Godfrey, Sarah. “Abandon Quip .” Www.prop1.Org, 6 Aug. 2004, http://www.prop1.org/history/2004/040806.dccitypaper.lafayettepark.abandon quip.htm.
In her article, “Abandon Quip,” Sarah Godfrey argues that homelessness at Lafayette Park should no longer serve as a depiction of the inequality in the United States. This website examines Lafayette Park with a focus on the homeless people that reside there. Godfrey explorers the dichotomy found in the fact that there are homeless people living in Lafayette Park right outside the White House, to address the issue of wealth distribution in the United States. She states that this problem has been around for decades and even quotes former presidents and political leaders who have mentioned the homeless living in Lafayette Park. However, the author later states that homelessness is not as predominant in Lafayette Park as it once was. She attributes the fleeing of homeless people from the tourist attraction to security sweeps or construction. As a result, the ones that remained receive almost zero attention and help from charities or their neighbor, the government itself. I can use this website as a source of argument because it argues a contradicting view point than the one I am arguing on my rhetorical analysis.
“Lafayette Square Park – DC.” The Cultural Landscape Foundation, http://tclf.org/landscapes/lafayette-square-park-dc.
“Lafayette Square Park – DC” is an article that proves a brief history of the park. As a result, I will use this article in my rhetorical analysis as a background source. According to this website, the park is located directly across Penn. Ave. from the White House. It is seven-acres and it was conceived as part of the 88-acre President’s Park by the L’Enfant Plan of 1791. Thomas Jefferson designated the area as a public place in 1804. Its grounds have been used for many purposes, including the following: a market, a zoo, and encampments. In 1851, the grounds were prepared for a visit by the Marquis de Lafayette to the United States. Former President Andrew Jackson also had plans for the space; however, the civil war came between him and his plans and the only thing of his that remains in the park is a statue. His statue is not the only one present in the park, at each corner of the park are statues of soldiers who fought in the Revolutionary War. Today, one can enjoy the beauty of the park thanks to the former first lady, Jacqueline Kennedy. During the Kennedy administration, she took it upon herself to save the park, and in 1970 the park was designated a National Historic Landmark. This article is extremely informative because, prior to reading it, I had no idea about the park’s history.
Cavna, Michael. “Lafayette, Our Most American Square.” The Washington Post, WP Company, www.washingtonpost.com/news/comic-riffs/wp/2014/12/31/lafayette-our-most-american-square-a-year-in-the-park-sparks-an-illustrated-meditation-on-history-hope-and-the-homeless-video/?utm_term=.7ddc173a560e.
In his video, Michael Cavna, argues that the proximity between the homeless and powerful people on the White House exemplifies the juxtaposition of Washington D.C. as a city. He also states that apart from being a narrative, this video is a challenge to city leaders to take action to help the homeless in Lafayette Square. This video provides a brief narrative about Lafayette Square. The author, has created a video with music and narration in order to tell the story of the homeless of Lafayette Square. The video has a fairytale vibe to it, which contributes to grab the viewer’s attention from start to finish. While, the site may seem far from academic, I found it extremely compelling and informative on the park’s history and real-life stories from real-life homeless people that reside in the square. The video mentioned the park’s history, and how the issue of homelessness has persisted through the years. The post also serves as a call to action to help the homeless at the square. As a result, I can use this website as an exhibit of one of my focal points in my research: the homeless at Lafayette Square.
“Lafayette Square, Washington, D.C.” GSA Home, www.gsa.gov/portal/content/281585.
This website is perhaps one of the most informative websites on the Lafayette Square. It is a government website, and as a result it provides reader’s with legitimate facts. The website is divided into “History,” “Architecture,” and “Significant Events” and “Building Facts.” The history section provides a brief paragraph on the history of the square. It covers from the creation of the park to 1970, when the park was designated a National Historic Landmark. The architecture section focuses on the historical buildings surrounding the park, which were once houses of the elite. The following section is formatted as a timeline, and provides important dates and events about the park and the surrounding area. Finally, the last section is a section on building facts about the location and of the types of buildings surrounding the park. However, this website fails to mention the true history of the park, and as a result I will use this website for my digital analysis as an exhibit source to prove that the government wants to cater to the higher class only by presenting only good facts about the location.
Schindler, Sarah B. “Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation through Physical Design of the Built Environment.” Yale Law Journal. Yale Law Journal, Apr. 2015. Web. 19 Sept. 2016
In her essay, “Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment,” Sarah Schindler argues how the built environment is used to segregate and exclude a certain demographic: poor people and people of color. While most attribute architecture and infrastructure to merely shaping a place’s physical structure, Schindler argues that the built environment shapes the relationships and exclusions of the people who reside it. Similarly, I will use Schindler’s way of analyzing the built environment to analyze the rhetoric of Lafayette Square. Therefore, her essay will serve as a method source in my analysis of the park. Like Schindler, I wish to expose how a mere park located in the Nation’s capital utterly depicts the socio economic injustice that exists in America.
