Annotated Bibliographies 9 & 10


“WELCOME TO SAINT JOHN’S CHURCH.” St Johns Church, Accessed 30 Apr. 2017.

This first article is written in regards to the history of St. John’s Church, a Christian church located in Washington D.C. Furthermore, it notes specific facts about St. John’s beginnings, including its origins, built by Benjamin Henry Latrobe on September 14, 1815. Interestingly, St. John’s Church is known as “the Church of the Presidents” for every President, beginning with James Madison, has attended a service at St. John’s, and is therefore registered as a National Historic Landmark. Moreover, St. John’s Church has taken part in global efforts, such as the founding of an orphanage in 1868 to aiding Christian worshipers in various parts of the world, including South Africa and Jerusalem. The final portion of this article touches upon some important, physical aspects of the Church itself. Such features include the bell in St. John’s steeple, which was engineered by Paul Revere’s son in 1822, and the 25 historic, stained glass windows. These windows were crafted in France and commissioned by the Church in 1883 and depict the Gospel of St. John, the individual the Church was named after. The final feature this article addresses is the Parish House, a building next to the church which serves as a National Historic Landmark in itself. The Parish House was occupied by Lord Ashburton in 1842, this is the same individual who negotiated U.S. Canadian borders, and therefore the Parish House is known as Ashburton House as well.

This article is especially significant to my paper due to the location of St. John’s Church. St. John’s Church is located on the outer perimeter of Lafayette Square, an area of Washington D.C. that lies North of the White House. This will allow for the investigation of whether or not religious connections are present in politics, and if they are, how. Furthermore, the close proximity of the White House to St. John’s Church will allow me to address the presidential theme of the church. Finally, due to the international influence present within  the church, I will be able to explore the Greek and American influence on the church’s location in general.



“Hotel Overview.” Hay Adams, Accessed 30 Apr. 2017.

This article provides an overview on the Hay-Adams Hotel, a boutique hotel located in Downtown Washington D.C. This hotel is located adjacent to Lafayette Square, allowing for exceptional views of both St. John’s Church and the White House. Furthermore, the Hay-Adams Hotel’s prized location allows visitors to access many of Washington D.C.’s monuments via a short walk. This article also briefly addresses the history of the Hay-Adams Hotel, detailing the motive for construction of its 145 guest rooms and 21 suites in the 1920’s. Moreover, the design plans employed allows for a private atmosphere, where guests can receive outstanding service while experiencing an intimate space. Finally, the photo gallery displays images of the eloquently, lavish hotel. The gallery includes images of the ornate outer entrance, the interior lobby, aspects of the large suites, and the high level of service provided in various locations throughout the Hay-Adams Hotel.

This article pertaining to the Hay-Adams Hotel will be significant for the writing of my paper due to the fact that the hotel is located extremely close to Lafayette Square. This poses a very interesting juxtaposition, for the Hay-Adams Hotel is often regarded as a high-class traveler destination, and the portion of Lafayette Square the hotel is closest to is often regarded as more middle class. Furthermore, Lafayette Square is often portrayed as rather international due to the crowds the many National Historic Landmarks it encompasses attracts. On the other hand, the Hay-Adams Hotel assumes somewhat of a nationalistic identity. Therefore, I am interested in addressing the tensions between class distinctions associated with both Lafayette Square and the Hay-Adams Hotel.  

Annotated Bibliography 7 & 8

Crothers, Lane. “American Culture, American Influence.” TheEuropean, The European, 19 Sept. 2011,–2/6201-american-culture-american-influence. Accessed 20 Apr. 2017

In the article “The Hegemony of Pop” written by Lane Crothers, Crothers details the ways in which the American influence over global popular culture is not only strong, but will likely outlast the power of our military and politics. Lane goes on to explain how American cultural influence has been the leading global influencer for decades. He then goes on to analyze the fluctuation of the american economic system in relation to the cultural influence of the United States. Brothers comes to the conclusion that though America is not the only economic powerhouse in the world, our cultural influence will likely remain supreme even if other countries surpass us economically.

I will likely use Crothers’ analysis of American international influence on a smaller level, relating it to the layered domestic→ international→ domestic layout of Lafayette Square. I intend to use the article as as supplement to my other research. This document is less factual and more open-ended, which will be useful in my project as far as varied sources go.


Ron. “US Slave.” Lafayette Park Slave Market, 1 Jan. 1970, Accessed 24 Apr. 2017.


