Annotated Bibliography

1. Abrams, Amanda. “Hill East: Capitol Hill’s Lesser Known Neighbor.” Urban Turf, 2010, http:// dc.urbanturf.com/articles/blog/hill_east_capitol_hills_lesser_known_neighbor/2331.

In this article, Amanda Abrams provides insight on the lesser known neighborhood of Hill East. She references ongoing plans to redevelop Stadium-Armory Metro Station and provides details about successful new housing projects like the already sold out Jenkins Row, Axis, The Colleen, and The Chelsea. Abrams states that Hill East is up and coming. Although, new developments are popping up, the neighborhood is far from perfect. She interviews Hill East residents who share the pros and cons of living in the neighborhood and references the family friendly amenities and schools nearby.

This source was used to explain the neighborhood of Hill East. I used some of the information as background, such as details about the upcoming developments. I also used some of the information as an argument. Most of her article explains the benefits of living in Hill East. I used this information to argue that since Hill East is an up and coming neighborhood with decreasing crime rates, Potomac Gardens no longer needs a perimeter fence.


2. Blakely, Edward J. and Mary Gail Snyder. “Separate Places: Crime and Security in Gated Communities.” Reducing Crime Through Real Estate Development and Management, edited by Marcus Felson, Urban Land Institute, 1998, pp. 53-70.

In their book, “Separate Places: Crime and Security in Gated Communities,” Edward Blakely and Mary Gail Synder use Potomac Gardens as an example of how the installation of a fence can occur without the permission or consent of residents. Soon after the installation of the fence, residents of Potomac Gardens began protesting and comparing themselves to zoo animals. Eventually protests settled down and residents grew to support the fence when drug violence and vandalism declined. Blakely and Snyder argue that while the fence may be seen as a giant cage, it can be used to prevent and stop crime.

I primarily used this source for background information. I used statistics found in the text to prove that the fence decreased drug arrests and violence in the early 1990s. I also used the residents’ initial reaction to the fence as an exhibit to show the varying opinions of the fence. I compare the initial reactions of the residents in Blakely and Snyder’s article to the current opinions of the fence found in Lydia Depullis’s article.


3. “Cambridge Row.” McWilliams Ballard, www.livecambridgerow.com/.

This is Cambridge Row’s main website. It provides information about the complex including pricing and available units. The images provided, blur and block the view of Potomac Gardens that should be visible through the windows of many of the condominiums. The website also refers to the neighborhood of Hill East as “beautiful” and “walkable.”

I use this source to explain the current redevelopment of Hill East. I also used this source as an argument: if developers built a luxury condominium complex in Hill East, then the neighborhood must not be as bad as everyone thinks. I also refer to the images found on the site. Large windows are shown in many of the images, but the view of the outside cannot be seen because the image is blurred or the window is backlit. The website purposely fails to mention that the majority of the building’s “beautiful views” include the back of Potomac Gardens.  I use the information provided on this webpage and compare it to the information found on Potomac Gardens’s website. Cambridge Row appeals to young professionals while Potomac Gardens appeals to families.


4. Depillis, Lydia. “What’s in a Fence? At Potomac Gardens, It Doesn’t Matter What Side You’re On.” Washingtoncitypaper.com, 11 March 2011. Accessed 2 October 2016.

In this article, Lydia Depillis explains the current controversy that surrounds the fence at Potomac Gardens Apartments. She explains that some residents want the fence taken down because they do not want to feel caged in their homes, while others believe the fence keeps them safe. Depillis also quotes and MPD officer who states that the fence surrounding Potomac Gardens, “gives the impression that something dangerous is going on.”

I used this source to explain the current opinions of the fence. I used the author’s interviews with residents as exhibits and as arguments for the fence to be taken down. Residents should not feel imprisoned in their own homes. I also used the MPD officer’s quote as an exhibit because it shows the real reason for the fence.


