Annotated Bibliographies 9 and 10

Asch, Chris Myers, and Derek Musgrove. “Not Gone, Not Forgotten: Struggling over History in a Gentrifying D.C.” Washington Post. Accessed April 20, 2017. https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/therootdc/post/not-gone-not-forgotten-struggling-over-history-in-a-gentrifying-dc/2012/10/18/09ad8c24-1941-11e2-b97b-3ae53cdeaf69_blog.html.

In their Not Gone, Not Forgotten: Struggling over History in a Gentrifying D.C., authors Chris Myers and Derek Musgrove are giving readers a brief history of the D.C. population demographics and are exploring the roles minorities play within communities. According to the authors, African Americans and Latinos are currently at a physical displacement and are culturally being alienated due to the effects of gentrification and changes being made within various communities such as Shaw-Howard. Through Myers and Musgroves’s use of pathos, the authors use terms such as “struggles”, “displacement”, and “battles” to express concern for minority groups and remind readers of the adversities.  The authors not only try to inform readers of the displacement, but are ultimately trying to argue that the displacement is catering to a different demographic, non-minorities and outsiders. To non-minorities and outsiders of the D.C. community, these physical changes (gentrification) and building renovations are deemed as pretty and are a clear reflection of wealth and economic status. Native Washingtonians and minorities interpret these changes as a loss, especially since there is a destruction of community property and lack of history and cultural preservation.

Image result for 7th and S street DC apartments

Renovated S street apartment

I want to use this article for my upcoming mapping commonplaces assignment. Through this article I have a better understanding of how displacement, especially within D.C., affects communities and can destroy cultural and historical preservation efforts. Myself as a D.C. resident, acknowledges the truth behind the article and also agrees that gentrification is enacting as a barrier for communities. For my upcoming assignment, I am focusing on the 7th and S street Shaw-Howard community. Within this neighborhood, various members of the the 7th and S street community are currently working on tackling this issue. Members from the local church communities donated money to help provide more low income housing complexes. However, destruction of other various properties are becoming more apparent within the neighborhood. Through this article, I will have a better understanding of how native Washingtonians, especially in Shaw-Howard, feel about gentrification and I gain a sense of perspective.

 

 

 

Shani O Hilton. “Confessions of a Black Gentrifier” Washington City Paper. Accessed April 20, 2017. http://www.washingtoncitypaper.com/news/article/13040540/confessions-of-a-black-dc-gentrifier

In her Confessions of a Black Gentrifier, author Shani O. Hilton investigates the population demographics within the African American community in D.C. and addresses how gentrification is directly affecting African Americans. Through her research, she delves into the local sceneries and explores Washington D.C. neighborhoods such as Shaw-Howard and gains insight. Within this search, Hilton addresses gentrification and how gentrification is negatively affecting the African American community. From the perspectives of native Washingtonian residents and victims of gentrification, Hilton uses their interviews to understand the drastic changes happening among the local communities and negative effects gentrification is having on the lives of African American native residents. She structures her article as blog post from the perspective of a black gentrifier exploring once predominately black communities, but now filled with non-minorities. Through her use of pathos, she utilizes terms such as “difficult”, “pressuring”, and “struggling”  to argue her point African Americans are struggling to stay afloat and remain in their communities. Through Hilton’s exploration, she learns that native residents are being pressured to leave their premises, despite the fact that most of these local residents have been apart of the community for decades and there is a growing loss of culture. Ultimately, Hilton uses this article to portray the behind the scenes of gentrification within black communities and how it personally individuals.

Image result for 7th and S street DC

Marvin Gaye Mural Located on 7th and S street

I want to use this article for my upcoming mapping commonplaces assignment. After reading this article, I feel as though I gain a sense of understanding pertaining to gentrification within communities. This is important to me especially since I live in Washington D.C. and I agree that some of the changes within my community have been negative. Also, through this article I am learning how to better relate to the Shaw-Howard community. In my mapping commonplaces assignment, I am focusing on the 7th and S street community and how this predominantly black community is trying to stay afloat. Through Hilton’s use of pathos and ethos within this article, she is reminding readers to be aware of the changes within local communities.

Standardized Testing

Teaching to the test is not a helpful to students, and should not be a preached practice in public school systems. That sort of “to the test” teaching is replacing good teaching practices with “drill and kill” rote learning. Standardized testing can increase stress, which stress is the body’s response to physical, emotional or mental pressure placed on it. According to Nicky Hayes, editor of Foundations of Psychology, he claimed stress may induce triggers in the autonomic nervous and endocrine system. Hayes claimed that common responses to exam stress would include disturbed sleep patterns, tiredness, worries, irregular eating habits, increased infections, and inability to concentrate. Also, Hayes studied cognitive impairment and reported decreased memory capacity in stressed individuals. Standardized testing is increasing the levels of stress in individuals taking exams and stress can produce inaccurate results for test takers.

