- Chacko, Elizabeth. “Identity And Assimilation Among Young Ethiopian Immigrants In Metropolitan Washington*.” Geographical Review, vol. 93, no. 4, 2010, pp. 491-506.,
Elizabeth Chacko, published in 2005 a study examining the effects and specifics of second generation African Immigrants in the United States, focusing on Ethiopians (Chacko pp.491). In the article, “Identity and Assimilation Among Young Ethiopian Immigrants in Metropolitan Washington”, Chacko looks to identify the differences among second generation Ethiopians that migrated to the U.S. before the age of 12, born in the U.S., or at least have on parent that immigrated to the U.S. (Chacko pp.491-492). Washington D.C. holds 22 percent of the Ethiopian immigrants in the United States, of which the majority migrated during the 80’s and 90’s before Ethiopia experienced a military coup by the Democratic Party established in Ethiopia and who took over in 1991 (Chacko pp.491). The author goes in depth describing what takes for an immigrant to attain success in the united states to which, “the ability to identify with and feel at home in the host society has long been considered a necessary ingredient for immigrant success (Chacko pp.493). The article explains the history of African Immigrants, and the distribution of such in the Washington Metropolitan area of D.C. Maryland, Virginia, and its surrounding areas.
Understanding the displacement of the Ethiopian community and its history of migration not only to the United States but to its capital city specifically. This article explains how african immigrants successfully established themselves in the late decades of the 20th century, which is important to understand the 1st and second generations of Ethiopians that gather at “Lalibela” restaurant regularly. The following article can be helpful to understand why and where african immigrants decided to settle where they settled. It also brings to light the different nationalities that also sent many refugees and immigrants to the United States like Eritrea. The history behind the displacement and mobilization of African Immigrants in the United States, is important because it brings up questions to why different nationalities settled in different cities, states, and locations across the U.S. The article by Chacko helps the reader understand that besides migration caused through word of mouth, there are other factors that determine where a specific nationality of refugees or immigrants settle, environment, feeling of home, and welcomeness buy the local population are all factors to which affect the settlements of many immigrants. Having knowledge of how settlements arise, this article may help explaining why the specific location of Lalibela, has provided good grounds for its long time success, popularity, and respect in the neighborhood.
- Shinn, David H. “Ethiopia: The ‘ Exit Generation’ and Future Leaders.” International Journal of Ethiopian Studies, vol. 1, no. 1, 1 July 2003, pp. 21-32. JSTOR
www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/27828818?ref=search-gateway:39faa0c96342aab8042a34de3c97f5c8. Accessesed 27 Apr. 2017.
In, “Ethiopia: The “Exit Generation” and Future Leaders” by David H Shinn argues a concluded study understanding the increase in Ethiopia’s brain drain to more developed countries, such as the United States, and Western European Nations. The article states that since the Derg Government, which was toppled in 1991, Ethiopians with higher levels of education such as secondary college education tended to leave the country in search for better opportunities elsewhere (Shinn pp.21). “This analysis looks at the impact of the Brain Drain, key demographic data, the importance of democratization, and several economic and social issues that will help determine Ethiopia’s future” (Shinn pp.22). One of the main factors in establishing the future leaders of the country is the effects of the national Brain Drain, how highly educated individuals that leave the country leave for less educated and violent leaders to rise up to power. The article was first published in 2003, providing a more in depth understanding of how the strong immigration of Ethiopian nationals to the western developed world has had negative effects and stagnated development for the country.
