HANDBOOK FOR ESTIMATING THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF DISASTERS

AUTHOR: United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)

LAST UPDATED: 2003

TYPE OF TOOL: Handbook

KEYWORDS: humanitarian action, environmental management, United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), handbook, restoration, shelter, fuel and energy, water, impact assessment

FORMAT: Downloadable PDF document, 111 pages

LANGUAGES: English, Spanish

WEB LINK:

http://www.cepal.org/default.asp?idioma=IN (ECLAC)

http://www.recoveryplatform.org/assets/tools_guidelines/Handbook_for_Estimating_Socioeconomic2003.pdf (handbook)

ABOUT THE TOOL: “This new version of the ECLAC Handbook describes the methods required to assess the social, economic and environmental effects of disasters, breaking them down into direct damages and indirect losses and into overall and macroeconomic effects.

The Handbook focuses on the conceptual and methodological aspects of measuring or estimating the damage caused by disasters to capital stocks and losses in the production flows of goods and services, as well as any temporary effects on the main macroeconomic variables. This new edition also contemplates both damage to and effects on living conditions, economic performance and the environment.

The Handbook describes a tool that enables one to identify and quantify disaster damages by means of a uniform and consistent methodology that has been tested and proven over three decades. It also provides the means to identify the most affected social, economic and environmental sectors and geographic regions, and therefore those that require priority attention in reconstruction. The degree of detail of damage and loss assessment that can be achieved by applying the Handbook will, however, depend on the availability of quantitative information in the country or region affected. The methodology presented here allows for the quantification of the damage caused by any kind of disaster, whether man-made or natural, whether slowly evolving or sudden. The application of the methodology also enables one to estimate whether there is sufficient domestic capacity for dealing with reconstruction tasks, or if international cooperation is required.”

ABOUT THE AUTHORS: “ECLAC, which is headquartered in Santiago, Chile, is one of the five regional commissions of the United Nations. It was founded with the purpose of contributing to the economic development of Latin America, coordinating actions directed towards this end, and reinforcing economic ties among countries and with other nations of the world. The promotion of the region’s social development was later included among its primary objectives.”

INTENDED USER: Countries and communities affected by disasters; organizations responsible for assessing the social, economic, and environmental effects of disasters.

THE SPHERE HANDBOOK: HUMANITARIAN CHARTER AND MINIMUM STANDARDS IN HUMANITARIAN RESPONSE

AUTHOR: The Sphere Project

LAST UPDATED: 2011

TYPE OF TOOL: Handbook

KEYWORDS: humanitarian action, environmental management, The Sphere Project, handbook, risk reduction, shelter, water, restoration

FORMATS: Handbook available for purchase in 18 languages; open-access website available in Arabic, English, French, and Spanish; Training modules in English

LANGUAGES: Arabic, Armenian, Bangla, Braille (English), Chinese (Simplified), English, French, German, Haitian Creole, Indonesian, Japanese, Khmer, Korean, Kyrgyz, Nepali, Russian, Sinhala, Slovenian, Spanish, Tamil, Urdu, Vietnamese

WEB LINKS: http://www.sphereproject.org/handbook/ (handbook); www.SphereHandbook.org (web site)

ABOUT THE TOOL: The Sphere Handbook: Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Response, is one of the most widely known and internationally recognized sets of common principles and universal minimum standards in life-saving areas of humanitarian response.  The Sphere Handbook is designed for planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation during humanitarian response. It is also an effective advocacy tool when negotiating for humanitarian space and for the provision of resources with authorities. Furthermore, it is useful for disaster preparedness activities and contingency planning, with donors increasingly including the standards in their reporting requirements.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: In 1997, a group of humanitarian non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement initiated the Sphere Project.  The Sphere Project is a voluntary initiative that brings a wide range of humanitarian agencies together around a common aim–to improve the quality of humanitarian assistance and the accountability of humanitarian actors to their constituents, donors and affected populations.  They based Sphere’s philosophy on two core beliefs: first, that those affected by disaster or conflict have a right to life with dignity and, therefore, a right to assistance; and second, that all possible steps should be taken to alleviate human suffering arising out of disaster or conflict.

INTENDED USER: The principal users of the Sphere Handbook are practitioners involved in planning, managing or implementing a humanitarian response. This includes staff and volunteers of local, national and international humanitarian agencies. In the context of fund-raising and project proposals, the minimum standards are also frequently referred to. Other actors, such as government and local authorities, the military or the private sector, are also encouraged to use the Sphere Handbook. It may be useful in guiding their own actions, but also in helping them to understand the standards used by the humanitarian agencies with whom they may interact.