Blog post, “Lafayette Park Slave Market” written by author that goes by the user name Ron, illustrates the park/Square’s horrific past as a hotspot of the slave trade. Ron mentions the use of certain areas of the park as grave sites for the slaves, these same sites that stare at the White House today. The blog post includes a photograph of the view of the White House from the area used centuries ago as a grave for numerous slaves. This photograph chosen by Ron is incredibly impactful and important to his message. By including not only words to describe the proximity of slavery to our nation’s core, but photographic evidence as well, Ron sheds real light on the horrendous events of our nation’s past. Ron does this while unveiling even more so the government’s perpetration of these acts both physically and lawfully.

I will be able to use this blog post by Ron to illustrate the type of American history and values that are inadvertently preserved in the Square in the attempts to limit the influence of foreign influence. I plan on illustrating the dark side of the history that is represented through the monuments of the square, and how this dark history is so well preserved due to the fact that it physically stands at the core and peripheral of the park. With the slave graves located in the outskirts of the park and Andrew Jackson on horseback located directly in the center, this article will help me prove yet another layered dimension in the park.


Annotated Bibliography 5 & 6

This article posted to the Washington Post in January of 1990, follows the national broadcast in which President George W. bush held up a bag of crack cocaine in the oval Office. The president did this in a bid to reach the public and explain the epidemic that was crack cocaine in Washington DC. The sample of the drug  was purchased by undercover officers just across the street from the White House in Lafayette Park. The article, “Subject of Lafayette Square Crack sale Guilty in Other Cases” written by Tracy Thompson made headlines due to its connection to the president of the United States. The article details the legal proceedings of the drug dealer who sold crack to the undercover officer. The article’s main points of interest are the fact that the dealer in question sold drugs that would appear on a presidential broadcast, as well as the fact that the perpetrator was only 19 at the time. The author also focuses on the familias impact of the dealer, Keith Jackson’s, dealing.

Tracy Thompson focuses less on the legal proceedings of the case and more on the impact of both the accused, as well as the unique circumstances of the accused. The use of the authors emphasis on his age and the fact that Jackson was still a senior in high school while contributing the a lethal drug epidemic is incredible important. In my writing, I can use this in order to dissect the systematic drug cycle in American, specifically in a large city like Washington DC only a few decades ago.



CASES.” The Washington Post, 1990, pp. 1–1.


The article posted to the GW Hatchet, written by Meredith Roatan caled, Thousands Storm Lafayette Square to Oppose Immigration Order, explains the events of January, 2017 in Lafayette Square. Roatan reports that nearly 2,000 passionate protesters stormed the square in response to President Donald Trump’s impending immigration law, which would disallow for the citizens of several, primarily Muslim countries, from entering the United States legally. Roatan reports that many of the protesters who rallied at Lafayette Square came to the sport from all over the country. The significance of the area in relation to the White House and central mode of power, drew the crowd together in this area. Roatan goes on explain in more detail the international effects of the President Donald Trump’s Muslim ban

Roatan’s article regarding this singular protest in Lafayette Square gives me an idea of the democratic scene in the square on a larger level. This information will be useful to me while writing my essay as I will be able to relate the larger scene/rhetoric of the square with a singular, specific event. The international tone to the protest is also helpful to me, as I am heavily focusing on the well contained international rhetoric in the area. The fact that American’s have protested for the right of both American’s as well as citizens of other countries in the square adds to my paradoxical claim that the square is a layered, domestic and international scene.


Newsroom Blog By Meredith Roaten Jan 29, 2017 7:27 PM, Meredith Roaten, et al. “Thousands

Storm Lafayette Square to Oppose Immigration Order.” The GW Hatchet, Hatchet

Publications, 29 Jan. 2017. Accessed 10 Apr. 2017.


Annotated Bibliography Sources 3 & 4


The source, Why ‘Lafayette’? Exists as an explanation for the naming of a town in Oregon, called Lafayette, on the town’s official website. While the majority of this site revolves around the happenings and citizens of the town Lafayette, Oregon, the page of the sight that I found useful was the page detailing the reasons for the town’s name, and the importance of Lafayette as a historical figure. The page remembers Lafayette as a “Celebrity” of the 1800’s, having played a large part in the revolutionary war in America as well as several revolutions in France. The source notes his elevated status in the decades after the Revolutionary War time and time again, also listing various other landmarks, towns and cities across the country that share the same name as their little town, in honor of the soldier and revolutionary.

