Annotated Bibliography 3 & 4

“Understanding the Principles of Feng Shui.” N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2017.

The website published an article called “Understanding the Principles of Feng Shui” that highlights the importance of the relationship between the environment and human life. It gives a description of the generally accepted concept of Feng Shui. Feng Shui is the strategic placement of objects in an environment and how those objects interact with individual’s energy flows. The concept revolves around the idea that through design you can create certain energy flows that influence how individuals think and perform in situations.

I plan to use this source about Feng Shui as background that will support my arguments about how the interiors of the Dupont Circle Club affect the progress of individuals in this recovery facility.

Segan, Sascha. “Dupont Circle: Where Art and Eccentricity Meet.” The Washington Post Company 1997. Web.

A Washington Post by Sascha Segan titled “Dupont Circle: Where Art and Eccentricity Meet” lists Dupont Circles diverse business to show how this range of businesses attract a mixture of people that give Dupont Circle it’s eccentric culture. It provides evidence that Dupont Circle offers a welcoming setting for all kinds of individuals for example, recovering addicts. A big part of the success of the Dupont Circle Club is whether its setting will allow for its patients/customers to feel comfortable enough to go to the club. The source is background for my essay because it provides foundational concepts of the culture of Dupont Circle that are relevant to the Dupont Circle Club.


Environment vs. Opportunity

In his book, City of Rhetoric, David Fleming in Chapter 8 “Toward a New Socialspatial Dialectic” rhetorically explains the idea that space matters because the organization of it can lead to an equal field of opportunities for all individuals to express their rhetorical voices. In this chapter, Fleming argues that there exists a link between individual’s environments and their opportunities. In rhetoric discussions of the effects of a built environment on an individual’s opportunities, one controversial issue is whether design generates behavior. On the one hand, modernist argue that individuals are not constituted by a shared space but by shared ideals. In other words, modernists believe that environment is an irrelevant factor in human affairs. On the other hand, others argue that the environment is a factor that affects every individual. They debate that all environments are different and as such provide the individuals whom inhabit them different resources that determine their success. Based on the existing conversations, Fleming agrees with the later because it explains the unequal distribution of opportunities for individuals. He concludes that by designing spaces that provide equal opportunities for individuals their possibility for success is increased.

The Rhetoric of Mixed-Income Communities

In his book, City of Rhetoric, David Fleming rhetorically in Chapter 6 “The New Urbanism” explains the idea of the economically diverse urban village in Chicago. In this chapter, Fleming argues that mixed-income urban communities are based on unrealistic dreams of social harmony. In rhetoric discussions of the development of mixed-income urban communities, one controversial issue is whether the homogenous design of the communities equally caters to all residents. Fleming defines these communities by describing them as sustainable built environments that are designed to be a place where economically and culturally diverse residents can congregate in equal treatment. On the one hand, developers argue that income mixing produces a cohesive, stable, and diverse quality residential neighborhood. Moreover, they argue that in cities with concentrated populations of low income residents mixed-income developments will generate an economic transformation in favor of both the city and low income residents. On the other hand, reports on the success of mixed-income communities show that communities are biased toward high-income residents especially when the success of mixed-income development plans relies not only on the rich but on low income residents meeting the standards of higher-income residents. Based on the existing conversations, Fleming concludes that even if mixed income housing worked its goal of social harmony creates a deterioration of significant diversity. While Fleming admits that all ideas of co-presence in communities lead to the assimilation of individuals he introduces Christopher Alexander’s idea of a mosaic of subcultures as the most preferable alternative because it allows for homogenous individuals to grow in a heterogeneous community.   Continue reading The Rhetoric of Mixed-Income Communities

The DCC in DC

The District of Columbia Office of Planning (OP) manages the development of the District of Columbia by preserving and revitalizing characteristic neighborhoods such as, Dupont Circle (District of Columbia Office of Planning, “About the DC Office of Planning | Mission”). OP uses historic resources research, community visioning, and the mapping and analysis of US Census data to create a Performance Plan, which exposes initiatives for improvement and emphasizes faults that hinder progress. In their website, the District of Columbia Office of Planning uses a series of analysis, reports, and documents to create a performance plan that all together depicts the why’s and how’s of the past, present, and future of Dupont Circle. While the District of Columbia Office of Planning explores Dupont Circle as a whole, this essay aims to take their conclusions and apply them to the Dupont Circle Club (DCC), an independent business in Dupont Circle.