EMERGENCY SHELTER ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND ACTION CHECKLIST

AUTHOR: Global Shelter Cluster

LAST UPDATED: frequent periodic updates

TYPE OF TOOL: Guidelines

KEYWORDS: humanitarian action, environmental management, Shelter Cluster, guidelines, shelter, impact assessment, restoration

FORMAT: Downloadable Word document, 48 pages

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINKS:

https://www.sheltercluster.org/Pages/default.aspx (shelter cluster)

https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:i1zbo4hBND8J:https://www.sheltercluster.org/sites/default/files/docs/Shelter%2520Environmental%2520Impact%2520Assessment%2520and%2520Action%2520Tool.doc+&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us&client=safari (checklist)

ABOUT THE TOOL: “This Emergency Shelter Environmental Impact Assessment and Action Checklist provides emergency shelter project managers and field staff a means to:

  • Quickly assess shelter-related environmental impacts and,
  • Quickly identify practical local actions to address these impacts.

The Checklist is explicitly designed for emergency and transitional shelter situations. The Checklist does not replace (but can supplement) full and formal environmental impact assessments for permanent reconstruction of shelter or related infrastructure.

The Checklist focuses on four stages in the shelter life cycle:

  1. Selection of the shelter site
  2. Construction of buildings and infrastructure on the site,
  3. Management of the site while it is occupied, and
  4. Decommissioning (closing) of a site when it is no longer needed.”

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: The Global Shelter Cluster (GSC) is an Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) coordination mechanism that supports people affected by natural disasters and internally displaced people affected by conflict with the means to live in safe, dignified and appropriate shelter. The GSC enables better coordination among all shelter actors, including local and national governments, so that people who need shelter assistance get help faster and receive the right kind of support.

INTENDED USER:  Emergency shelter project managers and field staff

ENVIRONMENTAL ADVISOR OF THE SHELTER COORDINATION TEAM (SCT) AND RELATED GUIDANCE

AUTHOR: Shelter Cluster Team, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies(IFRC)

LAST UPDATED: 2017

TYPE OF TOOL: Knowledge platform

KEYWORDS: environmental management, Shelter Cluster Team, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies(IFRC), knowledge platform, guidelines, handbooks, shelter, restoration, risk reduction, impact assessment

FORMAT: Web site. Specific tools available primarily in English

LANGUAGES: Arabic, English, French, Portuguese, Spanish

WEB LINKS:

https://www.sheltercluster.org/Pages/default.aspx (global shelter cluster)

https://www.sheltercluster.org/sites/default/files/docs/700400-shelter_coordination_team-en-lr.pdf (guidance)

ABOUT THE TOOL: The Shelter Cluster website makes available a wide array of guidelines, planning toolkits, and handbooks related to contingency planning, settlement planning, shelter specifications, shelter programming, non-food items, cross-cutting aspects, and cluster coordination.  At the global level, the aim of the cluster approach is to strengthen system-wide preparedness and technical capacity to respond to humanitarian emergencies by ensuring that there is predictable leadership and accountability in all the main sectors or areas of humanitarian response.  Similarly, at the country level the aim is to strengthen humanitarian response by demanding high standards of predictability, accountability and partnership in all sectors or areas of activity. The cluster approach can be used in both conflict-related humanitarian emergencies and in disaster situations.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: The Global Shelter Cluster (GSC) is an Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) coordination mechanism that supports people affected by natural disasters and internally displaced people affected by conflict with the means to live in safe, dignified and appropriate shelter. The GSC enables better coordination among all shelter actors, including local and national governments, so that people who need shelter assistance get help faster and receive the right kind of support.

INTENDED USER:  This toolkit is designed for use by coordination teams deployed by the Emergency Shelter Cluster co-chairs UNHCR and IFRC to chair in-country Emergency Shelter Cluster Working Groups.

NATO Joint Environmental Protection Standards

AUTHOR: North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

LAST UPDATED: September 2011

TYPE OF TOOL: Handbook, guidelines

KEYWORDS: environmental management, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), handbook, guidelines, fuel and energy

FORMAT: documents

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINK:

http://www.nato.int (NATO)

http://www.natolibguides.info/Environment/NATO-Documents (NATO Standardization Agreement)

ABOUT THE TOOL: A Standardization Agreement (STANAG) is a NATO standardization document that specifies the agreement of member nations to implement a standard, in whole or in part, with or without reservation, in order to meet an interoperability requirement.