This journal article is very useful for my research, specifically with understanding the culture and history of what pushed the strong presence of Ethiopian communities in D.C. To further understand the culture and the initial causes of the creation of the small restaurant, “Lalibela” is safe to assume to share a similar history to the one studied in this article. Through political influence, and limited opportunities the analysis within the article makes sure to explain why ethiopian immigrants tend to be highly educated and close knit communities. This is key when describing and understand a local ethnic place in the heart of Washington D.C. The same culture that is being kept alive today at this small restaurant, and in one of the new up-coming neighborhoods of the city has definitely been affected by the Brain Drain described by Shinn. When i first was attended by the owner at Lalibela i noticed the highly mannered and educated man that was not only our waiter but the owner of the restaurant. It is not hard to notice that the level of education and reason held by the owner of the small local restaurant is not of a common individual but a man of higher secondary education. Perhaps this small Ethiopian corner in 14th st D.C. is a haven to those who took education to its last level in their country but were forced, because of political instability and corruption to seek opportunities in the other side of the world.
- F., Farah, et al. “Lalibela Restaurant – Logan Circle – Washington, DC.” Yelp, Yelp, 14 Apr. 2017, www.yelp.com/biz/lalibela-restaurant-washington. Accessed 27 Apr. 2017
“My favorite Ethiopian restaurant that had great food and staff…” is the last review that was given to “lalibela” Ethiopian restaurant on the Yelp app. Out of 215 reviews Lalibela has earned itself a 3.5 star rating. The list of weekly opening hours, menu, customer, review, location, and overall experiences are all laid out in one simple page. Yelp, aims to make the best user based rating app on restaurants, shops, and most of the cities service industry not only in DC but in many cities around the world. Many tourists, locals, and experienced reviewers can all come together and give an over ruling rating on a specific location like Lalibela. The ratings aim to provide potential customers on giving them nearby locations and destinations, Yelp looks to inform its user as much as it can about its surroundings so that the user can take a conscious decision on where to spend their money and cast their dollar vote.
The following resource is helpful when looking to understand the overall people consensus about a specific place, more common to restaurants and shops. The availability for a fast and easy rating on a location makes it easy for a regular consumer to make the decision whether to visit the place or not. Being able to attain an overall understanding and rating by a destinations typical consumer or client allows for more informed consumers. This site helps us understand the specific location, in this case Lalibela’s Ethiopian Restaurant. Besides professional and academic methods of analyzing a complex local system Yelp allows consumers to take a more casual, quick, and less in depth understanding about the service a place is offering, how well it offers it, and how they are doing compared to nearby competition. Magazine articles can be biased and over all studies of a location creates and displays averages which are more like trends, Yelp is a fast and reliable source to rely one when wanting to understand the true workings and services of a specific location, like a restaurant. Having a simple 5 star rating system allows for simple reviews that are created by regular people, so it provides good evidence for when understanding what is said about a location outside the professional and experienced sectors of advertisement and reviews. Anyone can rate a place with Yelp which makes it a useful tool to understand what people are noticing when visiting the site.
- Friedman, Samantha, et al. “Race, Immigrants, And Residence: A new Racial Geography of Washington, D.c.*.” Geographical Review, vol. 95, no. 2, 2010, pp. 210-230. JSTOR [JSTOR].
In an article published by the American Geographical Society, Samantha Friedman, Audrey Singer, Marie Price and Ivan Cheung demonstrate that since the 1980’s Washington D.C.’s racial geography has changed and settled immigrants in a very unique manner unlike other close cities like NY. The article is trying to examine how gentrification has affected independent races as immigrants, and how it affected the local minorities. The authors seek to explain further cases of, “if, for example, immigrant newcomers of African origin exhibit the same residential patterns as do Asian and European newcomers, it may be the case that African immigrants are being treated more equally by whites that are their African American counterparts” (p.215). The authors demonstrate with detail the specifics of races, religions, and nationalities (“24 percent are from Ethiopia and 14 percent are from Nigeria…) of the immigrants that entered the city of Washington, D.C. The city tends to push its immigrants to the suburbs. Unlike other major cities like Chicago, that inhabit their less fortunate and minorities at city centers.
