Posts in Category: readings

RA6: Afterword

Within “Afterword” in his City of Rhetoric, David Fleming proposes a new ideal of thought towards “place and community”. Fleming wraps up his argument by showing the “purpose” of his writing and his overall stance on the neglect of domestic public life. Fleming shares that the, “ neglect of domestic public life under this administration has been doubly unfortunate” (Fleming.) He proves his argument by providing two key points, first, urban poverty and homelessness in this country have actually worsened while the attention has moved elsewhere; mainly on middle class residents/households. Second, the exorbitant cost of our new international adventures has made fixing those problems even more difficult than before since, “more and more of an increasingly tight budget must now now be devoted to military spending, foreign aid, and the national defense” (Fleming.)
In his second portion of the “Afterword”, Fleming shares his main point in writing the City Of Rhetoric. Fleming states, “ my point in this book has not been that we should not think globally, that we should not be always intensely aware of the rest of the world and our place in it, both as individuals and as communities.” Fleming proves this argument by providing argumentative research and examples throughout the book. As Fleming has shared, he believes that we should be considering more carefully our metropolitan lives together and thinking more creatively about our civic responsibilities to one another. He furthers this by stating that is it not about simply shifting our political allegiance from one public to another, from the “globe or nation-state to the city or urban district” (Fleming.)

Works Cited
Fleming, David. “Afterword.” City of Rhetoric. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 212-219. Print.

RA5: Cities of Rhetoric

Within “Cities of Rhetoric” in his City of Rhetoric, David Fleming proposes a new ideal of thought towards “place and community”. Fleming continues to ponder this thought by reevaluating the main case study that lies at “the heart of this book”, referring to the strong evidence for a close relationship between physical location and individual and social welfare in how our society educates us. Fleming shares that, “ by their layout and design: they teach us today, for example, that social conflicts are best managed by physical separation and that the way to deal with our differences is for us to live and work in different parts of the landscape.” (Fleming.) However, Fleming poses the argument that cities can teach other lessons as well, regarding our various points of view in society. Fleming shares that currently our cities teach a “one-sided” point of view. They can in turn teach us that, “ we hold the world in common, that our different points of view on that common world are inevitable and useful, and that if we devote some of our shared time and space to regularly meeting as free equals to deliberate openly and fairly about our differences.” (Fleming.) From this, we might learn to make good moral decisions about our communities and those communities that are different than ours. Fleming expands this argument by giving examples from the Ancient Greeks. He shows how within ancient Athens, Moses Finley brought this argument up, and in turn, inspired a more well educated public.

Works Cited
Fleming, David. “Cities of Rhetoric.” City of Rhetoric. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 209-11. Print.

Rhetoric Around Us

Within literature, the terms of rhetoric seem to be displayed all throughout us. During last class, we discussed the the ideals shared by EdBauer when she spoke on the triangulated ideals of the sender, receiver, and text. EdBauer continues this discussion by sharing the ideals of Warner when he states, “ public seems to be self-organized by discourse, but in fact requires pre existing forms and channels of circulation” (75). This whole idea is based on the ideals of rhetoric and rhetorical situations, that we live in a society filled with senders and receivers who are formed by pre existing notions. This is something one can see around them wherever they go, this is something that proves contextual evidence in the sense that rhetoric is all around us.

Works Cited
EdBauer, Jenny. “Unframing Models of Public Distribution: From Rhetorical Situation to Rhetorical Ecologies.” Taylor and Francis. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 1-3. Print.

Place Matters: RA4

RA4: Place Matters
Within “Toward a New Sociospatial Dialectic” in his City of Rhetoric, David Fleming proposes a new ideal of thought towards “place and community”. Fleming continues to ponder this thought by reevaluating the main case study that lies at “the heart of this book”, referring to the strong evidence for a close relationship between physical location and individual and social welfare in our society and “thus good reason to think that place and rhetorical well-being are linked as well.” This all alludes to the fact that place matters, and this hold true rhetoric referring to one’s education, values, and employment, but this claim seems to no longer be true within our own societal norms. Within modern times, we learn that our own environment is a secondary factor within our lives, some even consider it, “a complete irrelevance.”(Fleming). This whole idea seems to stem even from Enlightenment thought, that the man puts himself first. Fleming furthers by sharing that, “we have tended to mythologize that creature by putting him in narratives of autonomy and self- mastery.” This whole concept is quite interesting as we ourselves tend to put ourselves first and forget about the overall environment that we choose to live within.(Fleming).
From this we tend to treat our ties to the physical world as superficial, the “real human self is immaterial, just as the most important human groups are ageographical, constituted less by shared space than by shared beliefs, knowledge, value, habits, and occupation.” Fleming believes that this is what has to do with this modern flight from place; and it seems to have intensified with each passing year. Fleming also seems to pinpoint the idea that we live in such a technological society which has reduced the role of human action and interaction. Fleming seems to overall argue then society tries to make it seem like place does not matter, but it truly does matter. Place is determined by where we are from, where we live, work, educate, and so on; so this helps bring light to the idea that place does matter. (Fleming).