ABOUT THE AUTHORS: The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is a treaty-based military alliance, formed in 1949, for the collective defense of member states. “NATO’s essential purpose is to safeguard the freedom and security of its members through political and military means.”

INTENDED USER: Forces involved in NATO-led operations

HUMANITARIAN ACTION AND THE ENVIRONMENT: ESSENTIAL GUIDELINES FOR HUMANITARIAN ACTORS

AUTHOR: Joint UNEP/OHCA Environment Unit

LAST UPDATED: 2007

TYPE OF TOOL: Guidelines

KEYWORDS: humanitarian action, environmental management, Joint UNEP/OHCA Environment Unit, UNEP, OCHA, guidelines, water, shelter, impact assessment, fuel and energy

FORMAT: Downloadable PDF document, 8 pages

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINKhttp://postconflict.unep.ch/publications/IASC_leaflet.pdf (PDF)

ABOUT THE TOOL:

This document helps to explain how disasters and conflicts, as well as relief and recovery operations, may impact the environment in ways that threaten human life, health, livelihoods and security; how failure to address these risks can undermine the relief process, causing additional loss of life, displacement, aid dependency and increased vulnerability; and how disaster managers and humanitarian workers can take action to avoid this.

ABOUT THE AUTHORS: “The Joint United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/OCHA Environment Unit (JEU), housed within OCHA’s Emergency Services Branch, helps Member States to prepare for and respond to environmental emergencies.

By pairing UNEP’s technical expertise with OCHA’s humanitarian response coordination structure, the JEU ensures an integrated approach in responding to environmental emergencies.

The JEU provides independent, impartial advice and practical solutions, while working with organizations dedicated to medium and long term rehabilitation to ensure a seamless transition from emergency response to recovery.”

INTENDED USER: Disaster managers and humanitarian workers

TRAINING ON ENVIRONMENTAL EMERGENCIES

AUTHOR: Joint UNEP/OHCA Environment Unit

LAST UPDATEDtrainings offered periodically

TYPE OF TOOL: Training Course

FORMAT: On-site training course

KEYWORDS: humanitarian action, environmental management, Joint UNEP/OCHA Environment Unit, UNEP, OCHA, risk reduction, restoration, impact assessment

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINK: http://www.eecentre.org/?page_id=2653

ABOUT THE TOOL:  “The Joint UNEP/OCHA Environment Unit organizes environmental-emergencies training for international responders, as well as training to strengthen the preparedness capacity of environmental experts from national agencies and the private sector for international emergency deployments. This strengthens the international response capacity for environmental emergencies and ensures an integrated effort in the field.

Through the Environmental Emergency Centre (EEC), which is hosted by the JEU, thematic trainings have been developed on various aspects of the preparedness-and-response stages of an environmental emergency. The online training modules are free of charge, and OCHA encourages anyone interested in the topic to test their knowledge and strengthen their capacity to prepare and respond.

ABOUT THE AUTHORS: “The Joint United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/OCHA Environment Unit (JEU), housed within OCHA’s Emergency Services Branch, helps Member States to prepare for and respond to environmental emergencies.

By pairing UNEP’s technical expertise with OCHA’s humanitarian response coordination structure, the JEU ensures an integrated approach in responding to environmental emergencies.

The JEU provides independent, impartial advice and practical solutions, while working with organizations dedicated to medium and long term rehabilitation to ensure a seamless transition from emergency response to recovery.”

INTENDED USER: “The course requires that prospective candidates are suitably qualified within a specific environmental discipline (e.g., sampling, analysis, assessment) to be eligible to participate.”

FLASH ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT TOOL

AUTHOR: Joint UNEP/OCHA Environment Unit

LAST UPDATED: 2009

TYPE OF TOOL: Handbook

FORMAT: Downloadable PDF document, 78 pages

KEYWORDS: environmental management, Joint UNEP/OHCA Environment Unit, UNEP, OCHA, handbook, impact assessment

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINK: https://docs.unocha.org/sites/dms/Documents/FEAT_Version_1.1.pdf (PDF)

ABOUT THE TOOL: “The Flash Environmental Assessment Tool (FEAT) helps to identify existing or potential acute environmental impacts that pose risks for humans, human life-support functions and ecosystems, following sudden-onset natural disasters. FEAT focuses primarily on immediate and acute impacts arising from released hazardous chemicals. It can also help to identify potential long-term issues, for example those involving releases of persistent compounds. FEAT also provides information on physical impacts to the natural environment, such as soil erosion and salt water intrusion.

