Annotated Bibliography 3-4

Bitzer, Lloyd F. “The Rhetorical Situation.” Philosophy & Rhetoric, vol. 25, 1992, pp. 1–14.,

In “The Rhetorical Situation,” Lloyd F. Bitzer explores the nature in which speakers and writers create rhetorical discourse. More specifically, Bitzer mentions how meaning- context is fundamental for human communication. Also, he explores a formal definition, examines the constituents of a rhetorical situation and how it invites for change. For example, he explains that “Prior to the creation and presentation of discourse, there are three constituents for a rhetorical situation: exigence, audience and constraints.” (6) In this passage, Bitzer mentions for the first time the three constituents of the rhetorical situation. He then proceeds to mention throughout  the essay the general characteristics and features of each one. For Bitzer, speech only becomes rhetorical when it responds to a rhetorical situation and includes the three constituents.

This essay is one of the most complex sources I have encountered so far in my research. This piece is one of the most important pieces in the field of rhetoric, incorporating it to my Build Environment Analysis will give a more erudite tone. I plan to use it as a method for analyzing other sources and to see how they approach the three constituents of a rhetorical situation.  Analyzing the exigence, audience and constraints will allow me to correctly understand the rhetorical meaning of each source. Also, it will lead me to effectively set them in conversation with each other and to deeply understand the rhetorical situations involving my commonplace.


Lloyd, James M. “Fighting Redlining and Gentrification in Washington, D.C.” Journal of Urban History, vol. 42, no. 6, Nov. 2016, pp. 1091-1109.

In “Fighting Redlining and Gentrification in Washington, DC: The Adams- Morgan Organization and Tenant Right to Purchase,” James M. Lloyd proofs how the right to purchase legislation provided legal guarantees for community organizations to prevent redlining and gentrification. More specifically, Lloyd explores the impact this piece of legislation had on the demographics of Adams Morgan. For example, Lloyd explains “In 1973, the District of Columbia was granted home rule by Congress. This grant of self determination gave its majority African American population control of the city’s politics overnight.” (1095) In this passage, Lloyd mentions the important and rapid effect right to purchase legislation had on the political opportunity for African American communities.

In my study I have noticed the vast multiculturalism Adams Morgan has, it is important for me to understand the cultural shifts throughout Adams Morgan history. This study of the impact of right to purchase legislation will serve as an exhibit for mapping my commonplace. The type of data the document poses will be placed in conversation with more theoretical sources to find the perfect framework of theoretical and practical information.



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