Standardized testing is an inaccurate form of of measuring a student’s intelligence. Not every student is learning the same material or is placed on the same level of education. As well, an individual student may not learn or comprehend material at the same pace as another student. Standardized testing results is supposed reflect on whether a student comprehended the materials learned or was supposed to have learned in the classroom environment.

 

Citation

Hayes, Nicky. Foundations of Psychology: an Introductory Text. London, Thomson Learning, 2000.

Digital Archives Exterior and Political 5: Residential Neighborhood of 700 block of S street NW

Residential Neighborhood of the 700 block of S street

I visited the residential neighborhood 700 block of S street, around the corner of the busy 1700 block of 7th street NW. I went there to see if there was anybody who knew anything about the changes within this surrounding community. Unfortunately, I was unable to find available people. However, I observed the physical characteristics of the 700 block S street houses. The houses compared to the rest of the neighborhood are much more livelier. The row houses surrounding 714 S street NW are painted with pastel and neutral colors such as nude and a faded mint green. The buildings surrounding the 5 row houses look archaic and are deteriorating. Across the street, the buildings are of the same brownish/tannish color. The sides of the brown colored building are filled with graffiti. The houses look newer compared to the rest of the building surrounding that neighborhood.

 

Digital Archives Exterior and Political 3: Channing E. Philips Apartment Complex

Channing E. Philips renovated apartment complex

The Channing E. Philips is an apartment complex located in the 1750 7th street NW. The building is currently being renovated. However, the building so far has glass windows and a metallic outer frame. This apartment complexes are supposed to be for low income residents within the community and cater to those who make 60 percent median annual income. When the apartment is done being renovated, it should look like the Westmoreland Apartment Complex next door.

Digital Archives Exterior and Political 2: Elbo Market

 

Elbo Market located in the 1700 block of 7th street

The Elbo Market is one of the newer shops opened up within the 1700 block of the 7th street NW neighborhood. The Elbo Market was the previous location of John’s Place, a former local bar. The outer appearance of the building is simple. The overhead of the convenience store  is green with white letters which states the name of the store. There is a large sign outside on the outside of the window, which states “Now We Accept EBT”. This is a positive since the community is opening more low income housing complexes and this neighborhood is known for holding low income residents.

 

Digital Archives Exterior and Political 1: Login Cabin Liquor

Log Cabin Liquors located in 7th street

During my visit in the 1700 block neighborhood of 7th street NW, in search for John’s Place, I visited the Log Cabin Liquors store to learn more about the neighborhood. Login Cabin Liquors has been an establishment within the neighborhood for over 30 years. Even though the liquor store has been in the neighborhood for over three decades, changes within the neighborhood have been made. Due to the rise of gentrification, the cost of living went up and more long term residents were pushed out the community. The physical exterior of the building has remained the same, but other building within the community have either been renovated or demolished.

Annotated Bibliography 7 and 8

Castaneda, Ruben. “4 SLAIN, 2 HURT IN NW CLUB.” washingtonpost.com. Accessed April 13, 2017.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1990/02/25/4-slain-2-hurt-in-nw-club/24cb2a56-7514-450a-ad6e-5d084c56fede/?utm_term=.edec12c2d9b9

In his 4 SLAIN, 2 HURT IN NW CLUB, author Ruben Castaneda reports a shooting that took place in a club called John’s Place located within the 1700 block of 7th street NW. Gunmen enter the club seeking to kill one man, Robert Lee Walker. Not only was Walker shot, five more victims were shot and four of those were died from their wounds. The article describes this as “extraordinary” due to the significant number of people killed and wounded. Castaneda uses this shooting not only to inform locals of a slain, but to explain the rise of the region’s homicide rate during the 1990s. He goes the extra mile and uses examples of other local shootings to argue the seriousness of this point. Examples such as a shooting in Landover with five deaths and a shooting within NE with three deaths were mentioned within this article. To further illustrate this point, Castaneda reports that the total of homicides within that year is 83 compared to the previous year of 84. With exaggerated terms such as “spiraled upward”, Castaneda is trying to call to the readers’ attention of how serious and dangerousness of this situation. Through the use of logos, Castaneda is ultimately reminding readers how close to home this situation is.

Image result for john's place nightclub dc

The current location of John’s Place

Castaneda’s article serves great purpose for my upcoming paper within this writing course. My next major paper is focusing on the John’s Place bar, which is now no longer existent. I plan to use this article to report the previous dangers within the 1700 block of 7th street. As well, further understand how dangerous life was in D.C. during the 1990s and compare that to the present time.