Works Cited
Fleming, David. “Toward a New Sociospatial Dialectic.” City of Rhetoric. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 179-90. Print.


Within chapter seven of his book, City of Rhetoric, David Fleming reveals the disconnect that had arisen between those living in the Cabrini Green homes and those who are financially stable enough to live otherwise. This chapter expressed the difference in representation between the two groups; which I found quite interesting. Fleming delivers this interesting discovery by showing how the residents are seen as “outsiders or outcasts” and the Cabrini Green homes as a “low income neighborhood.” Alternatively, Fleming shares how the Cabrini Green homes are seen by the residents.

Firstly, from an outside perspective the Cabrini Green homes were seen as low income, failing, and overall poor neighborhood. Fleming shares that outsiders believe that they are viewed as, “incapable of building and sustaining their own communities” (149). Additionally, Fleming states that outsiders believe they are incapable of providing for their families, living in such a low income economy. However, their also seems to be a sense of racial division within the context of this reading. The outsiders imply that these low income (blacks) need the help of the upper and middle classes (whites). This can also show why the outsiders may feel this way towards the residents of Cabrini Green homes, as a means of racial profiling. Additionally, the outsiders were angered by the news of these homes being built, stating they are “hellish high-rises” in both the Chicago Tribune and the Architectural Record. (152). Many people, including Verdell Wade, were pleased to hear the news of these high-rises being taken down; they even found the news to be “quite pleasant.” (157).

However, there was much support to keep the Cabrini Green housing among the residents of the housing complex. Many of them feared for their future and their children’s future if the high-rises were to be demolished. Many of the residents were upset when they heard of the plans, stating that, “we deserve to own our apartments…. It’s not a project for me, it’s home.” (173). This and various other responses were resident’s annoyance with how they had no true ownership over their own homes. Fleming also shares how the residents want a voice within the policies and programs that go into practice for their housing. When it comes down to it, the residents state how, “we want to be seen as human beings, nothing different.” This quotation shows how the residents see living in the Cabrini Green homes as a way of life; it is their home. (159).

The seventh chapter of Fleming’s, City of Rhetoric, showcases the ideals of home, and the varying aspects of community. It shows how one can feel so varied about a place while another calls it home. This ideal relates back to the whole concept of rhetoric, how some are persuasively inclined to an area while others are not.

Works Cited
Fleming, David. “Home.” City of Rhetoric. N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. Print.

Annotated Bibliography 1: The Mayflower Hotel


The Mayflower Hotel

Source #1: Kennedy, Janice. “Where the Rich and Famous Go to Play; D.C.’s Storied Mayflower Hotel.” The Vancouver Sun, May 20 2008, ProQuest Central,

Within Where the rich and famous go to play; D.C.’s storied Mayflower Hotel, Janice Kennedy speaks on the history and controversy within the notorious Mayflower Hotel. Being a journalist for the Vancouver Sun, Kennedy expresses that the famous hotel, “is not the only hotel in town listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places; but these days at least, it is the one with the most, um, cachet.” Within her analysis, Kennedy shares various controversial acts that have composed at the hotel. For about 83 years, the Mayflower Hotel has entertained royalty, hosted inaugural balls and accommodated the “whims of the U.S. capital’s rich and famous.” Kennedy shares various notable encounters or controversial issues that have occurred at the hotel One being the controversial issue of New York governor Eliot Spitzer, the discovery of him with a prostitute which sparked the scandal leading to Spitzer’s political annihilation. Second, being where former president Bill Clinton was seen embracing a young Monica Lewinsky; sparking controversy over their potential relationship. One last example would simply be in 1990, a girlfriend of Washington mayor Marion Barry testified that she smoked crack with him at the Mayflower; this all happening during the D.C. crack epidemic. In addition to this Kennedy speaks on the grander style of the hotel. She states that the hotel is an, “imposing monument to Beaux Arts style.” This relates to the lavish appearance of the hotel. Additionally, Kennedy gives some conceptual information towards the appearance of the Mayflower and its reception from the rich and famous. Kennedy gives insight to just such of the famous guests that stayed within this hotel. The Mayflower has played host to a parade of rich, famous, and occasionally notorious – from the German spy George Dasch to Queen Elizabeth, Charles De Gaulle, John Wayne, Walt Disney, and Muhammad Ali to name a few. Kennedy shares how this notable hotel as seen much history and controversy.
I plan to use this source to share historical information on the Mayflower Hotel. This source is quite useful as it shares history of the hotel itself, with its many notable guests. I plan to connect this source with my other sources that give more of a description towards the appearance of the hotel. Where the source lacks in description towards the hotel, it provides with factual and historical information towards its many guests; one being Marion Barry who was mentioned in S Street Rising.

