GUIDING PRINCIPLES FOR STABILIZATION AND RECONSTRUCTION

AUTHOR: United States Institute of Peace (USIP) and US Army Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute (PKSOI)

LAST UPDATED: November 2009

TYPE OF TOOL: Handbook, Guidelines

KEYWORDS: humanitarian action, United States Institute of Peace (USIP), US Army Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute (PKSOI), handbook, guidelines, restoration

FORMAT: Downloadable PDF document, 232 pages

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINK:

http://www.usip.org (USIP)

http://pksoi.armywarcollege.edu (PKSOI)

http://www.usip.org/publications/guiding-principles-stabilization-and-reconstruction (tool)

ABOUT THE TOOL: “The Guiding Principles for Stabilization and Reconstruction (S&R) manual presents the first strategic “doctrine” ever produced for civilians engaged in peacebuilding missions. It is a practical roadmap for helping countries transition from violent conflict to peace. The manual offers two important contributions: 1) a comprehensive set of shared principles and 2) a shared strategic framework. The “Strategic Framework for Stabilization and Reconstruction” is the cornerstone of the manual and is based on a validated construct of common End States, Cross-Cutting Principles, Necessary Conditions and Major Approaches.

Both the principles and strategic framework are built on the wealth of lessons that have emerged from across the peacebuilding community in past S&R missions.”

ABOUT THE AUTHORS: “The United States Institute of Peace works to prevent, mitigate, and resolve violent conflict around the world. USIP does this by engaging directly in conflict zones and by providing analysis, education, and resources to those working for peace. Created by Congress in 1984 as an independent, nonpartisan, federally funded organization, USIP’s more than 300 staff work at the Institute’s D.C. headquarters, and on the ground in the world’s most dangerous regions.

“The US Army Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute serves as the US Army’s center of excellence for stability and peace operations at the strategic and operational levels in order to improve military, civilian agency, international, and multinational capabilities and execution.”

INTENDED USER: “The primary audience for the manual is U.S. government agencies engaged in S&R missions—principally their decision makers, planners, and practitioners. At the time of this writing, these agencies ‘contributions are coordinated under the leadership of the Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization at the U.S. Department of State (S/CRS). Though not written specifically for U.S. partners and others who labor in these in these difficult environments, the manual may be of value to them as well since it is based in part on their good work. In the final analysis, it is intended to help host nations and victims of conflict rebuild shattered societies.”

PEACEKEEPER TRAINING PROGRAMME ADVANCED COURSE: NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN POST-CONFLICT COUNTRIES

AUTHOR: United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)

LAST UPDATED: Courses offered periodically

TYPE OF TOOL: Training Course

KEYWORDS: conflict sensitivity, humanitarian action, environmental management, United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), training course, restoration

FORMAT: Web-based training course (4 weeks, 8 hours per week)

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINK:

http://www.unitar.org (UNITAR)

http://www.unitar.org/event/natural-resources-management-post-conflict-countries-ptp201425e-0 (training course info)

ABOUT THE TOOL: “The goal of this course is to provide an overview of the role natural resources play in conflict environments, illustrating both positive and negative situations where natural resources have an impact on a conflict and – conversely – how the environment is impacted by conflict. The course also explores the different methods for using natural resources as entry points for building peace and strengthening governance, before giving an overview of how natural resources can be integrated into community recovery programs. Finally, it looks at the technologies, practices and habits that can be implemented to ensure that peacekeeping missions have a minimal impact on the local environment.

At the end of the course, participants will be able to:

  • Describe how natural resources can contribute to or prolong conflict as well as undermine peace;
  • Identify the principles for effective post-conflict natural resources management;
  • Relate natural resources management to other post-conflict stabilization  and state building interventions;
  • Explain how peacekeeping missions can benefit from green technologies and practices for water, energy and waste.”

ABOUT THE AUTHORS: “An autonomous UN body established in 1963, the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (www.unitar.org) is a training arm of the United Nations System, and has the mandate to enhance the effectiveness of the UN through diplomatic training, and to increase the impact of national actions through public awareness-raising, education and training of public policy officials.

