USAID WATER & CONFLICT TOOLKIT

AUTHOR: US Agency for International Development

LAST UPDATED: February 2014

TYPE OF TOOL: Handbook

KEYWORDS: environmental management, conflict sensitivity, water, United States Agency for

International Development, handbook

FORMAT: Downloadable PDF document, 52 pages

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINK:

https://www.usaid.gov/ (USAID)

https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1866/WaterConflictToolkit.pdf (tool)

ABOUT THE TOOL: “This toolkit is intended to help USAID and our partners understand the

opportunities and challenges inherent to development programming in conflicts where water is an

important issue. This document (1) explores the relationship between water, conflict, and

cooperation, (2) highlights lessons learned from relevant development and peacebuilding programs,

(3) discusses options for programming based on past USAID and development community

experiences, and (4) provides a Rapid Appraisal Guide to support officers in identifying and

evaluating the conflict risk and peacebuilding potential of water programs. Together, the elements of

this toolkit are designed to help raise awareness about the linkages between water resource

management and conflict as well as opportunities for peacebuilding and integrating a conflict

perspective into development programming.”

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: The United States Agency for International Development is ““the lead U.S.

Government agency that works to end extreme global poverty and enable resilient, democratic

societies to realize their potential.”

INTENDED USER: The tool is intended for project and program staff, in USAID and other

organizations, whose work involves the use of water or otherwise affects water resources in ways

that may create conflict risks or peacebuilding opportunities.

EU-UN GUIDANCE NOTES ON LAND, NATURAL RESOURCES, AND CONFLICT PREVENTION

AUTHOR: United Nations Interagency Framework Team for Preventive Action

LAST UPDATED: 2012

TYPE OF TOOL: Handbook

KEYWORDS: environmental management, conflict sensitivity, land and land use, water, fuel and

energy, minerals, impact assessment, United Nations Interagency Framework Team for Preventive

Action, handbook

FORMAT: Downloadable PDF files

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINK:

http://www.un.org/en/land-natural-resources-conflict/

Strengthening capacity for conflict sensitive natural resource management:

http://postconflict.unep.ch/publications/GN_Capacity_Consultation.pdf

Managing and preventing conflicts over extractive industries:

http://postconflict.unep.ch/publications/GN_Extractive_Consultation.pdf

Managing and preventing conflicts over land:

http://postconflict.unep.ch/publications/GN_Land_Consultation.pdf

Managing and preventing conflicts over renewable resources:

http://postconflict.unep.ch/publications/GN_Renewable_Consultation.pdf

Managing and preventing conflicts in resource-rich economies:

http://www.un.org/en/land-natural-resources-conflict/pdfs/Resource%20Rich%20Economies.pdf

Capacity Inventory:

http://www.un.org/en/land-natural-resources-conflict/pdfs/Capacity%20Inventory.pdf

ABOUT THE TOOL: These four guidance notes, prepared as part of a UN partnership with the

European Union, provide recommended guidelines for addressing natural resources management

and conflict prevention. The notes focus, respectively, on (1) strengthening capacity for conflict

sensitive natural resource management; (2) managing and preventing conflicts over extractive

industries; (3) managing and preventing conflicts over land; and (4) managing and preventing

conflicts over renewable resources. Each note is structured around a series of case examples and

provides additional resources and recommended reading.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: “The United Nations (UN) Interagency Framework Team for Preventive

Action (the Framework Team) is an internal UN support mechanism that promotes interagency

collaboration on early preventive action by: (i) assisting UN Resident Coordinators (RC) and UN

Country Teams (UNCT) with the development of integrated strategies for proactively working with

national partners to strengthen their capacities to mediate and manage potentially divisive issues; (ii)

serving as a forum to address key crosscutting thematic issues in the fields of conflict transformation

that are of interest to its member agencies; and (iii) supporting system-wide strengthening of conflict

prevention measures through awareness-raising, experiencesharing and knowledge development

through the UN Conflict Prevention Community of Practice (CP-CoP). Operational since 1995, the

Framework Team is currently composed of 22 UN departments, agencies, funds and programmes

that work together to support the development of interagency conflict prevention/transformation

initiatives.”

INTENDED USER: “UN and EU policy-makers and practitioners who design and implement

programmes in situations where environmental drivers are a major cause of, or contributing factor to,

conflict.”