Before analyzing the Dupont Circle Club its environment, Dupont Circle, must first be studied.  The District of Colombia is divided into eight wards. Dupont Circle resides in the second ward, which is home to some of the oldest and prestigious residential neighborhoods of the district (“About Ward 2 | Op”).  Within the ward, Dupont Circle is bounded by Connecticut Avenue NW from Florida Avenue south to K Street and P Street from Dupont Circle west to 22nd St. These boundaries encompass embassies, nonprofit organizations, think tanks, businesses, and restaurants that create an urban, historic, and diverse environment. Dupont Circle is divided into two major sub-regions, north and south, that each attract and cater to a different kind of individual. One the one hand, the fact that the two very different sub-regions attract a variety of individuals is what makes Dupont Circle’s cosmopolitan reputation.  On the other hand, an increase in rent has pushed out some of the unique independent businesses replacing them with retail chains that endanger Dupont Circles heterogeneous reputation (Retail Action Roadmap,38).

To understand why Dupont Circle has a such a unique reputation OP created a brochure that gives insight into the circles history (Dupont Circle Historic District). Dupont Circle’s enrichment began in the 1960’s when artists and young counter-culture individuals infiltrated the home of some of the wealthiest citizens of the United States. These individuals catalyzed the opening of independently owned business, specialty shops, art galleries, non-traditional bookstores, and restaurants that created a cultured environment. Another enrichment event is the arrival of the Metro because it gave less-affluent citizens of DC access to the model urbane neighborhood. This influx of citizens from the larger city gave way to the construction of affordable row houses which diversified development. Now instead of a homogenous population individuals of varied economic statuses lived side by side creating the start of a heterogeneous community.

After the second world war Dupont Circle faced developers wanting to rezone the residential community for high density use. The commercialization of Dupont Circle would have destroyed the heterogeneous environment that had developed. For this reason, the Dupont Circle Citizens Association, created by prominent citizens to protect the interests of Dupont Circle’s residents, advocated to list Dupont Circle in the National Register of Historic Places. Dupont Circle was established as a historic district in 1976 and its boundaries were amended in 2005.
In their website, OP includes a document and maps that list and illustrate the historic boundaries of Dupont Circle and the structures that contribute to it. In these maps (figures 3 and 4), it can be seen that the location of the Dupont Circle Club is a contributing structure to the historic district. According to the National Register of Historic Places, historic boundaries are determined by the following criteria: “The boundaries…include properties that contribute to a broad understanding of the architectural and historical evolution of Dupont Circle”(National Park Service). This means that if the Dupont Circle Club is listed as a contributing structure to the historic district then it must contribute to either the architectural or historical evolution of Dupont Circle.

Now that a better understanding of Dupont Circle has been reached, the Dupont Circle club can be analyzed as an independent business within Dupont Circle. What is the DCC? The Dupont Circle Club (DCC) is as a local meeting place in DC for 12-step recovery located on 1623 Connecticut Avenue. The club has resided in the building 1623 for 28 years (since November of 1989); however, the building is one of the oldest of the node as can be seen in figure3 (District of Columbia Office of Planning, Dupont Circle Historic District Dates of Construction). One the one hand, the building 1623 is architectural evidence of evolution. On the other hand, the club itself is evidence of historical evolution in Dupont Circle because it is a product of the crack epidemic that occurred in the District of Colombia in the 1980’s. Consequently, the DCC fits both criteria for being a historically contributing structure. Apart from qualifying as a historic structure the club is a big source of diversity and this can be seen in their website when it writes, “These meetings bring hundreds of people a week into the rooms of DCC. Our central location, a block north of Dupont Circle provides for a rich diversity of ethnicity, class, gender, and geographic origin, with many out-of-town visitors”(Dupont Circle Club). This means that the DCC is a contributor to the cultured and historical community that has developed in Dupont Circle, especially the north region.

The Office of Planning created a SWOT analysis of Dupont Circle’s Connecticut Avenue that lists the strengths and weakness of the area. The OP in page eleven of the report concludes the following “North of the Circle, rental price point has forced out local, specialty retailers in favor of national credit tenants, threatening this area of the Dupont sub market’s eclectic charm” (DC Retail Action Strategy,11). This means that rising rent is endangering the continuance of local independent business, like the DCC, that brand Dupont Circle. Rising rents affect some business more than others especially non profit organizations like the DCC. As a non-profit organization, the Dupont Circle Club’s success is based on outside donations. Offering a variety of payment methods and membership categories, that range from a fifty-dollar annual charge to a twenty-four-hundred-dollar annual charge, they make it very accessible for outsiders to donate. However, what happens when the donations they receive aren’t enough to sustain their expenses? Will the Dupont Circle Club be forced to relocate or will the fact that it’s a historical structure save it?

The District of Columbia Office of Planning in their website has a page dedicated to preservation grants. It details that community groups, organizations, and nonprofits whose interests are to preserve history, architecture, and memory of residential neighborhoods can apply for preservation grants from two major entities: the National Trust for Historic Preservation and the Humanities Council of Washington, DC (“Preservation Grants | Op”). This means, that as a nonprofit and historically contributing structure the Dupont Circle club can apply for preservation grants that will allow for a historically important part of Dupont Circle to remain in Dupont Circle.  




“Buffalo buffalo Buffalo buffalo buffalo [buffalo] Buffalo buffalo”

buffalo = doer, noun

[buffalo] = doing, verb

This heavily parsed but grammatically correct sentence, created in 1972 by William J. Rapaport, employs the various meanings and parts of speech for the word “buffalo”. It uses the word buffalo as the city, the animal, and the verb to bully. The sentence reads that buffalos who are bullied by buffalo are themselves bullying bison.

The [buffalo] from Buffalo who are buffaloed by buffalo from Buffalo, buffalo (verb) other buffalo from Buffalo.

Buffalo buffalo (subject and main clause) [that] Buffalo buffalo (subordinate clause) buffalo (verb and subordinate clause) buffalo (verb and main clause) Buffalo buffalo (main clause).

David Fleming concludes his City of Rhetoric by arguing that “education [should be] oriented to the ‘strong publics’ of decision making rather than the ‘weak publics’ of opinion formation” (205). For Fleming, then, composition courses, which traditionally have asked students to write as spectators, should instead have students problem solve.  In other words, education should teach students to use language to effectively present their opinions so they can then responsibly resolve conflicts that arise from their opinions instead of choosing people to resolve conflicts for them. By supplying students with what Fleming calls the procedural knowledge they can evaluate evidence and make coherent claims supported with reasons. For instance, students who posses these skills can effectively take William J. Rapaport’s heavily parsed sentence and evaluate how its form and what it means.  

I believe that Samuel R. Delany employs the use of Pathos in his documentary to explain why he has every student raise her hand when he asks a question. He tries to convince his audience of his method by creating an emotional response to the importance of recognizing self worth in the classroom. Watching the video rather than reading the prompt definitely gives the reader a clearer indication of this because in the video Professor Delany gets emotional when delivering his argument.

Code of Salutations


In his poem Tit for Tat, Christopher Morley describes what I find to be a classic relationship amongst social human interactions. Most people in their routines circle the same places over and over again. What happens when unrelated individuals routines cross paths with others repeatedly? David Lepoutre, a professor in sociology, describes what happens as a code of salutations. He explains that individuals base their social relations on a shared environment in which they physically meet. These individuals maintain a level of acquaintance within their shared environments by regularly greetings each other on the streets, even if individuals do not know each other’s names or origination. For instance, every morning on my way to high school I used to pass by the same stoplight with the same officer controlling traffic.  At first, we weren’t familiar to each other but as a routine was established not a morning went by where we didn’t exchange a friendly smile and acknowledging nod. We both know each other as the officer who controls traffic and the girl in a white honda fit. I find extraordinarily curious how life puts us in constant contact with so many people but we only form relationships with a minimal amount in comparison.

Works Cited

Morley, Christopher. Hide and Seek. George H. Doran Company, 1920.

Kaulingfreks, Femke. Uncivil Engagement and Unruly Politics: Disruptive Interventions of Urban Youth. Springer, 2016.



The Rotting of Relationships

I have found that relationships no matter how solid they may seem are subject to the effects of change. College has taught me that relationships are like teeth, if not maintained they rot and fall out; but, if they are taken care of, teeth can last a long time.  This poem, that I found on Pinterest, summarizes my experience with relationships this year at college. Relationships that I thought to be the equivalent of strong wisdom teeth turned out to be more like weak baby teeth. Relationships that I didn’t put in a lot of effort to maintain grew cavities over time and eventually rotted and fell out. Despite how much I missed these relationships new ones soon grew in their place making me forget that I missed them in the first place. It makes me question the validity of the relationships I have now that I believe to be strong. I wonder If after college since most of us will go our separate ways our relationships will also rot and like teeth, will fall out.

Annotated Bibliography 1 &2 – Dupont Circle Club

 “History.” Dupont Circle Club. Accessed February 20, 2017.

                    The Dupont Circle Club website has a page about their history. The page presents the date the Club opened, November of 1989, and that it was originally located in the building behind their current location. It explains that a group of recovering addicts who felt they needed a space to safely and reliably meet founded the club. Also, the brief article mentions that their recovery community consists of eighty-five recovery meetings a week and fifteen different 12-step associations.

This information comes directly from The Dupont Circle Club’s Website and therefore is reliable. The objective of this brief historic article is to give the audience a general idea of what the club was and what it is now and what they offer.

A key component of this investigation is observing and relating what The Dupont Circle Club was and the changes that have made it what it is today. The Dupont Circle Club website page about its History is a key element in this because it lets us now that the club originated elsewhere of its current location and it also lets people know why it moved locations to begin with. Knowing the origins of the club will help me establish a baseline for the timeline of the club and from this baseline I will be able to explore how it got to present day.

“Dupont Circle Citizens Association – About Us.” Accessed February 20, 2017.

            This website is home to Dupont Circle’s Citizens Associations (DCCA) whose slogan is “Keep it Neighborly”. The association describes Dupont Circle as one of the city’s most architecturally significant neighborhoods due to its mix of galleries, shops, restaurants, embassies, and homes. In its home page, it lists the nonprofits major goals: creating a sense of community, maintaining safety, promoting diversity of business and people, enhancing the cleanliness of the neighborhood, and preserving the historic character of the neighborhood. At the end of the page it informs the readers that it was founded in 1922 to protect the interests of the residents of Dupont Circle. It presents itself as a “the premier civic and residential organization” of the area. In a subsequent paragraph, it says that the association holds meetings nine times a year open to the public, supports innovative projects, donates to local causes, settles neighborhood issues, and runs the Dupont Circle House Tour. Additionally, in one of the menu tabs it lists the Officers and Board members for this year.

The DCCA is very involved in the affairs of Dupont Circle and its citizens and thus their website is the best place to learn about their origins, accomplishments, goals, and events. The objective of this website is to provide information about the association and invite citizens of Dupont Circle to volunteer in the associations upcoming projects and/or meetings.

This association will be key to determining what kind of lifestyle is the one that is promoted in Dupont Circle. The DCCA claims to want to improve the quality of life in an active and diverse urban neighborhood but do their initiatives really cater to all the kinds of people that Dupont Circle houses? Or does the association base their initiatives on the preferences of the power holders of the area, the affluent society. Looking at the DCCA’s initiatives and goals is going to be a good basis on how the future of Dupont Circle is going to affect the future survival of The Dupont Circle Club.

Diversity (Digital Archive #5)

Dupont Circle houses chic boutiques, trendy bars, and popular culinary attractions. This attracts a variety of people that seem to range from middle to upper class. On a Sunday morning, which is when I visited the site, Dupont Circle was filled with children, owners and their pets, couples, and groups of people. There was a jazz band set up in one of the green areas and it gave the area a very relaxed and happy mood. Alongside the benches in the green pastures people sat and chatted and enjoyed the morning peacefully. Based on the kinds of people that I saw I can conclude that Dupont Circle attracts a varied but homogenous class of middle to upper class people.

Meeting Schedule & Member Contribution Form (Digital Archive #4)


This scanned document is the two pieces of literature that are offered at the center. The first page of the first document details the times, dates, and locations of the meetings for the week. On the back page of the first document is a list of the rules of conduct of the club and the consequences for violating them. The second document is a member inscription form for those who would like to contribute monetary support to the club, since it is a nonprofit. The second document lists membership costs and fees by month and year, it also gives room for solitary donations. At the bottom of the page it explains the need for such contributions:

“membership contribution allows the Club provide a safe, clean, organized, and welcoming space for a variety of 12-Step Recovery groups, and helps assist for a prudent reserve in order to stay in Dupont Circle for the long-term.”

The club has depended on these contributions for the last twenty-eight years and continues to do so.

#WRTG_101 #blogging #brainrain #freshmanreflections