UNITAR provides training and capacity development activities to assist mainly developing countries with special attention to Least Developed Countries (LDCs), Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and other groups and communities who are most vulnerable, including those in conflict situations.  The Institute covers topics in the broad areas of supporting capacity for the 2030 Agenda, strengthening multilateralism, advancing environmental sustainability and green development, improving resilience and humanitarian assistance, promoting sustainable peace, and promoting economic development and social inclusion.

It also conducts research on innovative learning approaches, methods, and tools, as well as applied research to address critical issues, such as disaster risk reduction and humanitarian emergencies.

INTENDED USERS: “Primary audience: The course is designed for national and regional military and police personnel of every rank and function serving or interested in serving in peace operations.

Secondary audience: The course also addresses a broad audience of civilians, from international and regional organizations, governmental and non-governmental organizations, universities and research centres working or interested in working with peace operations.”

FRAME TOOLKIT: FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING, MONITORING, AND EVALUATING THE ENVIRONMENT IN REFUGEE-RELATED OPERATIONS

AUTHOR: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and CARE International

LAST UPDATED: August 2009

TYPE OF TOOL: Handbooks

KEYWORDS: humanitarian action, environmental management, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), CARE International, handbook, impact assessment

FORMAT: Downloadable PDF documents

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINK:

http://www.unhcr.org/4a97d1039.html  (UNHCR)

http://www.care-international.org (CARE International)

http://www.unhcr.org/4a968ec59.html (FRAME toolkit)

ABOUT THE TOOL: “The FRAME Toolkit is intended to ensure that environmental assessments, monitoring programs and evaluations are carried out in future in a more systematic manner, along proven guidelines, through appropriate means and approaches, and that the information from each of these stages is then put to good use for improved environmental management and livelihood security of displaced persons and those who may be affected by their presence in a particular region – the hosting community.

The tools and technical guidance contained in this Toolkit is intended to complement existing materials relating to the sound management of natural resources, and plugs an important gap in the resources currently available to managers, field staff and community members.”

ABOUT THE AUTHORS: “The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees was established on December 14, 1950 by the United Nations General Assembly. The agency is mandated to lead and co-ordinate international action to protect refugees and resolve refugee problems worldwide. Its primary purpose is to safeguard the rights and well-being of refugees. It strives to ensure that everyone can exercise the right to seek asylum and find safe refuge in another State, with the option to return home voluntarily, integrate locally or to resettle in a third country. It also has a mandate to help stateless people.”

CARE International is “a leading relief and development non-governmental organization fighting global poverty. In the fiscal year 2013, CARE worked in 87 countries around the world, supporting 927 poverty-fighting development and humanitarian aid projects to reach more than 97 million people.”

INTENDED USERS: “This Toolkit has been designed for use by a range of people, in particular:

  • specialist consultants engaged to undertake one or more of the activities pertaining to the FRAME Toolkit, primarily to ensure consistency in the approaches taken and tools used;
  • UNHCR’s Implementing Partners who, once training has been provided, should naturally assume many of the tasks described;
  • UNHCR Environmental Co-ordinators or Focal Points, to understand the different processes involved so that they are able to prepare for, participate in and/or monitor progress of a particular phase or activity;
  • camp and settlement managers who should review the results from these exercises and use the analysis and results for future management purposes;
  • UNHCR management who should likewise consider how findings could be used to improve particular situations or activities;
  • government authorities, some of whom might be actually involved in some of the activities, but who should otherwise be duly informed of any recommendations or decisions stemming from an assessment or evaluation, for example; and
  • representatives from refugee and host communities – for example, members of an Environmental Committee – some of whom at least will be directly implicated in some of the activities”

COOKING OPTIONS IN REFUGEE SETTINGS

AUTHOR: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

LAST UPDATED: December 2002

TYPE OF TOOL: Handbook

KEYWORDS: humanitarian action, environmental management, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees(UNHCR), handbook, fuel and energy

FORMAT: Downloadable PDF document, 47 pages

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINK:

http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49c3646c2.html (UNHCR)

http://www.unhcr.org/406c368f2.html  (PDF)

ABOUT THE TOOL: “This Handbook provides a summary of practical ideas for the domestic energy sector in refugee situations – a sector that probably has a greater impact on the environment than any other. It covers both proven and experimental ways in which to balance demand for energy with available supply. Acknowledging that cooking is generally the area to which refugees commit the greatest proportion of their domestic energy resources, the Handbook focuses primarily on fuels, stoves and practices that relate directly to cooking.”