This larger body of work that this piece is attached to serves to differentiate this source from other sources I have collected thus far. The fact that this page belongs to a bigger body of work that is not dedicated to the man lafayette himself provides more external information regarding lafayette’s life to be incorporated into the piece. This covert difference will most likely be helpful in providing my essay and the readers of my work with a more well rounded image of who the lafayette was and what he did in his life. This source also informed me of other sights and landmarks that were named after the Frenchman. While I am not writing about or analyzing these other sites, understanding why they were named for him and their possible relevance to his life or achievements will be helpful in my writing.


“Why ‘Lafayette’?” New, 13 Aug. 2010, Accessed 27 Feb. 2017.


This source, found on, serves not only as a factual biography of Lafayette’s life, including his birthday, parents, the year he began his revolutionary career, but also delves into his personal life, and childhood. The piece especially notes the way in which Lafayette became exposed to the revolutionary happenings in the colonies of what would later be The United States of America. The piece takes a less factual approach on this, stating, “Lafayette’s real introduction to America came at a dinner on August 8, 1775, when the young Marquis came into contact with the Duke of Gloucester who spoke with sympathy of the struggle going on in the colonies. With thoughts of the “romantic” American cause” (The Marquis de Lafayette). Along with painting a more colorful picture of lafayette’s life than most other sources, this source also explains the accomplishments of Lafayette before and after his work on the Revolutionary War, as a French Revolutionary.

This source provides for me much of what I was lacking when it comes to the credibility of Lafayette and his resume before his time fighting for American freedom. By using information gathered from this source, I will be able to relay Lafayette’s political and revolutionary resume before he came to America to the reader. This source will also be useful as it focuses less on lafayette’s biography in regards to the American Revolutionary War, and takes a look at the Frenchman from birth until death in full.


“Biography of the Marquis De Lafayette.”, Independence Hall Association, Accessed 27 Feb. 2017.


Annotated Bibliography #1


Source 1:

“Lafayette Square, Washington, DC.” GSA Home,

In the U.S General Service Administration’s article on Lafayette Square in Washington DC, the GSA provides a detailed history of the park from its construction to present day. Additionally, this article notes the disparity between the historical uses of the park and the way that the park is used today. The article is written chronologically, beginning with the original use of the park in the 1700’s. These uses included a family graveyard, a zoo and a slave market among other things. The article then goes on to note the specific changes that certain presidents made to the square of the surrounding area. For example, President Thomas Jefferson who fenced off the square during his time in office. The article then takes us into the 1800’s and the rise of the square’s status, describing the area around the square and the way in which it was built up throughout the century. The status of those who lived around the square and the reputation of the area continued to rise. The article later describes the architects involved in making the square what it is today, as well as the stop put on the construction around the square due to its proximity to the white house.

I plan to use this source as a solid background source throughout my project. The article gives me a clear, chronological look on the timeline of Lafayette Square. This source also touches on external factors that have influenced the square throughout history, which will hopefully be useful when creating my project. Another aspect of this source that will most likely serve to help me when creating my project is the fact that it is relatively unbiased. The government nature of the site in which this article is posted leads me to believe that the piece is mostly fact based. Overall, I intend to use this article and what I learned while reading this article as a basis of information regarding the square as well as a good jumping off point.

Source 2:

Godfrey, Sarah. “Lafayette Park Is No Longer a Home for the Homeless – City Paper.”Lafayette Park

Is No Longer a Home for the Homeless – City Paper, 6 Aug. 2004,

The article, Lafayette Park is no Longer for the Homeless, by Sarah Godfrey, serves to illustrate the numerous ways in which past presidents have manipulated the square, in regards to homelessness, to fit their agenda. This piece, Godfrey examines the ways in which presidential nominees and presidents themselves used the well known homelessness in the square to their advantage, all the while the level of homelessness not changing. Godfrey goes on to highlight the image of inequality in America that the square exemplifies. For example, Godfrey notes the distance from the White House to the square, highlighting the difference between the ‘haves’ and the ‘have nots’. Godfrey further explains how the proximity of the most powerful, elevated place in the country to a square full of homeless people shows two opposite ends of the American socioeconomic spectrum.

I will most likely use this article when incorporating elements of demographic into my project. The different types of people that inhabit an area have a lot of influence over that area. This being said, if those inhabiting Lafayette Square differ greatly from those surrounding the square, it will be worth noting in my environmental analysis. I also like the way that this article brings up the bigger idea of the socioeconomic gap that is so prevalent in America today. I will hopefully incorporate this idea into my project in some way.