CONFLICT SENSITIVITY TOOLKIT

AUTHOR: Trόcaire

LAST UPDATED: October 2011

TYPE OF TOOL: Handbook

KEYWORDS: conflict sensitivity, Trόcaire, handbook

FORMAT: Downloadable PDF document, 58 pages

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINK:

https://www.trocaire.org/ (Trόcaire)

https://www.trocaire.org/sites/default/files/resources/policy/conflict_sensitivity_toolkit_final_version_oct_2011_1.pdf (tool)

ABOUT THE TOOL: The tool is meant to help program staff be aware of conflict dynamics,

understand how conflict affects their programs and vice versa, and make sure that their activities do

not intensify conflict and do enhance prospects for peace. The tool contains three modules: key

conflict concepts and issues; conflict-sensitive approaches to development; and integrating conflict

sensitivity into programming.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: ‘Trócaire is an Irish charity and the overseas development agency of the

Catholic Church in Ireland. We work with partners in over 20 countries in the developing world to

empower communities to improve their lives, meet their basic needs and ensure their human dignity.

In Ireland, we raise awareness about the root causes of poverty and injustice, and advocate for

change.”

INTENDED USER: Program staff and managers seeking to take a conflict-sensitive approach within

their program activities. The tool was developed for use by Trócaire staff, particularly those working

on governance and human rights.

VULNERABILITY SOURCEBOOK

AUTHOR: adelphi and Eurpoean Academy of Bozen

LAST UPDATED: August 2014

TYPE OF TOOL: Handbook

KEYWORDS: environmental management, climate adaptation, land and land use, water, risk

reduction, adelphi, European Academy of Bozen, handbook

FORMAT: Downloadable PDF, 180 pages

LANGUAGES: English, French, Spanish

WEB LINK:

https://www.adelphi.de/en (adelphi)

http://www.bolzano.net/en/eurac.html (EURAC)

https://www.adelphi.de/en/publication/vulnerability-sourcebook-concept-and-guidelines-standardised-vulnerability-assessments (tool)

https://www.adelphi.de/en/system/files/mediathek/bilder/vulnerability_sourcebook_guidelines_for_assessments_adelphi_giz_2014-annex.pdf (annex with templates, flow charts, user forms)

ABOUT THE TOOL: “The "Vulnerability Sourcebook", which was commissioned by the Deutsche

Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) and developed jointly by adelphi and the

European Academy of Bozen (EURAC), offers a comprehensive tool for conducting regular

vulnerability assessments. The Sourcebook provides a standardised approach to vulnerability

assessments covering a broad range of sectors and topics (e.g. water sector, agriculture, fisheries,

different ecosystems) as well as different spatial levels (community, sub-national, national) and time

horizons (e.g. current vulnerability or vulnerability in the medium- to long-term). In the resourceful

annex technical and adaptation experts will find a wide range of practical tools and templates.”

ABOUT THE AUTHOR:

“adelphi is a leading independent think tank and public policy consultancy on climate, environment

and development. Our mission is to improve global governance through research, dialogue and

consultation. We offer demand-driven, tailor-made services for sustainable development, helping

governments, international organizations, businesses and nonprofits design strategies for

addressing global challenges. Our staff of more than 150 provides high-quality interdisciplinary

research, strategic policy analysis and advice, and corporate consulting. We facilitate policy dialogue

and provide training for public institutions and businesses worldwide, helping to build capacity for

transformative change. Since 2001 we have successfully completed over 800 projects worldwide.

Our work covers the following key areas: Climate, Energy, Resources, Green Economy,

Sustainable Business, Green Finance, Peace and Security, International

Cooperation and Urban Transformation.

“The European Academy Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC) is an innovative centre for applied research

and scientific training in South Tyrol. Founded in 1992 as private institution, the EURAC is divided in

9 research institutes whose activity is primarily concentrated in five fields: Applied Linguistics,

Minorities and Autonomies, Sustainable Development, Management and Corporate Culture as well

as Life Science. These five very different research departments share a common denominator:

flexible interdisciplinary and strict co-operation between the researchers of diverse scientific and

geographic backgrounds.”

INTENDED USER: Targeted at governmental and non-governmental organizations working at the

intersection of climate change and sustainable development, particularly in adaptation and

development planning. “Users of the Vulnerability Sourcebook will most likely be familiar with issues

of climate change and adaptation already. The document, however, does not presuppose advanced

scientific expertise in developing and conducting vulnerability assessments. Rather, the Vulnerability

Sourcebook is written for users with a basic understanding of the concept of vulnerability and

methods for dealing with it.”

CONFLICT-SENSITIVE BUSINESS PRACTICE: GUIDANCE FOR EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES

AUTHOR: International Alert

LAST UPDATED: March 2005

TYPE OF TOOL: Handbook

KEYWORDS: environmental management, conflict sensitivity, minerals, land and land use, fuel and

energy, water, International Alert, handbook

FORMAT: Downloadable PDF document, 195 pages

LANGUAGES: English, Spanish

WEB LINK:

http://www.international-alert.org/ (International Alert)

http://www.international-alert.org/sites/default/files/Economy_2005_CSBPGuidanceForExtractives_All_EN_v2013.pdf  (tool)

ABOUT THE TOOL: “Conflict-sensitive business practice: Guidance for extractive industries consists

of guidance on doing business in societies at risk of conflict for field managers working across a

range of business activities, as well as headquarters staff in political risk, security, external relations

and social performance departments. It provides information on understanding conflict risk through a

series of practical documents, including: introduction to conflict-sensitive business practice (CSBP),

including an overview of the regulatory; environment for doing business in conflict-risk states;

screening tool for early identification of conflict risk; macro-level conflict risk and impact assessment

tool; project-level conflict risk and impact assessment tool; special guidance on key flashpoint issues

where conflict could arise at any point during a company’s operation.”

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: “International Alert has been working for 30 years with people directly

affected by conflict to find peaceful solutions. Our vision is for a world where people seek to resolve

their differences peacefully; a world where, when people seek better lives for their families and

communities, they are able to manage any conflicts that may arise with honesty and wisdom, without

resorting to violence. Our mission is to build a more peaceful world by:

1. Working with people directly affected by conflict to find peaceful solutions.

2. Shaping policies and practices to support peace.

3. Collaborating with all those striving for peace to strengthen our collective voice and impact.

We work in over 30 countries and territories and have offices in 18 countries.”

INTENDED USER: Filed managers and headquarters staff of businesses engaged in extractive

industries, particularly in societies at risk of conflict.

POST CONFLICT NEEDS ASSESSMENT

AUTHOR: UN Development Group (UNDG)

LAST UPDATED: 2007

TYPE OF TOOL: Handbook, Guidelines

KEYWORDS: humanitarian action, handbook, UN Development Group (UNDG), guidelines, impact assessment, restoration

FORMAT: Website and downloadable PDF documents

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINK:

http://www.undg.org/content/post-crisis_transition/post-conflict_needs_assessments_%28pcna%29 (overview)

https://archive.undg.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/4937-PCNA_-_Practical_Guide_to_Multilateral_Needs_Assessments_in_Post-Conflict_situations.pdf (PCNA guidelines)

ABOUT THE TOOL: The PCNA Guidelines are comprised of two documents: The Practical Guide for Multilateral Needs Assessments in Post-Conflict Situations and The Operational Note on Transitional Results Matrices.

The Practical Guide aims to help make PCNAs more effective by systematizing the analysis and suggesting more efficient processes. In particular, it contributes to:

    • the definition of common minimum standards regarding quality, reliability and inclusiveness of the assessment;
    • a fast-track professional response by the international community when recovery planning becomes feasible; and
    • lowering the costs of PCNAs by promoting systematization and standardization.”

“The Transitional Results Matrix (TRM), also referred to as a Transitional Calendar or Results- Focused Transitional Framework (RFTF), is a planning, coordination, and management tool that national stakeholders and donors can use to better prioritize actions necessary to achieve a successful transition in fragile states. The TRM helps launch a poverty reduction strategy (PRS) approach in these environments, either by acting as an early framework to lay the groundwork for a PRS or, later, as a way to operationalize poverty reduction strategies in low capacity countries.”

ABOUT THE AUTHORS: “The UN Development Group (UNDG) unites the 32 UN funds, programs, agencies, departments, and offices that play a role in development. The group’s common objective is to deliver more coherent, effective and efficient support to countries seeking to attain internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals.”

INTENDED USER:

The Practical Guide has been prepared for:

    • Multilateral agency headquarters and in-country staff with responsibility for steering, coordinating and contributing to the PCNA;
    • The PCNA management team responsible for managing data collection, analysis and preparing the final report;
    • Cluster/sector managers and technical mission staff responsible for sectoral assessments; and
    • National authorities, conflict parties, civil society and other stakeholders contributing to the PCNA.”

The Operational Note on TRM is intended for national stakeholders and donors.