ABOUT THE AUTHORS: “The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees was established on December 14, 1950 by the United Nations General Assembly. The agency is mandated to lead and co-ordinate international action to protect refugees and resolve refugee problems worldwide. Its primary purpose is to safeguard the rights and well-being of refugees. It strives to ensure that everyone can exercise the right to seek asylum and find safe refuge in another State, with the option to return home voluntarily, integrate locally or to resettle in a third country. It also has a mandate to help stateless people.”

INTENDED USER: “The Handbook is designed for programme and technical staff of UNHCR and its implementing partners, both in the field and at headquarters.”

UNHCR ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINES

AUTHOR: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

LAST UPDATED: August 2005

TYPE OF TOOL: Guidelines

KEYWORDS: humanitarian action, environmental management, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), water, fuel and energy, land and land use, impact assessment, guidelines

FORMATS: Downloadable PDF document, 51 pages

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINK:

http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/home (UNHCR)

http://www.unhcr.org/3b03b2a04.html(guidelines)

ABOUT THE TOOL: First elaborated in 1996, this updated version of the Guidelines has been compiled to further assist governments, partners and field staff in better understanding and appreciating the need for careful and consistent approaches to environmental management. There are three main objectives to these guidelines:

  • To describe the basis for incorporating environmental factors into specific UNHCR guidance/guidelines and programs. Environmental issues are cross-sectoral by nature, and environmental considerations have to be introduced in a consistent and coordinated manner into all relevant sectoral activities, as stipulated by the reformulated environmental policy approved by the 46th session of the Executive Committee of UNHCR (EXCOM 1995).
  • To provide more detailed information and the rationale behind the EXCOM policy statement.
  • To serve as an awareness-raising tool for UNHCR and other agencies involved with refugee and returnee operations.

The guidelines also seek to provide a framework within which UNHCR and implementing partner staff, in particular, will be able to:

  • Identify and evaluate the range of some of the most common environmental impacts associated with a specific refugee or returnee situation;
  • Identify and evaluate opportunities to undertake positive environmental interventions and determine the balance of advantages and disadvantages of these interventions; and
  • Select interventions that best combine the interests of the refugees, those of the receiving country, donors and UNHCR.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: “The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees was established on December 14, 1950 by the United Nations General Assembly. The agency is mandated to lead and co-ordinate international action to protect refugees and resolve refugee problems worldwide. Its primary purpose is to safeguard the rights and well-being of refugees. It strives to ensure that everyone can exercise the right to seek asylum and find safe refuge in another State, with the option to return home voluntarily, integrate locally or to resettle in a third country. It also has a mandate to help stateless people.”

INTENDED USER: UNHCR

GREENING THE BLUE HELMETS: ENVIRONMENT, NATURAL RESOURCES, AND UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS

AUTHOR: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), UN Department of Field Support (DFS), and UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO)

LAST UPDATED: May 2012

TYPE OF TOOL: Report

KEYWORDS: conflict sensitivity, humanitarian action, environmental management, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), UN Department of Field Support (DFS), UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO), report, water, fuel and energy, minerals, land and land use

FORMAT: Downloadable PDF document, 134 pages

LANGUAGES: English, French

WEB LINK:

http://www.unep.org/disastersandconflicts/Introduction/EnvironmentalCooperationforPeacebuilding/GreeningtheBlueHelmetsReport/tabid/101797/Default.aspx (UNEP site)

http://postconflict.unep.ch/publications/UNEP_greening_blue_helmets.pdf (PDF)

ABOUT THE TOOL: “This report aims to provide a comprehensive overview of how peacekeeping operations affect and are affected by natural resources and environmental conditions. The report is divided into two main parts. Part 1 reviews the environmental management of peacekeeping operations and showcases good practices, technologies and behaviors that have already been adopted. Part 2 examines the role that peacekeeping operations have played in stabilizing countries where violent conflicts have been financed by natural resources – including diamonds, gold, timber and oil – or driven by grievances over their ownership, access and control.”

ABOUT THE AUTHORS: “UNEP, established in 1972, is the voice for the environment within the United Nations system. UNEP acts as a catalyst, advocate, educator and facilitator to promote the wise use and sustainable development of the global environment. The Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) is dedicated to assisting the Member States and the Secretary-General in their efforts to maintain international peace and security. The Department of Field Support (DFS) provides dedicated support to peacekeeping field missions and political field missions.

