Annotated Bibliography 9 & 10

Schwartzman, Paul. “A Bittersweet Renaissance.” The Washington Post, February 23, 2006, sec. Metro.

In his 2006 article Bittersweet Renaissance Paul Schwartzman interviews native of Washington D.C. neighborhoods such as Shaw giving them a platform to discuss the changes they have seen in they have seen in their neighborhoods and the repercussions of such changes on them. Schwartzman breaks down such interviews into subsections that help the reader understand the processes of the changes.When it comes to the “Vanishing Culture” the idea and power of money when it comes to the changing of the neighborhoods around the metropolitan area and the impact it has had on not only the people but the “history” of the areas.

I plan on using this as part of my multimodal final project as direct quotes to help the audience understand the standpoint that many natives have concerning the changes in their area.  To have several direct statements and testimonies from natives that grew up in the area before and after the changes that it is undergoing would help my audience understand that this is a serious matter that affects individuals greatly. “Where We Live: Shaw.” We Love DC. Accessed April 19, 2017.

In their blog post Where We Live: Shaw, We Love DC essentially advertise the reason why individuals should consider living in the Shaw Area speaking on such things as “What to See” the  “Neighborhood Character” “History” “Why We Love  Shaw” among other aspects. This blog post explains that there has been a “great deal of investment” explaining the reasons as to why such renovations were done. Though there is a history section they speak of the “civil war” and how the Shaw area was the “center of black culture” and how it was hit by the “crack epidemic” however it is  now one of the “most loved” neighborhoods in the District that are not only in a “great location” but it is “civically-engaged.”

I plan on using this in my final project to show the audience the other side of what individuals view the changes that have occurred in the Shaw area. While some natives who are usually of minority  descent believe that this change has brought a lot of ignoring the history and natives of the area, other such as We Love DC seen this as a change for the best, it has changed a once crack epidemic area to beautiful “civically-engaged” area which then puts in the question why don’t certain people think it was “civically-engaged”  before?

Annotated Bibliography 7 & 8

Annotated Bibliography 7 & 8

Gringlas, Sam. “Old Confronts New In A Gentrifying D.C. Neighborhood.” Accessed April 12, 2017.

In his Old Confronts New in a Gentrifying D.C. Neighborhood author Sam Gringlas goes about researching the impact of gentrification on the once “Chocolate City” through personal testimonials from natives of the the Shaw area. In his article his he uses both interview  and visuals to show the distinct change that D.C. has gone through throughout the years. Native of the Shaw area share their frustration with Gringlas using  such words as “privilege” “epidemic” “constrict” and phrases such as “pressure on housing” and “take advantage” to share with Gringlas the fast pace changes that they are forced to put up with despite the years of living in the neighborhood. Gringlas goes the extra mile and shows what the native in the community are doing to make sure their neighborhoods and loved one are okay showing visuals such as Thanksgiving meals in the Kennedy Recreation Center, on 7th street and the barbershop. Gringlas shows a side that they are making a way for themselves  and though there is frustration that haven’t completely lost hope of their identity in the neighborhood they continue to support one another.

I believe that personal testimonies and encounters from the minorities that are the natives in the Shaw area and other neighborhood where there is displacement occurring will add balance and a sense of connection with what is going on in these neighborhoods. Gringlas uses pathos in his article to make sure that readers are understanding the impact whether it be negative or positive that these changes have.

Sturtevant, Lisa. “The New District of Columbia: What Population Growth and Demographic Change Mean for the City.” Journal of Urban Affairs 36, no. 2 (May 1, 2014): 276–99. doi:10.1111/juaf.12035.

In her The New District of Columbia: What Population Growth and Demographic Change Men for the City Lisa Sturtevant uses statistics from over a period of time to show what the “trends” that have occurred in the D.C. area and the impact that it had has in areas such as housing, jobs, political and economic aspects because of displacement. Sturtevant uses such phrases as “unprecedented pace” to verbalize the growing pace of the newcomers .Sturtevant explains such a surge of newcomers coming into because of the job and housing opportunities that are available here. This might possibly suggest that there entrance into such neighborhood as Shaw is not necessarily ill will though it is showing the the privilege that the majority of individuals moving into their areas have over them. She discusses the “urban population” and possible impact of such changes might have it.

Having actual demographic trends set forth to compare and contrast the differences throughout a set time will help the reader visualize the actual changes that have gone on. Another thing that this article is able to do is give a concrete reasoning as to why there is so many newcomers coming to the D.C. area. Though the way in which they have come is, have negatively impacted many of the natives in Shaw among other areas. understanding why will also put into perspective what conversations need to be had when it comes to making everyone involved content in some way.