Nersessova, Irina. “Tapestry of Space: Domestic Architecture and Underground Communities in Margaret Morton ’ s Photography of a Forgotten New York.” DisClosure: A Journal of Social Theory, 25 Apr. 2014, http://uknowledge.uky.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1025&context=disclosure
In her article, “Tapestry Of Space: Domestic Architecture and Underground Communities In Margaret Morton’s Photography Of A Forgotten New York,” Irina Nersessova discusses how homeless people utilize certain spaces in cities as their homes. Nersessova uses photography to document these living conditions in New York City. According to Nersessova, “This self-representational architecture is a visualization of human connection to space” (26). To most people, a bench, a tunnel, or a street might mean nothing more than that; however, to some people those spaces are their home. Nersessova also redefines what homelessness means. According to her, homelessness does not mean not having a home because homeless make the streets and spaces around the city their home. Instead, homelessness is the lack of a stable home (26). In my built environment description, I will use this essay as an argument source that will help back up my argument. Not only will I use Nersessova’s definition of homelessness to describe the homeless at Lafayette Square, but I will also include her argument on how space and humans are directly related in order to prove that the proximity between the White House and the homeless at Lafayette Square Park proves the socioeconomic disparity that exists in America.
Fleming, David. City Of Rhetoric: Revitalizing the Public Sphere in Metropolitan America. Albany, SUNY Press, 2008.
In his book, City of Rhetoric: Revitalizing the Public Sphere in Metropolitan America, David Fleming explores the relationship between public discourse and the built environment in present day America. He focuses on the residents of the low-income, African American public housing project, Cabrini Green. He argues that these people, for decades have struggled against the inequality of the metropolitan region. In other words, they have been isolated from the rest of society in public housings that prevent them from further developing and becoming successful. In his book Fleming examines different solutions to this problem. However, he argues that none of them address the true issue of inequality, instead they merely address the issue of the physical space where these people live. He concludes that these prejudices are rooted in modern day society and until we don’t get rid of the problem from the root, it will be impossible to solve the issue of spatial injustice in the metropolitan area. In like manner, I believe that the problem of homelessness at Lafayette Square cannot be solved by having a security sweep, or by claiming to be under construction. Like Fleming argues, and in my opinion, the root of the issue of homelessness comes from the spatial injustice and prejudice that has been rooted in America since its beginnings. After all, Lafayette Park was once the grounds of a slave market…
Cox, John W. “Nearly Naked Outside the White House: How Nature Boy Became a Washington Fixture.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 18 Oct. 2015, http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/nearly-naked-outside-the-white-house-how-nature-boy-became-a-washington-fixture/2015/10/18/aa243a56-7152-11e5-8d93-0af317ed58c9_story.html?utm_term=.52eba7d07b69.
In his article, John W. Cox writes a memoir on a very interesting character, “Nature Boy.” Elijah Alexander is a Vietnam War veteran who spends most days sitting under a tree’s shade at Lafayette Square. According to Cox, his disheveled appearance, no shoes or shirt, dread locks that reach his waist, and a five teeth smile has turned him into “cherished fixture for federal workers, a tour stop for sightseeing groups and a giggle-inducing curiosity for flocks of schoolchildren.” In his article, Cox also writes about the juxtaposition of running into a man like Elijah in the midst of tourists, government workers, and in such close proximity to the leader of the free world. In like manner, in my analysis, I will argue how Lafayette Square portrays the social economic injustice in America, where people like Elijah reside just a few feet away from the President of the United States of America.
Hatfield, Dolph H. “THE HOMELESS IN WASHINGTON, DC .” Cosmosclub.org, http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:hwFnFTkXDIcJ:www.cosmosclub.org/journals/2004/hatfield.html+&cd=10&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us&client=safari
In his article, “The Homeless in Washington, DC,” molecular biologist, Dolph Hatfield shares a few facts about the homeless in America, specifically in the nation’s capital, Washington D.C. He begins his article by providing a shocking statistic which states that “3.5 million people” are living in the streets in America. He then shares a personal anecdote of how he befriended a homeless man who attended St. John’s Church at Lafayette Square. He states that befriending this man led him to support organizations that help the homeless, and it encourage him to give the homeless near the church food. However, he argues that while organizations like the Salvation Army do their best to help these people, most of the time their resources fall short. As a result, he urges readers to help the homeless by purchasing a copy of Street Sense, a monthly newspaper sold by the homeless, or by simply granting them a smile and a sincere hello. In my analysis, I will use this article as an exhibit source that shows a specific relationship between an eminent scholar and a homeless man. This relationship will help me contrast my argument about the socioeconomic injustice in my America by proving that homeless people and people with higher incomes can and should interact.
“Sofitel Washington DC Lafayette Square.” Sofitel.com, http://www.sofitel.com/gb/hotel-3293-sofitel-washington-dc-lafayette-square/index.shtml.
This is the official website of Sofitel, a Luxury hotel located at Lafayette Square in Washington D.C. From the tagline of the website, to the images, to the room rates, it is evident that this hotel caters to the elite or high income earning individuals. As I looked around the site I decided to check how much a room would cost me for a night, I soon found out that rooms at the Sofitel Hotel don’t go lower than $300. “Enjoy the best of everything in DC at out downtown hotel situated at the corner of Lafayette Square bordering the White House” reads the first paragraph of the website. In my analysis, I will use this site as an argument source to prove my point of the juxtaposition between places like this and people like Nature Boy, mentioned above, found in Lafayette Square.