INTENDED USER: “This report is addressed to three main sets of actors namely: policy makers at UN agencies and Member States; peacekeeping personnel including military, police, and civilian staff and senior leadership; and DFS mission support staff, including engineers, environmental officers, logisticians and other field operators.”

APELL MULTI-HAZARD TRAINING KIT FOR LOCAL AUTHORITIES

AUTHOR: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

LAST UPDATED: 2010

TYPE OF TOOL: Handbook, Training Course

KEYWORDS: conflict sensitivity, humanitarian action, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), handbook, training course, risk reduction, impact assessment

FORMAT: Downloadable PDF document, 49 pages; CD-ROM

LANGUAGES: English, French

WEB LINK:

http://www.unep.org (UNEP)

http://www.unep.fr/shared/publications/pdf/DTIx1289xPA-APELLMulti-HazardTrainingKit.pdf (PDF)

ABOUT THE TOOL: “The objective of the Training Kit is to facilitate local authorities in increasing public awareness of the hazards present in their community, fostering communication between various stakeholders in the community (including the government officials, industry representatives, and the public), and developing co-operative emergency plans for their local area.

This Training Kit is a compilation of information gathered from existing materials and resources. Although extensive information on emergency preparedness for natural and industrial hazards exists, these materials tend to focus on a specific hazard type, such as industrial installations that handle hazardous chemicals, flooding, earthquakes, etc. Few existing resources addressed comprehensive emergency planning from a multi-hazard viewpoint. Recognizing this need, the Training Kit was developed so that local authorities responsible for emergency preparedness could easily access information on comprehensive emergency planning that addresses multiple hazards. The Training Kit is not meant to be a complete list of all the hazards and issues that a community may face; instead, it is meant to provide a summary of the most important principles and steps in improving emergency preparedness, as well as some of the most common hazards found worldwide. Similarly, the modules do not provide detailed guidance on technical issues such as industrial risk analysis, hydrological or meteorological assessments, or building plans for reducing structural vulnerability. Instead, it provides a brief summary of the main issues present for each hazard source or aspect of emergency planning, with additional resources for further guidance where appropriate and available.”

ABOUT THE AUTHORS: UNEP, established in 1972, is the voice for the environment within the United Nations system. UNEP acts as a catalyst, advocate, educator and facilitator to promote the wise use and sustainable development of the global environment.”

INTENDED USER: “The primary users of this Training Kit are expected to be local authorities responsible for emergency preparedness or response in countries or areas with identified natural or industrial hazards. This may include government agencies responsible for industrial safety, emergency response, environmental protection, or public health and safety. However, effective emergency planning is generally a multi-stakeholder exercise that should involve community members, local industries and businesses, expert organisations, and any other stakeholders with the potential to be affected by or provide assistance during an emergency. For this reason, any group that is interested in implementing emergency preparedness activities may find the Training Kit useful in identifying the steps they should take to do so.”

INTEGRATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN HUMANITARIAN PROGRAMMING: THE ENVIRONMENT MARKER

AUTHOR: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

LAST UPDATED: December 2012

TYPE OF TOOL: Guidelines

KEYWORDS: humanitarian action, environmental management, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), guidelines, impact assessment

FORMAT: Downloadable PDF document, 2 pages

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINK:

http://www.unep.org (UNEP)

https://www.humanitarianresponse.info/system/files/documents/files/Integration%20of%20environmental%20issues%20in%20humanitarian%20programming.pdf (tool)

ABOUT THE TOOL: This document provides a simple framework that is meant to assist humanitarian agencies and their responsible project officers in:

  • “Contextualizing projects given the environmental vulnerabilities of areas they are located in.
  • Assessing projects for potential negative environmental impacts.
  • Mitigating those impacts by modifying the project design, or compensating for negative impacts.
  • Enhancing environmental benefits in the project“

ABOUT THE AUTHORS: “UNEP, established in 1972, is the voice for the environment within the United Nations system. UNEP acts as a catalyst, advocate, educator and facilitator to promote the wise use and sustainable development of the global environment.”

INTENDED USER: Humanitarian agencies and their responsible project officers

ENVIRONMENTAL NEEDS ASSESSMENT IN POST DISASTER SITUATIONS: A PRACTICAL GUIDE FOR IMPLEMENTATION

AUTHOR: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

LAST UPDATED: March 2008

TYPE OF TOOL: Guidelines

KEYWORDS: humanitarian action, environmental management, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), guidelines, impact assessment, restoration, fuel and energy, water, shelter

FORMAT: Downloadable PDF document, 45 pages

LANGUAGES: English

WEB LINK:

http://www.unep.org (UNEP)

http://postconflict.unep.ch/publications/UNEP_PDNA_draft.pdf (tool)

ABOUT THE TOOL: “This guide is not intended to present a blueprint of how to conduct an environmental needs assessment given that practically every situation will have its own particular concerns. It should, however, help provide some proven basic guidance on:

a)      how an ENA team – or Team Leader at least – might organize themselves prior to conducting the ENA, as well as during subsequent stages of the assessment;

b)      some key issues which the ENA team and decision-makers might need to consider;

c)      approaches that should be respected during specific stakeholder consultations;

d)      how non-cluster specific cross-cutting issues and concerns such as gender and governance might be integrated into the various lines of questioning and assessments; and

e)      how the collected information might be presented in a format suitable for quick and easy reading and referral.

The guide has been designed with a view to helping people take each of the modules and adapt these, as necessary, to particular situations.”

ABOUT THE AUTHORS: “UNEP, established in 1972, is the voice for the environment within the United Nations system. UNEP acts as a catalyst, advocate, educator and facilitator to promote the wise use and sustainable development of the global environment.”

INTENDED USER: “This guide is intended for use by anyone concerned with environmental, and related, impacts occurring in a post-disaster situation. It should be of particular relevance to those interested in ensuring that environmental issues are taken into account from the earliest possible moment of planning for early recovery.”

“The ENA guide has been written with the expectation of it being used primarily by a core group of people who might constitute an Environmental Needs Assessment Team (ENAT), though in particular the ENA Team Leader.”

HANDBOOK FOR ESTIMATING THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF DISASTERS

AUTHOR: United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)

LAST UPDATED: 2003

TYPE OF TOOL: Handbook

KEYWORDS: humanitarian action, environmental management, United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), handbook, restoration, shelter, fuel and energy, water, impact assessment

FORMAT: Downloadable PDF document, 111 pages

LANGUAGES: English, Spanish

WEB LINK:

http://www.cepal.org/default.asp?idioma=IN (ECLAC)

http://www.recoveryplatform.org/assets/tools_guidelines/Handbook_for_Estimating_Socioeconomic2003.pdf (handbook)

ABOUT THE TOOL: “This new version of the ECLAC Handbook describes the methods required to assess the social, economic and environmental effects of disasters, breaking them down into direct damages and indirect losses and into overall and macroeconomic effects.

The Handbook focuses on the conceptual and methodological aspects of measuring or estimating the damage caused by disasters to capital stocks and losses in the production flows of goods and services, as well as any temporary effects on the main macroeconomic variables. This new edition also contemplates both damage to and effects on living conditions, economic performance and the environment.

The Handbook describes a tool that enables one to identify and quantify disaster damages by means of a uniform and consistent methodology that has been tested and proven over three decades. It also provides the means to identify the most affected social, economic and environmental sectors and geographic regions, and therefore those that require priority attention in reconstruction. The degree of detail of damage and loss assessment that can be achieved by applying the Handbook will, however, depend on the availability of quantitative information in the country or region affected. The methodology presented here allows for the quantification of the damage caused by any kind of disaster, whether man-made or natural, whether slowly evolving or sudden. The application of the methodology also enables one to estimate whether there is sufficient domestic capacity for dealing with reconstruction tasks, or if international cooperation is required.”

ABOUT THE AUTHORS: “ECLAC, which is headquartered in Santiago, Chile, is one of the five regional commissions of the United Nations. It was founded with the purpose of contributing to the economic development of Latin America, coordinating actions directed towards this end, and reinforcing economic ties among countries and with other nations of the world. The promotion of the region’s social development was later included among its primary objectives.”

INTENDED USER: Countries and communities affected by disasters; organizations responsible for assessing the social, economic, and environmental effects of disasters.