklin Park goal includes developing an ecological, sustainable and maintainable area to serve the diverse user in the city to include visitors, workers, and the district residents.
Franklin Square has been a bustling and active area in Washington D.C. the state government purchased the area to protect a natural spring supplying fresh water to the residence in the White House. Later it was included in the Colombian District public reservation where it was made a landscape of fountains, trees and winding paths. The square was reengineered and redesigned in 1936 as an initiative part of the Public Work Administration and National Park Service. Currently, the square retains the past designs with walkways, a fountain and a statue of a revolution hero which was placed in 1914 on the west side. Adolph created the Franklin school which is one of the famous building surround the square. The school was the most advanced and best designed in modern architecture around the world. In the school, scientist Alexander Graham Bell developed the only wireless message and transmitted across the park. In 1951, the square became a part of another scientific discovery by Charles Townes who conceived the master’s principle. He received a Nobel Prize for the invention of the laser. Many of the significant sites that had been surrounding the park have recently been transformed into offices and residential building. A good example includes the Hodgson house who was the little Ford author, the lived at an adjacent street to the square which is currently the capitol garage. Another example is the Franklin Square 130 Street NW, which is direct west of the plaza, has been converted to the Washington post in the year 2015. The few remaining historic buildings surrounding the square include Alma’s temple and the Franklin School.
We can see a bigger map on how the area is and all the different locations near Franklin Park
Franklin Park has been providing public service continuously since the 1840’s. It has undergone major redesigning and reengineering in the 1860’s and 1870’s and 1930’s . Recently it has been neglected with disrepair and has become a place for the homeless and a place lunch by office workers. The pathways in between the park have cracks and are hazardous to the general republic. The path have been crisscrossed by the trails and grass with rocks and mud. It lacks safe public amenities like restrooms, and it no longer holds programs or events during the daytime or the evening. For the revitalization of the park, it requires a capital space initiative. The initiative is among the National Park service, National Capital Planning Commision, D.C Recreation Department, and the D.C office of planning to address and incorporate the Franklin Park in the center city plans agenda. The program creates a plan and advances the goals for addressing open spaces and park needs in the city. The park has been listed as one of the major spaces that require reinvestment on by the stakeholders. The D.C strategy for the urban parks incorporates five strategies that include coming up with new park and redesigning the existing ones, addressing activation, management, and funding (“Can ‘Derelict’ Franklin Square Park Revive? D.C. And The Park Service Have A Plan | WAMU”).
How the park used to be, happy and healthy.
How the park is now days. It needs maintenance.
The Franklin Square has a negative image due to the increased crime taking place at the park. The decline of the park has mainly been associated with the increase in the violent crimes. The cause of the crimes has been related to the riots in the black communities. Police officers were deployed to the park to maintain peace and order, and it lead to fear of going to the park or being associated with the programs and events. The park became a central area for alcohol, prostitutes and drugs. The park later became a neglected place by the city officials leading to homeless people seeking shelter on the grounds. Maintenance was rarely performed leading to walkways having cracks and falling apart thus people formed paths through the grass resulting to rocks and mud within the park and its environs.
Like every other office building areas, lunch hour is busy time. Many places to eat near One Franklin Square even food trucks come during the day. People don’t even use the park to eat their food or have picnic they just used it as a shortcut to get from one place to the other. This park could make a difference in this area if the remodeling plan of NPS and BID has a positive outcome. At night this zone changes completely, because there are no more busy office workers, but instead restaurants with many tourist and nightclubs life takes over. It’s impressive how to location across each other are so different but still share the same population.
The Franklin Square has maintained a great historical view and created a good reputation to date by re-engineering and redesigning the square to accommodate a variety of sports and recreational activities. The square has managed to accommodate flexible food kiosks, seating areas, and an improved landscape. Contrary, the Franklin Park still has room for improvement; this can get achieved by the D.C strategy to implement the five strategies that include coming up with new parks and redesigning the existing ones, addressing activation, management, and funding (“Franklin Square”). Going to my site and researching about it made me realize many things specially how is true as Sarah B. Schindler mention in “Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation through Physical Design of the Built Environment” that we rarely notice every detail of the architecture of our environment, many things are made for a reason not always for decoration. As Sarah mention the armrests of a bench on a park are there to avoid people from taking naps, especially homeless, but many people would have thought it was there to separate the seats. Everything has is made for a reason you might not know it there is a big meaning to everything.
In this video we can see how people just go to the park to eat and how the park is not maintained.
“Can ‘Derelict’ Franklin Square Park Revive? D.C. And The Park Service Have A Plan | WAMU”. WAMU. Web. 11 Dec. 2016.
“Franklin Square”. Nps.gov. Web. 11 Dec. 2016.
