Complete Annotated Bibliography

Bates, Allyson M. The Impact of Gentrification on Low-Income Individuals in the Washington, DC, Metropolitan Area, Howard University, Ann Arbor, 2012.

This article studies the factor that gentrified areas or non-gentrified areas has on the likelihood that a low-income household would leave. They found that no matter where the low-income family is housed they are displaced from the overarching city itself. People with high school diplomas or less where places in worse conditions both in the gentrified areas and non-gentrified areas. Even when parts of DC were gentrified, if the low-income resident stayed in the area they had little improvement in their living conditions.

I can use this article as an example of the few people that still did use the Downtown YMCA because they needed it for more than just a “cheap gym.” This article shows that there are people that still live in this gentrified area of DC that have a low-income and could potentially be suffering because of the closing of the YMCA. There is also the fact that these people are most likely overlooked when creating new developments in the gentrified areas of DC, causing their voices and needs to be completely lost.

“Best Indoor Tracks To Exercise In The DC Area.” CBS DC, 20 Oct. 2014,

This article talks about the indoor track that the YMCA used to have and how it was one of the best in the city. People from all around the city used the track because they loved it so much. It also talks a little on the other activities and equipment that it had available to the public for a membership.

I was thinking that I could use this article as a comparison type thing, where I can talk about what the interior was used for and looked like when it was still the YMCA and how that has changed. I could also possibly mention how the change of the interior has affected the type of people that pass by the building.

Chan, Corey. “District of Change: Gentrification and Demographic Trends in Washington, DC.” Chicago Policy Review (Online), 2014.

This article talks about the overarching problem with the gentrification of DC. There is an increasing number of white people moving into the city, and a higher number of the lower class that is moving out of DC is black. Higher income black households are found to leave the region all together, creating a segregation of not only class but race as well. When upper-class black people don’t stay in the city it creates little room for a betterment of the communities in the DC area.

This article can help as a descriptor for why the YMCA might have closed in the Dupont area. The change in racial dynamics might have also been a cause of gentrification. The article points to a continuing tension not only between race’s but the economic classes within the African-American race itself. This look on the expanding gentrification of DC could be an explanation to the gentrification that was described by the YMCA CEO in her statement on why the branch closed

Clanton, John, and Former downtown Tulsa YMCA being transformed into affordable apartments By KEVIN CANFIELD World Staff Writer . “Former Downtown Tulsa YMCA Being Transformed into Affordable Apartments.” Tulsa World, 24 Oct. 2015,

This article talks about the construction that they are doing on the former downtown YMCA. They say that they are making them into affordable apartments and commercial buildings for offices. The small, affordable units will help fill a growing demand for housing from people who want to live downtown, don’t want the long-term commitment of a house payment. The construction has taken some time but in the end the outcome will help out a lot of Tulsa residences.

I will use this article to talk about how the process of reconstructions something that had no set up similar to apartments or offices is hard to keep affordable and thats why its taking so long. Though this article talks of what is happening in Tulsa and not DC I believe it is still useful to know that there are more YMCA’s that are being closed and turned into apartment and office areas. I will use this to help give me an idea of what might be happening to the interior of the DC YMCA.

Cook, C. (2013). The displacement of displacement: New-build gentrification in washington, DC (Order No. 1538506). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1399597249). Retrieved from

This source focuses in on the life and affects those that are displaced after gentrification affects them. It also touches upon the lives of the displaced in the gentrified areas. It targets recent studies about gentrification in DC and is able to provide evidence support for the increasing number of neighborhoods that are experiencing gentrification.

This source can be used as an exhibit to show the audience the effect that gentrification has on those that are displaced in communities that are gentrified and those that are not. This source can also be used as an argument to help make the claim that you don’t have to be relocated to be displaced or affected by gentrification.

Hallett, Vicky. “YMCA Anthony Bowen’s Long History in D.C.” Washington Post, The Washington Post, 3 Sept. 2013,

This article provides background and evidence of the great facilities that everyone who used the National Capital YMCA will now be utilizing. They are constantly improving and expanding their support systems. The article talks about the history and expansion of the YMCA. The Y went through a lot of different difficulties while it was here but continued to pursue with its mission to help the city.

This article is great to point out the background needed for the YMCA that will be taking over. There is a lot of history that points to different reasons why this building is becoming the main YMCA in the DC area. This was one of the first YMCA’s that was open to the black community. So as the District goes through gentrification it can continue to be a light for those of the lower-class as a place that is always open to them.

Jackson, Jonathan. “The Consequences of Gentrification for Racial Change in Washington, DC.” Housing Policy Debate, vol. 25, no. 2, 2015;2014;., pp. 353-373doi:10.1080/10511482.2014.921221. Retrieved from

This article does a good job at laying out statistics that lead up to gentrification as well as the causes there of. It focuses a lot on the segregation of african american and the injustices that these people go through. It ties together the gentrification and the displacement of low income households as well as specifically what is happening to the gentrified african americans.

This article can be used both as a background and exhibit source. It provides background knowledge to the audience on what leads to gentrification and the causes it has on DC. It also can be used to effectively show off the negative effects of gentrification and how it causes segregation in DC.

Stein, P. (2015, Oct 08). YMCA to shutter facility downtown amid rising competition from gyms. The Washington Post Retrieved from

This article does a good job at laying out the facts of why the Y left the Dupont area. Many of the reasons being that there was a decrease in attendance, an increase in tax and they felt that the area didn’t need help anymore. The YMCA spokesperson talked about how the Y had to focus on areas in DC that needed more help than the affluent Dupont area. The article drops numbers and quotes saying why they were leaving and who they sold to.

I can use this article and the rhetoric about how this is a stable community and how it has changed. The YMCA only comes to areas that need their help and so the fact that it is leaving isn’t necessarily a bad thing because it proves that the community has bettered, and that is something that I can focus on with this article. I can also talk about how reluctant Akridge was to announce what they were turning the building into.

Wheeler, Linda. “Preserving A Century of Service in Shaw; Historic YMCA Finds New Community Role.” The Washington Post, Washington, D.C., 1998.

This article talks about the first YMCA to accept African-Americans which was in DC. They talk about how this building is  national mark and something that makes all african-americans proud to go to. They are currently renovating this YMCA, with a multimillion dollar contract. This area was a place for everyone to go and come together to use the swimming pool, try gymnastics, or just to have a safe space.

I will use this article to again talk about the rhetoric of the interior of the YMCA and how it provided a safe space for African-Americans. I will compare the exterior environment and the racial tensions and how the YMCA was able to defuse that through the years in DC and how it continues to do so. They are rededicating the YMCA so that is something that I will talk about with this source.

“YMCA National Capital – CLOSED.” Welcome to YMCA National Capital – CLOSED | YMCA DC,

This is the old site for the Downtown YMCA. It has a statement on the reasoning for its closing and connects you to a link that brings you to a full statement on why it was closed. In the statement we as members of the YMCA are reassured that everything will be okay, and jobs, and facilities will all be maintained. There is another YMCA that is just a mile away that will be improved and provide a great location that will replace the other YMCA.

I can use this as an example of the continuation of support that the YMCA will do for the District. Though there has and continues to be massive gentrification the YMCA wants people to know that they are still a support system for all who needs it especially the lower class families. This article is a good connection between the CEO and the people who use the YMCA every day. It is also proof that the Y wants to provide easy access to families to utilize everything they have to offer.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *