Annotated Bibliography

  1. Friedman, Samantha, et al. “Race, Immigrants, And Residence: A new Racial Geography of Washington, D.c.*.” Geographical Review, vol. 95, no. 2, 2010, pp. 210-230. JSTOR [JSTOR].

In an article published by the American Geographical Society, Samantha Friedman, Audrey Singer, Marie Price and Ivan Cheung demonstrate that since the 1980’s Washington D.C.’s racial geography has changed and settled immigrants in a very unique manner unlike other close cities like NY. The article is trying to examine how gentrification has affected independent races as immigrants, and how it affected the local minorities. The authors seek to explain further cases of, “if, for example, immigrant newcomers of African origin exhibit the same residential patterns as do Asian and European newcomers, it may be the case that African immigrants are being treated more equally by whites that are their African American counterparts” (p.215). The authors demonstrate with detail the specifics of races, religions, and nationalities (“24 percent are from Ethiopia and 14 percent are from Nigeria…)  of the immigrants that entered the city of Washington, D.C. The city tends to push its immigrants to the suburbs. Unlike other major cities like Chicago, that inhabit their less fortunate and minorities at city centers.


The specific evidence and information provided within the article that describe and map the immigrant placement and movement, between the 1980’s – 2005, within and in the suburbs of Washington D.C. Focusing on 14th Street for my research this resource can be helpful in order to explain the vast amount of cultures, races, and nationalities that collide at the busy street. Furthermore the specifics of Ethiopian Immigrants, and their increasing migration to the city, can be better explained with the previous history of how this culture has set its foot mark not only in Washington D.C., but more specifically, at the corner of 14th Street and Rhode Island, “Lalibela: Ethiopian Restaurant”. Which is truly more like a gathering point for the Ethiopian community of the city, the place felt homey and the owner, which was waiting tables, seemed very local and at home, not like a typical immigrant. The resource explains the constant relocation that is caused through gentrification or immigration to the city, helpful to understand all aspect of the culture and historic culture that is kept at 14th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 

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