 

Dvorak, Petula. “From Chocolate City to Latte City: Being black in the new D.C.” washingtonpost.com. Accessed April 13, 2017.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/from-chocolate-city-to-latte-city-being-black-in-the-new-dc/2015/10/15/c9839ce2-7360-11e5-9cbb-790369643cf9_story.html?utm_term=.0664a5f571d3

In her From Chocolate City to Latte City: Being black in the new D.C., author Petula Dvorak is calling to attention of how serious societal displacement is growing within the African American in Washington D.C. Washington D.C., formerly known as the “Chocolate City”, was home to having a large population of Black minorities. According to Dvorak, the Blacks/African Americans is decreasing to due to gentrification and societal structural changes within D.C. As well, doesn’t help much since the cost of living in D.C. is arising and the government is providing a lack of housing for long term and low income residents. The author mentions neighborhoods such as Congress Heights, known for housing numerous low-income rent controlled facilities, is now being developed to provide tourist attractions. Not only does Dvorak focus on the housing aspect, she also discussed the mistreatment African Americans are receiving. Author uses the example of an African American boy arrested for attempted robbery due to racial profiling to illustrate her point. Dvorak refers to D.C. within her article as now the “Latte City” to reiterate how displaced African Americans are within D.C. Ultimately, through the use of pathos, Dvorak is trying to remind readers of how disadvantaged and excluded African Americans are within D.C.

Image result for chocolate city dc

The Nation’s Capital

Petula’s article is calling to attention of serious issues this is. This is article is important to me because I am an African American native Washingtonian and this does affect my well being. After viewing her article, I feel as though a silent issue pertaining to my community is being addressed and there needs to be resolutions in order to solve this dilemma.

Annotated Bibliography 5 and 6

Gringlas, Sam. “Old Confronts New In A Gentrifying D.C. Neighborhood.” NPR.org. Accessed April 9, 2017. http://www.npr.org/2017/01/16/505606317/d-c-s-gentrifying-neighborhoods-a-careful-mix-of-newcomers-and-old-timers.

In his Old Confronts New In A Gentrifying D.C. Neighborhood article, author Sam Gringlas investigates the population demographics within the African American community in D.C. Through his research, he delves into the local sceneries and explores Washington D.C. neighborhoods such as Shaw-Howard and gains insight. Within this search, Gringlas addresses gentrification and how gentrification is affecting the African American community. From the perspectives of native Washingtonian residents, Gringlas uses their interviews to understand the drastic changes happening among the local communities and negative effects gentrification is having on the lives of African American native residents. Gringlas learns that native Shaw-Howard residents are being pressured to leave their premises, despite the fact that most of these local residents have been apart of the community for decades. Many of these interviewees described their experiences as being “taken advantage of”, “pressuring”, and “difficult”; causing difficulties to thrive and keep afloat. However, despite the negative effects, residents are making efforts to demonstrate closeness within communities such as having a local Thanksgiving gathering at a local community center and having church communities support low income housing complexes. Gringlas uses this article to remind readers about the effects of gentrification on the black community and through the use of interviews, readers can gain an understanding from locals experiences.

Renovated Shaw-Howard houses

After reading this article, I feel as though I gain a sense of understanding the effects gentrification can have on a local community. This is important to me especially since I live in Washington D.C. and these personal narratives have called the seriousness of gentrification to my attention. Also, through this article I am learning how to better relate to the Shaw-Howard community. Through Gringlas’ use of pathos and ethos within this article, he is invoking a message. He is reminding readers to be cautious of the changes within local communities.

 

 

 

Stein, Perry. “Is pricey Shaw a model for retaining affordability amid regentrification?” WashingtonPost.com. Accessed April 9, 2017. https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/dc-politics/is-pricey-shaw-a-model-for-retaining-affordability-amidst-regentrification/2015/05/21/912f3504-ffde-11e4-805c-c3f407e5a9e9_story.html?utm_term=.2a8e812ceb2a

 

In his Is pricey Shaw a model for retaining affordability amid regentrification?, author Perry Stein explores the possibility of protecting housing affordability in Washington D.C. neighborhoods such as Shaw-Howard. Stein uses perspectives from D.C. government officials such as Mayor Bowser and Urban Development Secretary Julian Castro to highlight this crucial. The article mentions some of the successful efforts reinforced to aid this pressing matter such as providing more housing complexes like the Channing E. Phillips apartments and other government funded projects. Stein goes on to explain how D.C. government officials agree that urban cities need to offer more “modest means of opportunities” and other financial aids such as vouchers to gap the increasing housing costs. As well, Stein addresses the effects gentrification is having on these low income communities mentions that this idea of gentrification comes from the local scenery. Officials and new locals have used words such as “incongruous” to describe some of the deteriorating and current facilities within the low income communities. Through the use of logos, Stein ultimately tries to argue that officials are trying to make positive changes in local D.C. communities within housing. However, Stein also mentions that these changes may be inevitably good, there are still drawbacks the reconstruction and deconstruction of other buildings and community acceptance of change.