Mercer, Jean. “The Concept Of Psychological Regression: Metaphors, Mapping, Queen Square,And Tavistock Square.”. History of Psychology 14.2 (2011): 174-196. Web.
Pollard, J. “History: The Eccentric Engineer”. Engineering & Technology 2.9 (2007): 46-46. Web.
“Welcome To One Franklin Square’s Tenant® Portal”. Onefranklinsquare.com. Web. 11 Dec. 2016.
Schindler, Sarah. “Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation through Physical Design of the Built Environment.” N.p., 2015. Web. 23 Sept. 2016.
The “Space and Consequences: The Impact of Different Formal Learning Spaces on Instructor and Student Behavior” article is a presentation of a research project that was quasi-experimental, which investigated the significance of a traditional classroom versus that of a technologically-equipped active learning classroom on the behavior of instructors, class activities and the behavior of students. The study on which this journal article was based on took place at the University of Minnesota and was conducted by D. Christopher Brooks, a Research Fellow at the University of Minnesota. The consequent research article was published in 2012, in the Journal of Learning Spaces.
The research involved time-series data that was collected during observations of classrooms at the university, with a focus on four major groups of variables which are; classroom activities, the behavior of instructors, behavior of students and the delivery modes used to deliver content (Brooks). The time-series data was collected using methods like interviewing faculty members, logs of course assignments, survey of students, photo surveys, focus groups and class observations (Brooks). These methods of data collection helped provide systematic evaluations of a range of examinable hypotheses in relation to the bigger research question (Brooks). Brooks provides an example of one of the methods of data collection, in which Brooks observed a class of an introductory biology course. In this method of data collection, one instructor offered two offerings of the same course to different sections of students. One section of the course was taught in an ALC (Active Learning Classroom) and another in a traditional classroom with a whiteboard, instructor podium and projection screen (Brooks).
Already, it has been established than flexible, technologically-enhanced classroom spaces were essential in boosting the performance of students, through the measure of course grades. However, this research, in particular, goes beyond these already established facts and explains exactly how these learning spaces matter (Brooks).
The research article embraces a unique and helpful approach by exploring a dimension of learning spaces that has not been examined before, by showing exactly how technologically-enhanced classroom spaces are better than traditional classrooms and exactly how they improve the performance of the students (Brooks). The research article further adopts the correct format, explaining in a clear, logical and well-arranged format the basis for the research, how it was conducted, its findings and other relevant information. The research article achieves this through the use of subsections, such as ‘Introduction’, ‘Literature Review’, ‘Data and Methods’, ‘Analysis’ and ‘Conclusion’. This makes it easier for the reader to navigate the research article and find the information they are looking for.
The author of the research article, D. Christopher Brooks, adopts a formal and scientific style of writing, whose effectiveness manifests itself in the presence of a formal tone. In writing the research article, Brooks includes scientific terms that describe studies and those that describe classroom spaces, making the article scientifically relevant and valid. This is important because it promotes the likelihood of the research article being considered seriously, as opposed to if it were written in an informal tone. Brooks also treats the topic with importance, which is evident in the manner in which he describes how he collected the data and the analysis of the data.
The research article is of particular appeal to academicians who are interested in the study of the impact of different learning spaces on the students. The study is also of importance to students, institutions and faculty, who may be interested in knowing which classroom spaces are most effective in improving grades and course performance.
Brooks, D. Christopher. “Space and Consequences: The impact of different formal learning spaces on instructor and student behavior.” Journal of Learning Spaces 1.2 (2012).
“AFTERMATH: Sixteen Writers on Trump’s America” is an article that appears in ‘The New Yorker’, a collection to a series of articles in response to the election of Donald Trump to the White House and what his presidency could potentially mean for the country. The series of articles, published on November 21st, 2016 are authored by sixteen writers, some of whom include Toni Morrison, Hilary Mantel, Jeffrey Toobin and Atul Gawande.
Generally, the collection of articles was a reflection of the overall feelings and expectations held by many Americans towards the presidency of Trump. The first article, titled “A Democratic Opposition”, by George Packer, begins by making a reference to the Watergate Scandal, where then President, Richard Nixon, was revealed to have abused his power by using government instruments to hide financial wrongdoings and lie to the public about the war in Vietnam(Packer, Gawande and Mantel). The article further talks about Nixon could have easily gotten away with the wrongdoings but democratic institutions and public opinion kept him in check. In the article, Packer draws a comparison between Nixon and Trump, indicating that Trump could violate the constitution through means like torturing terrorist suspects and killing their next of kin (Packer, Gawande and Mantel). Packer also points that partisan advantages and weakening of institutions that stopped Nixon will help Trump violate the constitution.
