COOKING OPTIONS IN REFUGEE SETTINGS

AUTHOR: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

LAST UPDATED: December 2002

TYPE OF TOOL: Handbook

KEYWORDS: humanitarian action, environmental management, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees(UNHCR), handbook, fuel and energy

FORMAT: Downloadable PDF document, 47 pages

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINK:

http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49c3646c2.html (UNHCR)

http://www.unhcr.org/406c368f2.html  (PDF)

ABOUT THE TOOL: “This Handbook provides a summary of practical ideas for the domestic energy sector in refugee situations – a sector that probably has a greater impact on the environment than any other. It covers both proven and experimental ways in which to balance demand for energy with available supply. Acknowledging that cooking is generally the area to which refugees commit the greatest proportion of their domestic energy resources, the Handbook focuses primarily on fuels, stoves and practices that relate directly to cooking.”

ABOUT THE AUTHORS: “The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees was established on December 14, 1950 by the United Nations General Assembly. The agency is mandated to lead and co-ordinate international action to protect refugees and resolve refugee problems worldwide. Its primary purpose is to safeguard the rights and well-being of refugees. It strives to ensure that everyone can exercise the right to seek asylum and find safe refuge in another State, with the option to return home voluntarily, integrate locally or to resettle in a third country. It also has a mandate to help stateless people.”

INTENDED USER: “The Handbook is designed for programme and technical staff of UNHCR and its implementing partners, both in the field and at headquarters.”

UNHCR ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINES

AUTHOR: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

LAST UPDATED: August 2005

TYPE OF TOOL: Guidelines

KEYWORDS: humanitarian action, environmental management, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), water, fuel and energy, land and land use, impact assessment, guidelines

FORMATS: Downloadable PDF document, 51 pages

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINK:

http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/home (UNHCR)

http://www.unhcr.org/3b03b2a04.html(guidelines)

ABOUT THE TOOL: First elaborated in 1996, this updated version of the Guidelines has been compiled to further assist governments, partners and field staff in better understanding and appreciating the need for careful and consistent approaches to environmental management. There are three main objectives to these guidelines:

  • To describe the basis for incorporating environmental factors into specific UNHCR guidance/guidelines and programs. Environmental issues are cross-sectoral by nature, and environmental considerations have to be introduced in a consistent and coordinated manner into all relevant sectoral activities, as stipulated by the reformulated environmental policy approved by the 46th session of the Executive Committee of UNHCR (EXCOM 1995).
  • To provide more detailed information and the rationale behind the EXCOM policy statement.
  • To serve as an awareness-raising tool for UNHCR and other agencies involved with refugee and returnee operations.

The guidelines also seek to provide a framework within which UNHCR and implementing partner staff, in particular, will be able to:

  • Identify and evaluate the range of some of the most common environmental impacts associated with a specific refugee or returnee situation;
  • Identify and evaluate opportunities to undertake positive environmental interventions and determine the balance of advantages and disadvantages of these interventions; and
  • Select interventions that best combine the interests of the refugees, those of the receiving country, donors and UNHCR.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: “The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees was established on December 14, 1950 by the United Nations General Assembly. The agency is mandated to lead and co-ordinate international action to protect refugees and resolve refugee problems worldwide. Its primary purpose is to safeguard the rights and well-being of refugees. It strives to ensure that everyone can exercise the right to seek asylum and find safe refuge in another State, with the option to return home voluntarily, integrate locally or to resettle in a third country. It also has a mandate to help stateless people.”

INTENDED USER: UNHCR

GREENING THE BLUE HELMETS: ENVIRONMENT, NATURAL RESOURCES, AND UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS

AUTHOR: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), UN Department of Field Support (DFS), and UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO)

LAST UPDATED: May 2012

TYPE OF TOOL: Report

KEYWORDS: conflict sensitivity, humanitarian action, environmental management, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), UN Department of Field Support (DFS), UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO), report, water, fuel and energy, minerals, land and land use

FORMAT: Downloadable PDF document, 134 pages

LANGUAGES: English, French

WEB LINK:

http://www.unep.org/disastersandconflicts/Introduction/EnvironmentalCooperationforPeacebuilding/GreeningtheBlueHelmetsReport/tabid/101797/Default.aspx (UNEP site)

http://postconflict.unep.ch/publications/UNEP_greening_blue_helmets.pdf (PDF)

ABOUT THE TOOL: “This report aims to provide a comprehensive overview of how peacekeeping operations affect and are affected by natural resources and environmental conditions. The report is divided into two main parts. Part 1 reviews the environmental management of peacekeeping operations and showcases good practices, technologies and behaviors that have already been adopted. Part 2 examines the role that peacekeeping operations have played in stabilizing countries where violent conflicts have been financed by natural resources – including diamonds, gold, timber and oil – or driven by grievances over their ownership, access and control.”

ABOUT THE AUTHORS: “UNEP, established in 1972, is the voice for the environment within the United Nations system. UNEP acts as a catalyst, advocate, educator and facilitator to promote the wise use and sustainable development of the global environment. The Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) is dedicated to assisting the Member States and the Secretary-General in their efforts to maintain international peace and security. The Department of Field Support (DFS) provides dedicated support to peacekeeping field missions and political field missions.

INTENDED USER: “This report is addressed to three main sets of actors namely: policy makers at UN agencies and Member States; peacekeeping personnel including military, police, and civilian staff and senior leadership; and DFS mission support staff, including engineers, environmental officers, logisticians and other field operators.”

ENVIRONMENTAL NEEDS ASSESSMENT IN POST DISASTER SITUATIONS: A PRACTICAL GUIDE FOR IMPLEMENTATION

AUTHOR: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

LAST UPDATED: March 2008

TYPE OF TOOL: Guidelines

KEYWORDS: humanitarian action, environmental management, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), guidelines, impact assessment, restoration, fuel and energy, water, shelter

FORMAT: Downloadable PDF document, 45 pages

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINK:

http://www.unep.org (UNEP)

http://postconflict.unep.ch/publications/UNEP_PDNA_draft.pdf (tool)

ABOUT THE TOOL: “This guide is not intended to present a blueprint of how to conduct an environmental needs assessment given that practically every situation will have its own particular concerns. It should, however, help provide some proven basic guidance on:

a)      how an ENA team – or Team Leader at least – might organize themselves prior to conducting the ENA, as well as during subsequent stages of the assessment;

b)      some key issues which the ENA team and decision-makers might need to consider;

c)      approaches that should be respected during specific stakeholder consultations;

d)      how non-cluster specific cross-cutting issues and concerns such as gender and governance might be integrated into the various lines of questioning and assessments; and

e)      how the collected information might be presented in a format suitable for quick and easy reading and referral.

The guide has been designed with a view to helping people take each of the modules and adapt these, as necessary, to particular situations.”

ABOUT THE AUTHORS: “UNEP, established in 1972, is the voice for the environment within the United Nations system. UNEP acts as a catalyst, advocate, educator and facilitator to promote the wise use and sustainable development of the global environment.”

INTENDED USER: “This guide is intended for use by anyone concerned with environmental, and related, impacts occurring in a post-disaster situation. It should be of particular relevance to those interested in ensuring that environmental issues are taken into account from the earliest possible moment of planning for early recovery.”

“The ENA guide has been written with the expectation of it being used primarily by a core group of people who might constitute an Environmental Needs Assessment Team (ENAT), though in particular the ENA Team Leader.”

HANDBOOK FOR ESTIMATING THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF DISASTERS

AUTHOR: United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)

LAST UPDATED: 2003

TYPE OF TOOL: Handbook

KEYWORDS: humanitarian action, environmental management, United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), handbook, restoration, shelter, fuel and energy, water, impact assessment

FORMAT: Downloadable PDF document, 111 pages

LANGUAGES: English, Spanish

WEB LINK:

http://www.cepal.org/default.asp?idioma=IN (ECLAC)

http://www.recoveryplatform.org/assets/tools_guidelines/Handbook_for_Estimating_Socioeconomic2003.pdf (handbook)

ABOUT THE TOOL: “This new version of the ECLAC Handbook describes the methods required to assess the social, economic and environmental effects of disasters, breaking them down into direct damages and indirect losses and into overall and macroeconomic effects.

The Handbook focuses on the conceptual and methodological aspects of measuring or estimating the damage caused by disasters to capital stocks and losses in the production flows of goods and services, as well as any temporary effects on the main macroeconomic variables. This new edition also contemplates both damage to and effects on living conditions, economic performance and the environment.

The Handbook describes a tool that enables one to identify and quantify disaster damages by means of a uniform and consistent methodology that has been tested and proven over three decades. It also provides the means to identify the most affected social, economic and environmental sectors and geographic regions, and therefore those that require priority attention in reconstruction. The degree of detail of damage and loss assessment that can be achieved by applying the Handbook will, however, depend on the availability of quantitative information in the country or region affected. The methodology presented here allows for the quantification of the damage caused by any kind of disaster, whether man-made or natural, whether slowly evolving or sudden. The application of the methodology also enables one to estimate whether there is sufficient domestic capacity for dealing with reconstruction tasks, or if international cooperation is required.”

ABOUT THE AUTHORS: “ECLAC, which is headquartered in Santiago, Chile, is one of the five regional commissions of the United Nations. It was founded with the purpose of contributing to the economic development of Latin America, coordinating actions directed towards this end, and reinforcing economic ties among countries and with other nations of the world. The promotion of the region’s social development was later included among its primary objectives.”

INTENDED USER: Countries and communities affected by disasters; organizations responsible for assessing the social, economic, and environmental effects of disasters.

CAMP MANAGEMENT TOOLKIT

AUTHOR: Norwegian Refugee Council

LAST UPDATED: 2016

TYPE OF TOOL: Handbook

KEYWORDS: humanitarian action, Norwegian Refugee Council, handbook, shelter, water, fuel and energy

FORMAT: Downloadable PDF document, 596 pages (chapters may also be downloaded individually)

LANGUAGES: English, Arabic, French, Spanish

WEB LINK:

http://www.nrc.no (Norwegian Refugee Council)

http://cmtoolkit.org (tool)

ABOUT THE TOOL: “Taking a comprehensive and holistic look at camp management as a cross-cutting humanitarian sector, the Camp Management Toolkit incorporates a wide range of relevant basic information on various aspects of camp operations.

The Camp Management Toolkit is intended for both refugee and IDP situations resulting from either conflict or natural disasters. The Toolkit defines key messages and issues in relation to the roles and responsibilities of the Camp Management Agency within each of the defined areas. It also includes tools and lists of essential reading.

The Camp Management Toolkit highlights essential issues of protection and service provision in camps and camp-like settings and provides practical advice for camp management staff on how best to ensure the overall coordination and management of a camp and uphold the rights of displaced persons. It is an advisory manual and does not attempt to develop agency policies or directives. The Toolkit is written as a complement to existing sector guidelines and standards such as the Sphere Handbook, UNHCR Handbook for Emergencies, and other technical handbooks.”

ABOUT THE AUTHORS: The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) is an independent, humanitarian, non-profit, non-governmental organization, which provides assistance, protection and durable solutions to refugees and internally displaced persons worldwide.”

INTENDED USER: Those working with populations displaced by conflict or natural disasters.

NATO Joint Environmental Protection Standards

AUTHOR: North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

LAST UPDATED: September 2011

TYPE OF TOOL: Handbook, guidelines

KEYWORDS: environmental management, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), handbook, guidelines, fuel and energy

FORMAT: documents

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINK:

http://www.nato.int (NATO)

http://www.natolibguides.info/Environment/NATO-Documents (NATO Standardization Agreement)

ABOUT THE TOOL: A Standardization Agreement (STANAG) is a NATO standardization document that specifies the agreement of member nations to implement a standard, in whole or in part, with or without reservation, in order to meet an interoperability requirement.

ABOUT THE AUTHORS: The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is a treaty-based military alliance, formed in 1949, for the collective defense of member states. “NATO’s essential purpose is to safeguard the freedom and security of its members through political and military means.”

INTENDED USER: Forces involved in NATO-led operations

HUMANITARIAN ACTION AND THE ENVIRONMENT: ESSENTIAL GUIDELINES FOR HUMANITARIAN ACTORS

AUTHOR: Joint UNEP/OHCA Environment Unit

LAST UPDATED: 2007

TYPE OF TOOL: Guidelines

KEYWORDS: humanitarian action, environmental management, Joint UNEP/OHCA Environment Unit, UNEP, OCHA, guidelines, water, shelter, impact assessment, fuel and energy

FORMAT: Downloadable PDF document, 8 pages

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINKhttp://postconflict.unep.ch/publications/IASC_leaflet.pdf (PDF)

ABOUT THE TOOL:

This document helps to explain how disasters and conflicts, as well as relief and recovery operations, may impact the environment in ways that threaten human life, health, livelihoods and security; how failure to address these risks can undermine the relief process, causing additional loss of life, displacement, aid dependency and increased vulnerability; and how disaster managers and humanitarian workers can take action to avoid this.

ABOUT THE AUTHORS: “The Joint United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/OCHA Environment Unit (JEU), housed within OCHA’s Emergency Services Branch, helps Member States to prepare for and respond to environmental emergencies.

By pairing UNEP’s technical expertise with OCHA’s humanitarian response coordination structure, the JEU ensures an integrated approach in responding to environmental emergencies.