Annotated Bibliography 5 & 6


Annotated Bibliography: 5 & 6

Asch, Chris Myers, and Derek Musgrove. “Not Gone, Not Forgotten: Struggling over History in a Gentrifying D.C.” Washington Post. Accessed April 10, 2017.

In their Not Gone, Not Forgotten: Struggling over History in a Gentrifying D.C. authors Chris Myers and Derek Musgrove give a brief history concerning displacement of certain groups of people, mainly African Americans and Latinos in the D.C. area (one area being Shaw my location for this project). Meyers and Musgrove use such keywords as “history” “struggling”  “fear” and “fighting” to emphasize the hardships that minority groups are going through when it comes to being physically displaced due to the need for the D.C. area to renovate and in their eyes become a better D.C. What is then called out if the need that individuals with power in D.C. have to make things “whiter” and “wealthier” because to outsiders it looks more pretty, however, to the native Washingtonians that understand the culture feel the need to protect their history from the newcomers that are taking their places before it’s too late.

I want to use Myers and Musgrove’s article for my essay for the portion of history and the importance of having the voices of the natives to be heard. In a sense it isn’t necessarily about just the minorities fighting their own struggles there are native Washingtonians, in general, that might not necessarily be while that understand the severity and wrongfulness of the idea of displacement. What is going on in areas such as 5th & O Shaw is the physical removal of the people that were forced to be there in some cases in the first place. Though those natives understand that there will be circumstances where they can no longer live there, they do not want their history to be forgotten at the end of the day.


Ledbetter, Danielle, and Waite Kaylah. “Is D.C. Still the Chocolate City?” Truth Be Told, November 10, 2015.

In their article Is D.C. Still The Chocolate City authors Danielle Ledbetter and Kaylah Waite give the history of Washington D.C. being one of the “blackest” cities in the United States since the 1970s this reiterating the fact that was is seen today does not match the history of what D.C. has been. Ledbetter and Waite explaining the story behind the nickname of “Chocolate City” for the nation’s capital explaining how the Shaw area was “booming” with black businesses. There are such phrases as “white flight” “The Plan” and “take back” explaining how the idea of white families and individuals moving into areas such as Shaw has been something that has been occurring since the 1950s. The idea of displacement then has is not a new twenty-first century phenomenon rather, it has been happening is the dawn of the “Chocolate City” era and now the population has just gotten larger. Phrases such as “black constituents” are used to explain in thorough detail of the mass of minority individuals and families that walked around the areas where nowadays might not be more than a handful of minority families in sight.

I would use this particular article for the statistics that has within in to help the reader actually visualize the differences throughout the years of the displacement that has gone on in areas such as Shaw. Having such article use the nickname of “Chocolate City” to be the name of almost surprising and knowing the story behind that is an important part of the telling the stories of my built-in environment.

Annotated Bibliography 3 & 4


Annotated Bibliography 3 

Falcon, Elizabeth. “Cooperative Housing Thrives in DC.” Accessed March 25, 2017.

In her Cooperative Housing Thrives in DC Elizabeth Falcon uses the method of background to inform the reader of the “benefits” of cooperative housing. Falcon presents the creation and background story of cooperative housing to show how “stability” and “empowerment” that assistant housing brings to their residents.Also mentioning how these co-ops are a “gateway to ownership for the residents” hence, Section 8 housing according to Falcon have nothing but positive outcome.  Falcon describes co-op homes as being “tucked away”  neighborhoods around the city a certain  language that shows that these communities are not at the center stage of their neighborhood, which makes one question why?

As I read this article and immediately connected it with walking around 5th & O neighborhood and seeing the Second Northwest Cooperative Homes tucked away in the newly renovated  intersection. Falcon truly tries to persuade the reader that there is no real stigma on these co-op homes however, the fact that it is tucked away just shows what I had discussed in the first essay with Cameron Logan’s Beyond a Boundary: Washington’s Historic Districts and Their Racial Contents essay; the history of the people that have been living there for generations are being looked over like it never mattered for at least one group of people. What is then ironic is that the group of people being looked over are the ones that were put into these isolated areas as the dominant group are attempting to “enhance community control.” I plan to use this article to explain that the African American community has always been put at a disadvantage. The co-op homes are still being controlled by the dominant groups, the fact that it then being advertised as such a great financial opportunity but in the same token being said that it is “tucked away” is why the minority group feels there history is being erased.

Annotated Bibliography 4

Kwak, Chaney. “The Washington, D.C. Neighborhood You Need to Know About.” CNT. Accessed March 25, 2017.