The specific evidence and information provided within the article that describe and map the immigrant placement and movement, between the 1980’s – 2005, within and in the suburbs of Washington D.C. Focusing on 14th Street for my research this resource can be helpful in order to explain the vast amount of cultures, races, and nationalities that collide at the busy street. Furthermore the specifics of Ethiopian Immigrants, and their increasing migration to the city, can be better explained with the previous history of how this culture has set its foot mark not only in Washington D.C., but more specifically, at the corner of 14th Street and Rhode Island, “Lalibela: Ethiopian Restaurant”. Which is truly more like a gathering point for the Ethiopian community of the city, the place felt homey and the owner, which was waiting tables, seemed very local and at home, not like a typical immigrant. The resource explains the constant relocation that is caused through gentrification or immigration to the city, helpful to understand all aspect of the culture and historic culture that is kept at 14th Street NW, Washington, D.C.
- Schindler, S. (2015). Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment. The Yale Law Journal, 124(1934), 2015th ser.
Comment: Sarah Schindler does a great job describing how architecture both unconsciously and consciously creates social and economic discrimination. For example she states that in Atlanta, “the lack of public-transit connections to areas North of the city makes it difficult for those who rely on transit – primarily the poor and people of color – to access job opportunities located in those suburbs”. Understanding how our built environment affects our social interactions and how it creates burrows of different races and economic conditions is the focus of Schindler’s journal. She stresses that from original plans, “cities were constructed in ways – including by erecting physical barriers – that made it very difficult for people to get from one side of town to access the other”.
This journal is important because it helps us understand how humans unconsciously/consciously build or play with housing market prices to discriminate social classes. Is it embezzled in our nature to create physical barriers to surround ourselves by people of our same social class and race? Sarah Schindler’s article is useful for my research because it explains how the actual physical barriers and distinctive locations are built and why. This helps explain the process of change through the years in , “14th and Ust. NW, Washington, D.C.” because using another city we can apply the same form of thought to this specific location. This article will help tie in all other resources that mention new restaurants or new meeting centers, from a bar, to a government building or apartment complex, schindler helps us understand the physical environment of any site.
Silverman, K. (2016). Elysium Fourteen. Elysium Fourteen, 1-14. Retrieved from https://www.streetsense.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/14thWallach_Book_141113_lo.pdf
– Kelly Silverman aims to attract the young the vibrant and the successful to the infamous “14th and U st. Corridor”. A very visual site that demonstrates through large maps and grids how the corridor is in the Mid-city of D.C. is near to 4 metro-subway lines, and how since Whole Foods’ opening in 2000, the “U-St. Corridor” is quickly becoming the most sought out destination for, “young, educated singles, residents of Metro Renters neighborhoods are just beginning their professional careers”.
The following site is a phenomenal resource for placing pin-point accurate locations when talking about the change in the last decade and a half in the specific location focused on my project the, “14th and Ust Corridor”. The site directly mentions the presence of another of my resources the, “Busboys & Poets” a high end destination that also appreciates the rich history and change of the Corridor. Kelly Silverman is speaking to the affluent young individuals who are looking for the most vibrant experience in D.C. and is trying to demonstrate it by proposing a real estate venture in the corridor for a luxury apartment complex named, Elysium. The “hip” and “trendy” name of the venture, serves the perfect example for the purpose of my project to demonstrate the change that the corridor has gone through and how that has changed its physical landscape and actual site. When mapping for the project to demonstrate the new businesses and restaurants that have risen at the location this is the best resource to look for, because of the visual representation of the site itself.
Shin, A. (2013, July 21). Gentrification in overdrive on 14th Street. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/gentrification-in-overdrive-on-14th-street/2013/07/21/d07d344e-ea5b-11e2-a301-ea5a8116d211_story.html?utm_term=.9c4be520902f
-Annys Shin quickly sets in motion in the Article to demonstrate the rapid and sudden change through gentrification in the, “formerly riot-scarred corridor”. The site has gone through an intense process of “Gentrification Overdrive” which, has lured, “investors looking for a safe place to park hundreds of millions of dollars”. “‘If you lived there in 2000, 2001, intuitively you knew things were moving in a certain direction’ Reynolds, 43, said. ‘But I never would have guessed there would be 50 restaurants, and that you couldn’t get into one on a Tuesday night”. Shin describes how the daily migration of “happy-hour” seekers is causing a resentment amongst the local population. The excess of liquor licenses has caused residents to, “propose a liquor license Moratorium”.