GUIDING PRINCIPLES FOR STABILIZATION AND RECONSTRUCTION

AUTHOR: United States Institute of Peace (USIP) and US Army Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute (PKSOI)

LAST UPDATED: November 2009

TYPE OF TOOL: Handbook, Guidelines

KEYWORDS: humanitarian action, United States Institute of Peace (USIP), US Army Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute (PKSOI), handbook, guidelines, restoration

FORMAT: Downloadable PDF document, 232 pages

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINK:

http://www.usip.org (USIP)

http://pksoi.armywarcollege.edu (PKSOI)

http://www.usip.org/publications/guiding-principles-stabilization-and-reconstruction (tool)

ABOUT THE TOOL: “The Guiding Principles for Stabilization and Reconstruction (S&R) manual presents the first strategic “doctrine” ever produced for civilians engaged in peacebuilding missions. It is a practical roadmap for helping countries transition from violent conflict to peace. The manual offers two important contributions: 1) a comprehensive set of shared principles and 2) a shared strategic framework. The “Strategic Framework for Stabilization and Reconstruction” is the cornerstone of the manual and is based on a validated construct of common End States, Cross-Cutting Principles, Necessary Conditions and Major Approaches.

Both the principles and strategic framework are built on the wealth of lessons that have emerged from across the peacebuilding community in past S&R missions.”

ABOUT THE AUTHORS: “The United States Institute of Peace works to prevent, mitigate, and resolve violent conflict around the world. USIP does this by engaging directly in conflict zones and by providing analysis, education, and resources to those working for peace. Created by Congress in 1984 as an independent, nonpartisan, federally funded organization, USIP’s more than 300 staff work at the Institute’s D.C. headquarters, and on the ground in the world’s most dangerous regions.

“The US Army Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute serves as the US Army’s center of excellence for stability and peace operations at the strategic and operational levels in order to improve military, civilian agency, international, and multinational capabilities and execution.”

INTENDED USER: “The primary audience for the manual is U.S. government agencies engaged in S&R missions—principally their decision makers, planners, and practitioners. At the time of this writing, these agencies ‘contributions are coordinated under the leadership of the Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization at the U.S. Department of State (S/CRS). Though not written specifically for U.S. partners and others who labor in these in these difficult environments, the manual may be of value to them as well since it is based in part on their good work. In the final analysis, it is intended to help host nations and victims of conflict rebuild shattered societies.”

PEACEMAKER’S TOOLKIT SERIES

AUTHOR: United States Institute of Peace (USIP) and United Nations Mediation Support Unit

LAST UPDATED: February 2012

TYPE OF TOOL: Handbook

KEYWORDS: conflict sensitivity, United States Institute of Peace (USIP) and United Nations Mediation Support Unit, handbook, risk reduction

FORMAT: Downloadable PDF documents

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINK:

http://www.usip.org (USIP)

http://peacemaker.un.org/mediation-support (UN Mediation Support Unit)

http://www.usip.org/publications/peacemakers-toolkit (toolkit)

ABOUT THE TOOL: This series of is a collection of “best practices” handbooks on key aspects of mediation and peacebuilding designed for experienced mediation practitioners and negotiators. Current handbooks include:

ABOUT THE AUTHORS: “The United States Institute of Peace works to prevent, mitigate, and resolve violent conflict around the world. USIP does this by engaging directly in conflict zones and by providing analysis, education, and resources to those working for peace. Created by Congress in 1984 as an independent, nonpartisan, federally funded organization, USIP’s more than 300 staff work at the Institute’s D.C. headquarters, and on the ground in the world’s most dangerous regions.

“The United Nations Department of Political Affairs’ Mediation Support Unit, established in 2006, works closely with the Department’s regional divisions to plan and support mediation efforts in the field. With the goal of supporting relevant actors to achieve a just and sustainable peace through the pacific settlement of disputes, the unit engages in and supports a wide range of operational activities  and projects and works closely with a number of partners.

INTENDED USER: “The series is being designed for experienced mediation practitioners and negotiators, but will be a valuable resource for students and policymakers.”

