Category Archives: International Communication and Development

Week 13 – International Communication and Development

How to Flatten the Power Pyramid

I find it rather imperative to give my two cents on clarifying Dr. Waisbord’s mention that theories of development communication have been generally segmented by focusing on informing the population versus ameliorating power inequalities. But it’s not a “versus” thing. You can’t compress a power pyramid without cultivating the foundation through education, and as a pyramid geometrically is, the top and bottom are linked. To be concise, any sort of revolution, adjustment or transformation must begin with a purpose or incentive; why change? And those three little letters that spell out the glory of curiosity, “w-h-y,” is satisfied with information. Step two, yet inextricably linked, is establishing a voice in power that speaks for the masses, not to the masses.

On the topic of corruption, for example. From two-years of living within a blatantly corrupt developing country where the gap between rich and poor was more like a trench, I stewed on coming up with a technique to address this issue. On the one hand, is the power; the post-dictatorial rich taking advantage of the uneducated masses. On the other hand, is the ill-informed population; a people residing in the repercussions of having been repressed by the past dictator, who are thus resigned to float along and deal with the waves, but out of fear, not to make any. At this point in Paraguay, the rich almost don’t care if their devious dealings are “found out” because there is no one to penalize the greed since their comrades float in the same boat. And the poor, which is generally the classification of the average citizen, are resigned. You can only endure so many labyrinths before you give up and decide to while away life on your dusty porch drinking tereré.

So how does an uneducated people progress while being forced into a labyrinth of bureaucracy to achieve any inkling of change? Needless to say, it’s not going so fast.

There are two ways to approach the purging of corruption; from the top down via “bigger” power from an outside government or international organization, or from the bottom up via revolution or social evolution.

However, you can’t change a people who don’t want change. So the first step is to inform and incentivize them as to why and how change could improve their quality of live. And being that the most accessible information source, the media, via radio and television in this case, are “rich” owned and not necessarily observant of the ethical code of neutrality in journalism, a grassroots word-of-mouth (WOM) approach would be the most trusted.

But without detailing all of the developmental stipulations faced by the Paraguayan people, I will simply note that education is the instigation and nothing speeds up the WOM effect like seeing some incentive for action, which is most effective in the form of evidence of top-down change. To best motivate change we need to mutually encourage the top and bottom of the pyramid through means of communication that are most trusted; WOM at the bottom and bigger power at the top.

Incentive through information is imperative to instigate progression. But it’s not an either or situation on where do begin within one culture. One is one. And within one, everything is linked.

Domestic Causes for Concern


Anyone that’s spent any significant amount of time reading the work of college students knows that it often leaves much to be desired. From poor content development, poor grammar skills, lack of organization to the absence of thought borne of critical thinking, college graduates very often leave school without the basic abilities required of anyone that hopes to truly “make a difference in the world.” Being unable to analyze media content thoroughly or not knowing how to express one’s well-developed arguments has broader implications than one may realize.

Being at the top of the hierarchy established by the tenets of the diffusion of innovation theory has led many people in Western society to believe that their capabilities to optimally utilize and analyze technology and its byproducts are superior to those deemed to be a part of the “undeveloped” masses. in reality, it is often the case that these people are just as inept at critically consuming mediated content as those deemed to be intellectually and societally “undeveloped.” How can the “diffusion of innovations” theory work successfully if those at the top of the hierarchy only utilize the innovations in a superficial manner? They can’t, which is another reason that it is so important to increase media literacy skills of the well-educated. (Waisbord 5)

I aim to improve the poor state of media literacy and writing ability among post-secondary school students through a partnership with the Center for Media Literacy. This partnership will result in the implementation of mandatory media literacy and writing seminars for all incoming AU undergraduates and graduates. Students must be able to be highly discerning when it comes to consuming media content while also possessing the ability to be adaptable when it comes to the writing process. Equipping students with these skills through a participatory program such as the hands-on seminar series being proposed will better allow institutions of higher education to produce truly productive members of society for a brighter tomorrow.

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Project Link for Cuba

In the final project for the class, my group looked at Cuba’s telecommunications infrastructure, recent developments in this infrastructure, and implications for both Cuba and its people due to these and potential future developments. From the research we gathered, we found that Cuba is really on the cusp of a major shift in its connectivity with the rest of the world, and ultimately that could have a massive effect on the social, political, and economic structures of the country.