As described in S Street Rising by Ruben Castaneda, 14th and Ust used to foster as many as, “ three hundred smack dealers and their clients clustering late at night at the corner”(p.26). I was down there today and this is not the corner I saw, yes i was screamed at by a homeless man for taking pictures. However i can testify what Shin describes as this movement of gentrification of the upper skirt of downtown DC, once a project of drugs and low income, now becoming a popular hotspots for luxurious apartments, restaurants, and bars. This site is a good source to link to Schindler, or Castaneda since it specifically argues the case of “14th and Ust” and this “infamous corridor”. Is there a link between the sites history and amount of liquor licenses available? If so this is a good resource to look for when describing the change of the site. How maybe displaying the side of local residents, the effects of how the location is perceived as a bar, restaurant, and night seen, be upsetting and uncomfortable to live in.
Wilkinson, Richard G, and Kate E. Pickett. “Income Inequality and Social Dysfunction.” Annual Review of Sociology, vol.35, no. 2009, 6 Apr. 2009, pp. 493-511. Soc.annualreviews.org, doi: 10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-115926. Accessed 9 Apr. 2017
The authors, Wilkinson and Pickett, aim to clearly demonstrate how income inequality causes, “mental illness, violence, imprisonment, lack of trust, teenage births, obesity, drug abuse, and poor educational performance in schoolchildren are all more common in more unequal societies”. The authors are demonstrating the effects of unequal societies in a broader sense and how it affect the vast majority of populations. As stated in their abstract before the text they aim to explain how, “these relationships are likely to reflect a sensitivity of health and social problems to the scale of social stratification and status competition, underpinned by societal differences in material inequality”.
This is a good source for my research because it helps, in a more broader sense, how income inequality can tie into the changing scene of the infamous “U st Corridor”. Along with my other sites and documents arguing about how a location is built, influenced, and the specific history about my location, this site takes a step back and talks abou the effects off an unequal society, and this is easily relatable to the site one sees today at, “ 14th and U st. NW”. While popular speakeasies, nightclubs, and restaurants all prosper, there is still a site of extreme poverty at the location and this resource can help explain how the increasing gap of inequality in the United States helps explain the physical sightings of the site today. Drug users are seen walking on the same streets as affluent individuals.
- “About 14th & V.” Busboys and Poets: 14th & V, 2012, www.busboysandpoets.com/about/locations. Accessed 7 Apr. 2017
The author of the Website for the conglomeration “Busboys and Poets” establishes well why they decided to partner up with a local bookstore, “Politics & Prose” of the infamous U st. Corridor. “The U st Corridor has long been a center of DC’s cultural and activist scene with places like the Lincoln Theatre, the Howard Theatre, Ben’s Chilli Bowl, Bohemian Caverns and other historic clubs and venues serving as the hub for politics and artistry” is the first description as to why the specific location at 14th and V. Sharing values in historic culture, DC underground black culture of comedy, poetry, etc. The “Bus Boys & Poets” makes the claim that with its presence at the scene they will continue to foster the creation of urban poetry, looking to re-establish the “U-street Corridor” as it was once known, the “Black Broadway” before Harlem took over as the center for black culture, in Jazz, and other forms of music. The group is essentially trying to restore the strong presence of African American culture into the Corridor.
The following resource is useful for demonstrating how there are certain groups that see the value of the location i am focused on. This site can really go along with other texts such as the one i used for my first essay, to show that the location once had glory and it can come back, which it certainly has slowly. This resource is helpful in demonstrating the change over time of the location, and how the specific location at “U st” has cultural importance as well as historic significance.