In “Health of the Nation”, Gawande talks of the mismatch between Trump and his solutions and the American fundamental values, noting that for instance, abolition of Obamacare will worsen the rising costs of health (Packer, Gawande and Mantel). In “Bryant Park: A Memoir”, Mantel discusses Trump’s brutality and his disappointment on Trump’s election, drawing on his personal experiences. In “Four-Cornered Flyover”, Hessler discusses the important role played by the simple-looking state of Colorado in Trump’s election, using anecdotal evidence (Packer, Gawande and Mantel). Toni Morrison’s “Mourning For Whiteness”is a discussion of the perpetration of hate by White Americans against Black Americans, since they feel blacks pose a threat. Morrison explores why these white voters voted for Donald Trump, indicating that most voted for him because he was an expression of their fears of the decline of white superiority (Packer, Gawande and Mantel). Jane Mayer’s “The Dark-Money Cabinet”, the irony is drawn that the corrupt people he swore to remove from government are also his largest supporters, like the Koch brothers. The rest of the articles continue to provide their criticisms of Trump’s persona and demeanor, his campaign, his upcoming presidency and a contrast between him and outgoing President, Barack Obama (Packer, Gawande and Mantel).
Most of the work in this collection of articles uses anecdotal references by the writers, which help them easily present arguments and discussions that most Americans find relatable. Most of the writers adopt a two-sided approach the topic about Trump’s election, although a significant portion of the articles are an expression of distaste and dissatisfaction with his election as President.
Most of the articles mainly appeal to non-racist white Americans and people of color, since many of the articles empathize on the threat Trump’s presidency has on the liberties of the people of color and the American public in general. It is for this same reason that the articles could be taken negatively by white, conservative Americans.
Packer, Gawande and Mantel. “Aftermath: Sixteen Writers on Trump’s America.” 21 November 2016. The New Yorker. 1 December 2016.
I was born and raised in San Juan, Puerto Rico. I’m currently a freshman in American University studying Business Administration. I will like to do a minor in International Business since I would like to learn more about how cross border transactions of services, goods, and resources work between two or more nations. Being the youngest one in the house made my parents be more protective with me than with my brothers. I have a passion for photography and my hobbies were ballet and soccer. Since I came to college I don’t have much time to continue on practicing neither soccer or ballet but its something I will always take with me. For my second semester of Junior year I will like to go about to madrid and learn many thing from there culture. I am definitely looking foward for the next four years of college.
This class over came my expectations and I learn so many different ways to see and think about many situations that are occurring in the present. The class after the elections was the one that has impacted me the most since we all were saying what we really thought and how we felt about Trumps victory. It was a really sad day but after that class I was doing better. That is a day I will always remember, how Sabrina expressed the way she felt when she saw the flag burning and how I totally agreed with her since in Puerto Rico is illegal to do that. Thank you for making this class interesting and taking your time to teach us to think rhetorically.
[A]n education [. . .] that was designed to support a truly direct, deliberative democracy [. . .] would be an education oriented to the ‘strong publics’ of decision-making rather than the ‘weak publics’ of opinion formation. (205)
In this quote we can see fleming’s point of view on democracy, people are allowed to express there own opinion and participate in government issue. In democracy people are well educated and each individual opinion is valued equally. They all focus on what is better for there community and that is something every community should follow. That is why fleming expresses his opinion about how democracy is the better form of government.
Interior Architecture Changes: One Franklin Square
One Franklin Square is located in 1301 K Street NW across from Washington’s second largest park, Franklin Square. It’s the fifth tallest building in The District of Columbia and it was completed in 1989. It was developed by Prentiss Company and designed by Hartman-Cox Architects and The Dewberry Company. One Franklin Square is currently owned and managed by Hines Interests. The building has a five-part structure, consisting of two noticeable towers rising between three smaller, yet vertical towers. The edifice characteristic design and noticeable location on Franklin Square make it one of Washington’s most recognizable office buildings, a 12-story, 625,644-square-foot structure sited five blocks northeast of the White House (Hines). It is located in a commercial area many business services, banks, hotel, restaurants and public transportation surround One Franklin square. It’ s easy to navigate ,and the neutral colors in all the building and some green areas because of the franklin park. There are many different kind of building in this area. One Franklin square is considered a modern building but Franklin school building has an old fashion architecture look, because it’s made with reddish bricks.
Recently there was a renovation in the lobby, roof terraces and penthouses of One Franklin Square building. Along with re-programming the penthouse spaces the existing roof terraces were re-conceptualized and transformed from utilitarian service spaces into a tenant amenity with outdoor terrace. Casual seating, wood screens, a green wall and creative lighting were used as common themes among all of the new spaces(ONE FRANKLIN SQUARE BUILDING ENHANCEMENTS). The lobby was completely modernized. One of the perks of this building is the incredible views on the city skyline the changes made didn’t affected the view. The East Tower was converted into a Multi-Purpose Conference Center and the West Tower was adjust to function as a relaxed tenant social lounge with ample natural light. The power of the response was strengthened by thoughtfully linking all of the various amenity experiences with common design elements: warm woods, green screens, trellises, energy efficient lighting systems, simple modern furnishings (ONE FRANKLIN SQUARE BUILDING ENHANCEMENTS). All this changes complemented the existing building but made a clear distinction and new impression with modern architecture.