The JEU provides independent, impartial advice and practical solutions, while working with organizations dedicated to medium and long term rehabilitation to ensure a seamless transition from emergency response to recovery.”

INTENDED USER: Disaster managers and humanitarian workers

Matrix on Agency Roles and Responsibilities for Ensuring a Coordinated Multi-Sectoral Fuel Strategy in Humanitarian Settings

AUTHOR: Inter-agency Standing Committee, Task Force on Safe Access to Firewood and Alternative Energy in Humanitarian Settings (IASC Task Force SAFE)

LAST UPDATED: April 2009

TYPE OF TOOL: Guidelines

KEYWORDS: humanitarian action, environmental management, Inter-agency Standing Committee Task Force, guidelines, fuel and energy

FORMATS: Downloadable PDF documents (2 documents, 4 pages each)

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINK:

https://interagencystandingcommittee.org (website)

http://interagencystandingcommittee.org/safe-access-firewood-and-alternative-energy-humanitarian-settings/documents-public/matrix-agency (tools)

ABOUT THE TOOL: “The collection, supply and/or use of firewood and alternative energy are multi-sectoral issues, as are the consequences thereof, such as rape, murder, environmental degradation and indoor air pollution. The challenge cannot be effectively addressed by a singularly-mandated agency or cluster acting alone. The goal is to provide a practical tool for determining the priority activities to be undertaken in the development of an effective, multi-sectoral fuel strategy.  

The matrix is targeted to field-based actors from a range of response sectors: camp coordination/camp management, emergency shelter, environment/natural resource management, food/nutrition, health, information/education/communication, livelihoods/development/food security, and protection. It presents the responsibilities for the sector in three phases:

1) emergency preparedness and contingency planning

2) acute emergency

3) protracted crises, transition and durable solutions

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: “The IASC Task Force on Safe Access to Firewood and Alternative Energy in Humanitarian Settings was established by the IASC Working Group in March 2007.The guiding purpose of the Task Force is to reduce exposure to violence, contribute to the protection of and ease the burden on those populations collecting wood in humanitarian settings worldwide, through solutions which will promote safe access to appropriate energy and reduce environmental impacts while ensuring accountability.”

INTENDED USER: “The acute emergency Diagram is particularly intended for emergency response teams, site selectors/site planners and camp managers at the outset of a new emergency and, as such, focuses on only the most essential fuel-related concerns. The protracted settings Diagram is intended for all field-based actors with responsibility for determining a long-term fuel strategy.

This Matrix is targeted to field-based actors from a range of response sectors: camp coordination/camp management; emergency shelter; environment/natural resource management; food/nutrition; health; information/education/communication; livelihoods/development/food security; and protection.”

EUROPEAN UNION ENVIRONMENTAL CONCEPT FOR MILITARTY OPERATIONS

AUTHOR: European External Action Service

LAST UPDATED: September 2012

TYPE OF TOOL: Guidelines

KEYWORDS: environmental management, European External Action Service, guidelines, fuel and energy

FORMATS: Downloadable PDF document, 42 pages

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINK:

http://www.eeas.europa.eu/index_en.htm (EEAS)

http://blogg.forsvarsmakten.se/miljo/wp-content/blogs.dir/17/files/2012/09/EU-koncept1.pdf  (tool)

ABOUT THE TOOL: “The aim of this document is to establish the principles and the responsibilities to meet the requirements of environmental protection (EP) during EU-led military operations in support of the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), and to promote a common understanding of EP during EU-led operations, in order to enhance interoperability among EU Member States, between the EU and other international organizations, and with the EU’s strategic partners.

This concept provides the strategic guidance for the consideration of EP during all phases of EU-led military operations. It covers the various tasks of EP, including cultural property protection. Furthermore, the concept addresses relevant energy-related aspects, such as energy efficiency and the use of renewable energies during military operations. Finally, it provides an overview over associated activities that will enhance EP on the longer run, namely training, education and capability development. Lessons learned from preceding EU operations, as well as principles and environmental best practices of UN and NATO, are taken into account, whenever appropriate.”

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: “The European External Action Service (EEAS) assists the High Representative in ensuring the consistency and coordination of the Union’s external action as well as by preparing policy proposals and implementing them after their approval by the Council. It also assists the President of the European Council and the President as well as the Members of the Commission in their respective functions in the area of external relations and ensures close cooperation with the Member States. The network of EU delegations around the world is part of the EEAS structure.”

INTENDED USER: European Union member-state military operations