Based on this information, users can decide on initial risk management actions under disaster conditions. In particular, it helps users make timely and accurate requests for additional, specialized equipment or expertise to address impacts.”

ABOUT THE AUTHORS: “The Joint United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/OCHA Environment Unit (JEU), housed within OCHA’s Emergency Services Branch, helps Member States to prepare for and respond to environmental emergencies.

By pairing UNEP’s technical expertise with OCHA’s humanitarian response coordination structure, the JEU ensures an integrated approach in responding to environmental emergencies.

The JEU provides independent, impartial advice and practical solutions, while working with organizations dedicated to medium and long term rehabilitation to ensure a seamless transition from emergency response to recovery.”

INTENDED USER: Disaster response teams

ECOSYSTEMS, LIVELIHOODS, AND DISASTERS: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT

AUTHOR: International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

LAST UPDATED: 2006

TYPE OF TOOL: Handbook

KEYWORDS: humanitarian action, environmental management, International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), handbook, risk reduction, impact assessment

FORMAT: Downloadable PDF document, 40 pages

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINK:

http://www.iucn.org (IUCN)

https://www.iucn.org/content/ecosystems-livelihoods-and-disasters-integrated-approach-disaster-risk-management (PDF)

ABOUT THE TOOL: “The purpose of this publication is to provide recommendations for making disaster risk reduction strategies more effective. It proposes an approach that integrates ecosystem management, development planning and risk reduction strategies to reduce disaster impacts and improve both livelihoods and biodiversity outcomes.”

The publication is divided into three sections. The first explains why it is important to integrate ecosystems and long-term livelihood concerns into disaster risk reduction. The second section provides information about the Ecosystem Approach and how its application can contribute to reducing the risk of disasters and to alleviating the impacts of disasters when they do occur. The third section offers eight practical recommendations for implementing an integrated approach to disaster management, each of which is illustrated by one or more examples from the field.

ABOUT THE AUTHORS: “

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is a membership Union uniquely composed of both government and civil society organisations. It provides public, private and non-governmental organisations with the knowledge and tools that enable human progress, economic development and nature conservation to take place together.

Created in 1948, IUCN has evolved into the world’s largest and most diverse environmental network. It harnesses the experience, resources and reach of its 1,300 Member organisations and the input of some 16,000 experts. IUCN is the global authority on the status of the natural world and the measures needed to safeguard it. Our experts are organised into six commissions dedicated to species survival, environmental law, protected areas, social and economic policy, ecosystem management, and education and communication.

INTENDED USER: Organizations and professionals involved in humanitarian assistance and in environmental management

CONFLICT-SENSITIVE CONSERVATION (CSC): PRACTITIONERS’ MANUAL

AUTHOR: International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)

LAST UPDATED: 2009

TYPE OF TOOL: Handbook

KEYWORDS: conflict sensitivity, environmental management, International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), handbook, land and land use

FORMAT: Downloadable PDF document, 75 pages

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINK:

http://www.iisd.org (IISD)

http://www.iisd.org/pdf/2009/csc_manual.pdf (PDF)

ABOUT THE TOOL: “The purpose of the CSC manual is to provide an analytical and decision-making framework to help organizations integrate conflict sensitivity into their work, so that they can: effectively address the root causes of conflict; minimize the risk of their activities exacerbating conflict; and maximize opportunities for peacebuilding.

There are three main sections to the CSC Manual. Section 1 focuses on understanding the links between conservation and conflict. Section 2 provides guidance to conservation organizations trying to integrate conflict sensitivity into their culture and work. Section 3 is more practical, taking users through a number of tools designed to help them identify and respond to the ways that their conservation activities interact with the peace and conflict context. Finally, the Annexes provide the user with supporting materials.”

ABOUT THE AUTHORS: “The International Institute for Sustainable Development’s mission is to promote human development and environmental sustainability through innovative research, communication and partnerships.

Established in 1990, IISD is an independent, non-profit organisation that provides practical solutions to the challenge of integrating environmental and social priorities with economic development. IISD reports on international negotiations, conducts rigorous research, and engages citizens, businesses and policy-makers on the shared goal of developing sustainably.

INTENDED USER: “NGOs designing and implementing field-level conservation activities, and protected area management authorities.”