In his The Washington, D.C. Neighborhood You Need to Know About Chaney Kwak used the  method of exhibit to advertise the “new shaw area” that everyone must go and see. Kwak explains how the Shaw area (Where 5th & O St NW is located) has finally “come into its own” and here are a the list of things to see in the “up and coming Shaw neighborhood” which then followed a list of small business yet very modern restaurants and shops. How this article is constructed primarily focuses on the improvement of the Shaw area. In the same sense disregarding that Shaw has been a part of the D.C. area for generations before, and was not always the go to for millennials as advertise by Kwak. Better yet, not even 10 years ago, the “millennials” that business owners are trying to attract in the Shaw area would have never imagined stepping foot there if it was not for Howard University being near by.

My intention for this article was to connect it to the interior of the restaurant I will be using for my Digital Archives called HalfSmoke. Kwak’s article though intended to promote Shaw Area and invite newcomers to the area to enjoy is overlooking the history of Shaw. Better yet, it is not letting the voices of the natives that were there and now displaced share their stories and allow the readers and possible newcomers of the Shaw area understand the full story and get to know the “before and after” of their neighborhood. As I did research all I could see was consumers of the products distributed by such restaurants and shops rave about the quality but then say “pricy” but it was always worth. When then leads to to ask where are the old businesses such as the family owned liquor and the beauty supply store owners, where have they gone? What is the story about their either progress or downfall? Who is telling their story? Yes it is good to have Urban Renewal but where are the natives supposed to go when their homes are being “tucked away” in a corner and there shopping areas are being replaced by “pricy but worth it” businesses?


Annotated Bibliography 1 & 2

Annotated Bibliography 1

Johnson, Jenna. “Warring Gangs in District’s Shaw Neighborhood Declare Truce.” The Washington Post, June 9, 2007, sec. Metro.

In this article, Johnson’s main argument pertains to commenting on the two infamous gang in the 5th and O and 7th and O intersection of the Shaw Area. Though they are intersecting the crew’s rivalries are one with long history and tension going back to the beginning of the cocaine epidemic in the nation’s district if not earlier. With such background information, what Johnson brings to presents is the result of the warring gang violence between the 5th and 7th that has been going on for decades, the older members of opposing crews with the help of their community leaders are trying to find a truce. Johnson interviews a crewmember with the name of Rufus Youngblood that describes such atmosphere of the area when entering it as a “war zone.” Johnson shares the heartwarming shift of feelings on both sides, where what is more important to them at this point is keeping the “peace” and as a result the safety of everyone in the area. As the veteran crew members state in the article, “As much as people want to blame the youth, it really is us taking the lead and steering them in the right direction..”

This article gave me an entryway to think about this upcoming essay to go into the 5th and O area and look at this intersection as more than just a “war zone” as Castaneda and some veteran crew members described. At the end of it all, Shaw is an area with families full of children running around during the Spring and Summer enjoying themselves and walking to the nearby library during the school year for their afterschool programs. The ideology of the Shaw Area being a ghetto with gang violence is just one side of the story. The only way to break such stereotypes that individuals have fed into for so many years and as a result has inclined them to stay away from is to first-hand experience it and ask questions.

Annotated Bibliography 2

Samuelson, Ruth. “Truce and Consequences.” Washington City Paper. Accessed February 17, 2017.

In this article, Samuelson’s doesn’t necessarily have an argument. Moreso it humanizes the individuals seen on the news about another killing in Shaw in the process shedding light on the experience of a crew member among others, in the 5th and O intersecting area. Specifically, Samuelson shares the story of Deon Peoples a young man that was murdered in 2007 by gang-related violence. One of his acquaintances, a man called Ben Barringer, Barringer gives voice to the issues at hand in the O st intersections and tells the readers about a man whose life was taken too soon but was a man with a family, friends, and life nonetheless. Samuelson gives Barringer the platform to explain and shed light on the fact that even crew members and their families have a life besides what is shown in their neighborhood on mainstream media. Something that Samuelson put in her article about People’s and his family is this, ““They are very nice,” says one woman familiar with the relatives. “They’ll give you whatever they have. But they’re close. Their family is very close. If you’re in their circle, you got to stay in their circle and don’t try to cross them.”

This article gave me an entryway to think about this essay as the ability to humanize what Castaneda among other authors and media branches stereotype 5th and O as. By focusing on the individuals and their stories, it recreates the narrative of such places. It adds dimensions to the ideology of the area, though this is not a happily ever after’ story that ended in a positive way it sheds light that though there are major issues in this neighborhood it these “thugs” and “gangsters” have a life that should be valued and respected like everyone else’s. For me personally, I connected with it because coming from my background (native of Haiti) I know that the impact of negative stereotypes of where an individual comes from, and how misunderstood an area and the groups of people that live there can feel.