Raul Castro’s regime has been at the forefront of these changes, but his primary focus is improving Cuba’s internet architecture as a means of improving its economy, without surrendering the sociopolitical framework of the country – one built on socialist ideals. This is a tricky line to tread and Castro has done this by allowing for change, but very slowly and under the watchful eye of the government. Even with faster cable internet and new Wi-Fi hubs, the cost, speed, and ease of access to the internet is incredibly limiting for ordinary Cuban citizens. Cuba’s primary focus is on its internal intranet and is looking towards parallel socialist states, such as China, for not only hardware, but also internet policy, regarding monitoring and usage, as it expands its network externally. So while Cuba deliberates over what the internet will look like for its people, the people are slowly getting a taste of what the internet has to offer outside of Cuba’s historically restrictive lens – through both access via Wi-Fi and through alternative measures like “the packet,” the media and information content distributed throughout the island via hard and flash drives, as “the internet without internet.” This is creating an insatiable demand for the open internet and making it more difficult for the Cuban government to champion its intranet or its potentially heavily censored internet, modeled after the Chinese.

So what alternatives are there? From a development communication perspective, Google has a solution, one that it’s both offering to Cuba for free (or as an upfront loan) and one that Google has successfully implemented in both Ghana and Uganda: Google’s Project Link Initiative.

Project Link has brought fiber optic cables to both the cities of Kampala and Accra, with additional “wholesale last-mile Wi-Fi access” to Uganda. Project Link’s efforts have significantly increased connectivity in these urban hubs and work alongside local providers to allow them “to build networks they can leverage to provide better services to end users.” This initiative employs Waisboard’s notions of modernization, participatory, and empowerment perspectives to effectively strengthen social, educational, and financial networks in these developing cities to allow them to connect more readily and expand more rapidly. While Google provides the structure, it is fully implemented by the local providers and at the demands of the local consumers.

So could this work for Cuba? Theoretically, absolutely. In actuality? It’s more difficult to say. Google has already laid this offer out, but the Cuban government fears it’s a Trojan horse, loaded with political baggage and ready to dismantle the Cuban state. They have every right to be wary, but concern is abating due to last December’s re-establishment of diplomatic ties with the U.S. Cuba’s argument, on the surface, holds less credibility. Still, if the initiative was to move forward, the democratic revolution Cuba fears could more effectively take place. By giving the people access to a larger scope of outside information and ideas, Cuba could dramatically change right before our eyes. The Cuban government knows that, but how much longer can it keep that wall in place?

Unrelated, but I also really want to post this video on my blog as a send-off:

Thanks for keeping the conversation going, M.I.A.

Participatory theory and media advocacy in Mexico City

In Mexico, there is a need for more citizen participation when it comes to public consultations.

Every year, billions of pesos are funded into public construction projects. In Mexico City, the famous “second floor” of Periferico (in which, they built a highway over an existing highway) was built in 2006 around a lot of controversy. The highly polemic construction was criticized for not including the citizen’s in the decision making process. There was no public consultation and the residents had to deal with that construction for over five years.

Now, in 2015, there’s a glimpse of that happening. Recently, there was a new multi-million-construction plan proposed for Mexico City, called Corredor Cultural de Chapultepec.

The project leaders say it will bring new life to the Chapultepec neighborhood, brining private commerce and public spaces together. The opponents argue that it will be just another shopping mall, with little space for culture-related projects. Plus, the project requires a second floor to the Chapultepec neighborhood (think something like the High Line Park in New York City), making it very invasive for the residents around the area.

This past Sunday, the Mexico City’s Electoral Institute held a public vote on the project. There were over 22 thousand votes, with the majority voting “no” to the construction of the project, putting it on hold.

The Electoral Institute referred to the vote as a success. However, only 4.8% of those eligible voted.

It would seem these types of citizen initiative campaigns need more of the participatory and media advocacy focus that Silivio Waisbord talks about.

Waisbord explains that participatory theorists argue that development communication requires sensitivity to cultural diversity, and lack of such sensitivity leads to the failure of many project. That certainly seems to be the case for the Corredor Cultural de Chapultepec (CCC). Since the start, the commercial aspect for the project was featured too much. The word “cultural” is in the project’s title, yet not one cultural initiative was proposed in the CCC’s presentation. A large majority of Mexico City’s population is lower-middle class, the project seemed to be targeting upper and upper-middle classes.

Which brings us to the second point. The media advocacy was nowhere to be seen. The project needs to change its messages to the media. Stop selling it like a shopping mall. Use the media to really disseminate the social changes the project will bring to the community. It’s about changing the key words being used by the project’s spokespeople.

The Corredor Cultural de Chapultepec still has a chance of being built, but its creators need to seriously rework the branding and key messages of the project if they want to get the citizens on board with it.