Source #2: Sarah Kershaw and, Michael P. “Just a Hotel? for some, it’s an Adventure.” New York Times, Mar 20 2008, ProQuest Central,

Within Just a Hotel? For Some, It’s an Adventure, Sarah Kershaw and Michael Powell spoke on how the Mayflower Hotel is one of those lavish style hotels for the rich and famous. Both are journalists from the New York Times and shared various accounts of famous individuals that have stayed at the hotel and the famous architectural style within the hotel. Both shared accounts on the hotels interesting policies and mysterious demeanor by stating, “Few dispute that, but interviews with two dozen employees and patrons — and several others with deep roots in Washington society — suggest that Mayflower and her $400-a-night peers downtown take a passive don’t-ask-don’t-tell policy toward the more elite prostitution outfits.” One example of this would be the famous account with Eliot Spitzer’s prostitution scandal. Both received information through an anonymous and found, “Mr. Spitzer had passed the afternoon of Feb. 13 in the Lobby Court, a bustling cafe that features gourmet sandwiches and $500 bottles of wine. There, one employee overheard him joking that he wanted a piano player to perform in his room later that night. Mr. Ruskin and others said they saw the governor frequently at the Town & Country, and a former employee said he once saw Mr. Spitzer leave the bar with a woman and head upstairs.” In addition, both share how the elegance of the hotel exemplified grandeur and sophistication. They detailed the hotel as having large pillars, gold details, and large chandeliers.
I plan to use this source to add to my previous source and have a fully detailed exemplified description of the hotel’s elegant style and guests within. As previously stated, where the source lacks in description towards the hotel, it provides with factual and historical information towards its many guests

Flemings City of Rhetoric: Reading Analysis 2

In his City of Rhetoric, “Commonplaces” David Fleming speaks on how crucial it is to have a shared social space that, “can link us to one another and the earth but where we remain free and unique as individuals.” (34). Prior to this, Fleming argued the persistence of space and how it can shape our own experiences and form who we are. This can be relatively linked to how we commonly share these experiences; in other words, our commonplaces. Fleming puts it that we must have a public sphere where, “individuals can share a world and experiences that allows them to manage that world in freedom.” (34). Basing off this, it is evident that Fleming believes that a commonplace must surround individuals with shared values, experiences, and even ways of culture. A sense of sharing these beliefs forms a well-rounded commonplace within a society. However, these shared values must have a “defining” feature to them which makes them such a commonplace. In definition, a commonplace is something that is commonly found; so this can correlate to how these commonplaces are formed. In the words of Fleming, “it requires spaces, whereas Arendt put it, we can meet without falling over one another; and it requires borders that define who we are, that constitute our equality by setting limits to it.” (35).

As Fleming states the basis of commonplaces, he also notes that this is something that is lacking in our postmodern political philosophies. He believes that these political foundations have “failed to provide this kind of public for us.” (35). Even in the multicultural world we live in today, we still need spaces that focus on three key aspects: grounded, unitary, and official. The first being grounded, meaning that we need a real or reliable space that reflect our “intellectual, ideological, and emotional needs”. (35) This is on the basis of being able to handle and support our particular needs so to speak. Second would be unitary which speaks on having a feeling of belonging within a space. The basis of unitary is key in order to have a well-functioning commonplace. Finally, the term official plays a role in stating how we are bound to these commonplaces based on the grounded and unitary. (35).

Works Cited

Fleming, David. “Commonplace.” The City of Rhetoric. N.p.: n.p., 2008. 32-35. Print.

The Persistence of Space – Reading Analysis 1

In his City of Rhetoric, “The Persistence of Space” David Fleming speaks on the importance of an individual’s own space. When Fleming speaks on the physicality of space he touches on the concepts of towns, communities, and cities were varying populations of people live. In addition, Fleming introduces how, “… we routinely make discriminations among them: we know which are better and which are worse, which are ours and which are someone else’s.” This can be deemed true as we contextually view different areas of “space” pertaining to our own areas of life. Additionally, Fleming relates space to experience, meaning our shared or varied experiences are formed around where we reside; which can bring about commonality or discrepancies. Within the modern world Saskia Sassen shares how, “the new world order is best characterized geographically as combining dispersal of economic activity with concentration of command and control functions in such places as export zones, offshore banking centers, high-tech districts, and so-called global cities like New York, London, and Tokyo.” This will result in an intensified division between such areas with areas without such concentration of functions. This exemplifies the division within where we live and how our experiences are shaped. (32).
When regarding the “Persistence of Space” Fleming tends to regard space as fluid, meaning it is continuously changing and forming with new experiences and people residing in such areas. This is quite an interesting reflection as it brings about our whole mindset towards space itself. Fleming continues this idea but touching on the varying economic areas that consume space. There are high tier societies and low tier societies, with the middle class flowing between both extremes. When regarding this differences in where we live Fleming shares that, “It is a landscape in which residential areas are separate from commercial ones, single-family ones, multi-family housing, rental from for-sale properties, and people of one social group from those of all others” (33). From this, people tend to choose areas to pay attention to and areas to ignore. In addition to this, areas we tend to live in are areas were others share common beliefs and values. Fleming shares this be stating how social classes will differentiate in areas of space. Additionally, factors such as race, age, and orientation play a role in where we reside. Fleming poses interesting questions in the concepts of space and how they impact our own social mantras.

Works Cited

Fleming, David. “Persistence of Space.” The City of Rhetoric. N.p.: n.p., 2008. 32-34. Print.