New East Tower Conference Facility
The area where the building is located is a busy and working area. Many office building like One Franklin Square but when I went there I could notice how modern and new this building differs from the others. At night this zone changes completely, because there are no more busy office workers, but instead restaurants with many tourist and nightclubs life takes over. The major tenants of this building are the washington post, dentons and Reed smith LLP. Only about 10 percent of the space will be private offices, which required extensive demolition of interior walls and the removal of the walls on the seventh and eighth floor in the east tower so they joined with the floors on the west tower (One Franklin Square).
Hines. “Welcome to One Franklin Square’s Tenant® Portal.” Welcome to One Franklin Square’s Tenant Portal. N.p., 2016. Web. 15 Oct. 2016.
“ONE FRANKLIN SQUARE BUILDING ENHANCEMENTS.” N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Nov. 2016.
“One Franklin Square.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Web. 22 Oct. 2016.
There are many ways building environment that are design to exclude people from accessing a community. One example Schindler mentions of architectural exclusion is when Robert Moses “set forth specification for bridge overpasses on Long Island, which were designed to hang low so that the twelve-foot tall busses in use at the time could not fit under them” (Schindler 1953). Obviously Moses purpose for this was to prevent access to the low-income groups, for the benefit of upper and middle class since they owned cars. Schindler also discusses how some upper class neighborhoods excluded public transportation.
There are many ways building environments designed to exclude people from accessing a community. One architectural exclusion example that Schindler mentions is when Robert Moses “set forth specification for bridge overpasses on Long Island which were designed to hang low so that the twelve-foot tall busses in use at the time could not fit under them” (Schindler 1953). Moses’ s clear purpose for this was to prevent access to the low-income groups, for upper and middle class’s benefit since they owned cars. Schindler also discusses how some upper class neighborhoods exclude public transportation.
This open space is good and different area for studying
Recognizing Campus Landscapes as Learning Spaces
In the article, “Recognizing Campus Landscapes as Learning Spaces,” Kathleen G. Scholl and Gowri Betrabet Gulwadi argue that for students to learn and process information better, they need a balance between indoor and outdoor learning environments. University campuses should play an important role in providing a learning environment for students and it should be more than a modern classroom with all types of technological devices. Students should be in a classroom setting that will help them engage more in the lectures and lessons that are being taught. According to the Journal of Learning Spaces, “well-designed and connected networks of indoor and open spaces on campuses can be key, yet typically overlooked catalysts, in student learning and a strong influence on students’ initial and longstanding experiences that promote a sense of belonging to the learning community” (Scholl, Kathleen). This is highlighting that a classroom does not suffice for a learning environment, and that an open outdoor setting is also vital to the knowledge intake of students and professors.
The increase in technology devices used today has affected the student’s academic learning goals. Curricular and extracurricular activities require a great amount of concentration and it is important to maintain a balance in both activities for a well rounded college experience. Students who engage themselves in extracurricular activities have a more positive and socially active college experience because they learn to interact as a team with other people as opposed to working alone. Many years ago, university founders thought it was more beneficial if the location of the university had a significant distance between the campus and the main part of the city, but at the same time was still open for a large community. It is important for a college campus to have a college setting within a city, so that students feel as if they are living at school while they are independent living alone. In addition, the post war depression of 1930 had an increase in student enrollment which led to the incorporation of automobiles on campus. Students began to take their cars to their universities as a means of fast and easy transportation. Furthermore, by preserving and suitably integrating open spaces into the green infrastructure, universities could add value and quality to the campus environment. According to this article, by forging a campus identity, creating a sense of community, curbing escalating campus density, serving social and recreational needs, providing environmental benefits, and facilitating fundraising and recruitment, faculty and students can be more comfortable and at home at their university campus. For example, “older campus plans emphasized disciplinary boundaries and newer campus designs are more amorphous and integrative.” (Scholl, Kathleen)
It is true that indoor classroom settings offer students a structured education with the chance of less distractions and more direct attention. But, outdoor classrooms give students the opportunity to think outside the box and connect their inner thoughts with nature. When the indoor classroom setting is expanded to the outdoor environment, it enhances the student’s imagination and ability to interact more with nature on a spiritual and physical level. Open space is vital to the quality of learning and adds to the essence of a college campus.
Scholl, Kathleen; Gulwadi, Gowri. “Recognizing Campus Landscapes as Learning Spaces.” Journal of Learning Spaces, vol. 4, no. 1, July 2015.