Image result for shaw-howard dc gentrification

Gentrified Shaw-Howard

After viewing this article, I understand that officials are trying to accommodate housing for residents even during the gentrification changes. I will use this article to better understand the perspectives of officials and their efforts for helping to improve communities. This is important for my next paper, especially since I am focusing on the Channing E. Phillips building. This article will help me better understand the thought process government officials have for constructing low income facilities.

Commonplace 12 Policy Brief

Initially, I have always taken an interest in children welfare. I plan to devout the rest of my life working with children in nonprofit volunteerism work and within the health industry. Within this commonplace assignment, I took one of my poly briefs that I have written and planned to analyze it. This policy brief addresses school based health centers within Washington DC schools and ways to improve them. I discussed how there needs to be more programs to ensure students receive proper care. As well, these programs need to ensure students with low income background are receiving the proper care needed in order to remain healthy such as free vaccinations in public school settings. This brief is a prime example of how passionate I am pertaining to children in my local community. All children should have the opportunity to access free health care, especially in the learning environment.

 

Advocating for District of Columbia Public and Charter Schools to                                                                                                         administer vaccinations and improve school-based health centers services

 

Executive Summary:

Administering school-based vaccinations are appropriate for District of Columbia Public and Charter schools especially since there is a presence of school-based health centers (SBHC). School-based health centers are care centers within schools that provide therapeutic counseling, school nursing, and aid from social workers. SBHCs are found in all types schools, according to the American Federation of Teachers (AFT). As stated from the AFT, the primary purpose of an SBHC in a school is to improve access to necessary health care services for hard to reach and low-income students, who may refrain from required care. Several SBHCs in the US have administered vaccinations to students and doing the same for District of Columbia Public and Charter schools is necessary.

 

Background:

In the District of Columbia, health physicals and oral health assessments are required annually.  Students also must be current with their immunizations to attend school. If the proper health documents are not returned, students are not permitted within school premises until proper paperwork is received. This is a problem because hundreds of students in the District of Columbia miss school due to their lack of reported health documents. Eventually, students become behind due to the many missed days of school and possibly are held back.

 

Responses and Policy Options:

School-based health centers (SBHC) are found in all types of schools. As stated previously, the primary purpose for SBHCs is to improve access to necessary health care services for hard to reach and low-income students, who may refrain from required care. SBHCs provide services at various levels, including at individual, small-group, classroom and school levels, but generally SBHCs provide therapeutic counseling, school nursing, and aid from social workers. However, SBHCs are not restricted to just providing the services listed. Other services include:

  • Immunizations and vision and hearing screenings
  • Oral and dental hygiene services
  • Laboratory and prescription services
  • Treatment of acute illnesses
  • Access to mental health providers, counseling and behavioral risk assessments
  • Medication monitoring
  • Medical records review
  • Implementation of Individualized Health Plans
  • Development of Individualized Education Plans
  • Enrollment into public insurance programs.

As well, 67% of SBHCs provide aid to students outside of school and office hours. However, District of Columbia public and charter schools do not provide all of the services listed above. Evidence has shown schools that have provided full SBHCs services have improved student attendance rates, reduced out of class time and early dismissal rates, fostered positive learning environments, improved parent engagement, improved access to mental health, lowered depression rates, and provided confidentiality services.

 

Providing all of these services would improve District of Columbia public and charter schools and funding is not that difficult to obtain. SBHCs receive a variety of funding sources, including public and private insurance, donations and grants.

 

The Academy’s Position:

SBHCs address many of the challenges to health care access for students. Since, SBHCs are located where students spend a large amount of their time, scheduling and transportation barriers are low. SBHCs also help with financial challenges by helping to enroll eligible students in Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program and also offering free services for uninsured students. Also, SBHCs increase youth’s’ health care use, specifically for sexual health issues, drug or alcohol problems, and mental health problems, by providing convenient, immediate, and confidential care.

Surveys from students, parents, and pediatricians show that the majority of them are supportive of SBHCs and believe SBHCs increase access to healthcare for youth. In addition, authors from several studies documented that students who use SBHCs have more care visits and fewer emergency department visits than compared with those who do not use SBHCs. Overall, the American Academy of Pediatrics is in full support for SBHCs and recognize the benefits of having a SBHC with full services.

Recommendations:

All District of Columbia council represents should meet together and consider making the immediate changes.

 

References:

http://www.aft.org/linking-childrens-health-education/childrens-access-care/school-based-health-centers-sbhcs

 

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/121/Supplement_1/S46

 

http://www.cdc.gov/features/catchupimmunizations/

 

http://vaccines.procon.org/

 

http://www.nvic.org/Vaccine-Laws/state-vaccine-requirements/district-of-columbia.aspx

 

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/129/2/387