ENVIRONMENTAL TOOLBOX FOR DEPLOYING FORCES

AUTHOR: United States Department of Defense, Finnish Ministry of Defence, and Swedish Armed Forces

LAST UPDATED: 2013

TYPE OF TOOL: Handbook, Guidelines

KEYWORDS: environmental management, United States Department of Defense, Finnish Ministry of Defence, Swedish Armed Forces, handbook, guidelines

FORMAT: Downloadable PDF document, 42 pages

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINK: http://www.defmin.fi/files/2505/02_Heikkila_Sami.pdf (tool)

ABOUT THE TOOL: “The purpose of this work is to provide a deploying military unit—specifically the commander, the environmental officer, and soldier/sailor/airman—a toolbox of environmental training resources to plan and implement sound environmental practices. It seeks to fill a gap by suggesting common practices and offering practical guidance on environmental considerations for deploying forces. This coordinated effort to assemble environmental protection educational resources not only saves us all time and money, but also enhances future possibilities to:

  • Synchronize and harmonize procedures, thereby facilitating interoperability (including in international operations, such as those led by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the United Nations (UN), or the European Union (EU)).
  • Educate new personnel quickly and efficiently in these matters prior to deployment, and
  • Standardize environmental requirements and considerations in technical procedures.”

“The toolbox is a companion to the Environmental Guidebook for Military Operations.”

ABOUT THE AUTHORS: “The Department of Defense is America’s oldest and largest government agency. Its mission is to provide the military forces needed to deter war and to protect the security of the United States.”

“As a Government department and the ministry providing the guidelines for defense administration, the Finnish Ministry of Defence is in charge of national defense policy and security and international defense policy cooperation. In addition, the Ministry is responsible for national military defense resources and the operating framework of the Defence Forces. It coordinates Finnish participation in international crisis management and contributes to shaping the European security structures to safeguard Finland’s national interests.”

“As the only authority permitted to engage in armed combat, the Swedish Armed Forces are Sweden’s ultimate security policy resource. The Armed Forces are therefore always prepared to carry out international missions, assert Sweden’s national integrity and support Swedish society in major crises. To enable Sweden to maintain its freedom of action in terms of its security policy, the Armed Forces are continuously developing capabilities that can meet future requirements.”

INTENDED USER: The deploying military unit—specifically the commander, the environmental officer, and soldier/sailor/airman

ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDEBOOK FOR MILITARY OPERATIONS

AUTHOR: United States Department of Defense, Finnish Ministry of Defence, and Swedish Armed Forces

LAST UPDATED: March 2008

TYPE OF TOOL: Handbook, Guidelines

KEYWORDS: environmental management, United States Department of Defense, Finnish Ministry of Defence, Swedish Armed Forces, guidelines, handbook, risk reduction, impact assessment, water, land and land use

FORMAT: Downloadable PDF document, 118 pages

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINK: http://www.defmin.fi/files/1256/Guidebook_final_printing_version.pdf (tool)

ABOUT THE TOOL: “This guidebook gives operational planners the necessary tools to incorporate environmental considerations throughout the life cycle of the operation. Failure to integrate environmental considerations into operational- and tactical-level planning increases the risk to the health and safety of military personnel and civilian non-combatants. Inadvertent damage to the natural environment or to significant cultural or historic resources also complicates the attainment of the desired strategic end state through the loss of political capital, negative public image, and increased overall cost.

This document does not necessarily reflect the official policies or doctrine of any nation, but represents the combined knowledge and ideas of contributors with significant experience in this area. This document is intended to serve as an environmental guidebook to help troop contributing nations with environmental management responsibilities identify relevant environmental requirements, practices, standards, and preventive measures, with a goal of integrating them into the planning and execution of military operations in a way that enhances the readiness of the force and accomplishment of the overall mission. It provides overarching principles, guidelines, templates, and examples, which may be used by operational planners and deployed forces to achieve the overall environmental goals and objectives associated with a military operation. Within the text, links are provided to directly access additional reference material and applicable templates.”

ABOUT THE AUTHORS: “The Department of Defense is America’s oldest and largest government agency. Its mission is to provide the military forces needed to deter war and to protect the security of the United States.”

“As a Government department and the ministry providing the guidelines for defense administration, the Finnish Ministry of Defence is in charge of national defense policy and security and international defesce policy cooperation. In addition, the Ministry is responsible for national military defense resources and the operating framework of the Defence Forces. It coordinates Finnish participation in international crisis management and contributes to shaping the European security structures to safeguard Finland’s national interests.”

“As the only authority permitted to engage in armed combat, the Swedish Armed Forces are Sweden’s ultimate security policy resource. The Armed Forces are therefore always prepared to carry out international missions, assert Sweden’s national integrity and support Swedish society in major crises. To enable Sweden to maintain its freedom of action in terms of its security policy, the Armed Forces are continuously developing capabilities that can meet future requirements.”

INTENDED USER: Operational planners of national militaries