This course introduces students to an on-going dialogue at the core of Western intellectual history about how to think about justice. The course examines how the attempt to achieve clarity about the fundamental problems of justice gives rise to new questions and problems that were not apparent at first. The central theme of the course is an intellectual surprise, as new questions emerge from old solutions and new solutions reveal old questions. The course addresses and illustrates questions about law, political obligation, freedom, equality, justice and human nature. Students examine different societies such as the ancient city, modern democracy and totalitarianism, and discuss contemporary issues such as race, culture and inequality.