5. District of Columbia Housing Authority, 2016, http://www.dchousing.org/default.aspx.

This is the District of Columbia Housing Authority’s website. The site explains how DC public housing works and who is eligible to apply. The site provides a list of “selection preferences.” These preferences are ways low income families can reach the top of the waiting list. The DCHA website does not mention how long they have not been accepting applications or how long the waiting list actually is. When you hit “apply,” a notice pops up that says “The DCHA waiting list for housing choice vouchers and public housing is closed. DCHA will make announcements when the lists are open on this website and in the news media”

I used this source for background information. I used it to explain how DC public housing works and who is eligible to apply. I primarily used this source for my digital document description. I used this source with Petula Dvorak’s article, “In D.C., A Public-Housing Waiting List With No End.”


6. Dvorak, Petula. “In D.C., A Public-Housing Waiting List With No End.” The Washington Post, 11 Apr. 2013, www.washingtonpost.com/local/in-dc-a-public-housing-waiting-list-with- no-end/2013/04/11/6073e7d2-a2cc-11e2-9c03-6952ff305f35_story.html.

In this article, Petula Dvorak describes the waiting list for DC public housing. She provides background information as to why the list is closing and urges low income families to send in applications while they still can. Dvorak provides the wait times for specific housing accommodations. The estimated wait for a studio apartment is 39 years, while the wait for a one bedroom is 28 years. She uses the story of Kim Jones to explain the bleak process that is applying for DC public housing.

I primarily used this source for background information. I used Dvorak’s article to explain the DCHA waiting list. I also used her interview with Kim Jones as an exhibit to show the hardships faced by low income families who believe DCHA can provide them housing. I used this article with the District of Columbia Housing Authority’s website.


7. Escobar, Gabriel and Gaines-Carter, Patrice. “A Housing Complex Divided: Anti-Crime Fencing Angers Some Potomac Gardens Tenants.” The Washington Post, 14 June 1992, ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The Washington Post, http://search.proquest.com/ hnpwashingtonpost/advanced?accountid=8285.

In this article, Gabriel Escobar and Patrice Gaines-Carter interview supporters of the fence at Potomac Gardens and oppressors of the fence at Potomac Gardens. Escobar and Gaines-Carter explain the viewpoints of both groups. Supporters believe the fence is keeping them safe, while oppressors believe they are being treated like caged animals.

I used this source as background information. Escobar and Gaines-Carter provide basic information about the installation of the fence that explains why it was built in the first place. I used the interviews with fence supporters and oppressors as exhibits.


8. Kovaleski, Serge. “A Freedom of the 90s.” The Washington Post, 8 May 1994, ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The Washington Post, http://search.proquest.com/ hnpwashingtonpost/advanced?accountid=8285.

In this article, Serge Kovaleski explains the transformation that occurred at Potomac Gardens after the installation of the fence. Kovaleski provides reasons for the installation of the fence and  uses statistics to emphasize how they fence decreased crime rates

I used this source as background information. I used information regarding the transformation of Potomac Gardens after the installation of the fence to explain how the everyday lives of Potomac Gardens residents changed during the early 1990s. I also used Kovaleski’s interviews with residents as exhibits to show the varying opinions of the fence.


9. O’Donnell, Santiago. “More Than a Fence: 8-Foot Barrier Helped Cut Crime, Instill Hope at Potomac Gardens.” The Washington Post, 10 December 1992, ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The Washington Post, http://search.proquest.com/hnpwashingtonpost/ advanced?accountid=8285.

In this article, Santiago O’Donnell provides general information about the installation of the fence at Potomac Gardens Apartments. He explains the opposing view points and the controversy that surrounds the fence. He states that many teenage residents refer to Potomac Gardens as “Baby Lorton,” referencing Lorton Reformatory, a Virginia prison that closed in 2001.

I used the information O’Donnell provides about teenage residents of Potomac Gardens as both an exhibit and argument. I specifically use the quote about “Baby Lorton,” to argue that residents should not have to compare their home to a prison.


10. Perry-Brown, Nena. “The 1,267 Units Headed for Capitol Hill and Hill East.” Urban Turf, 2016, http://dc.urbanturf.com/articles/blog/the_capitol_hill-hill_east_development_rundown/ 11435.

In this article, Nena Perry-Brown provides a list of new developments in the neighborhoods of Capitol Hill and Hill East. She provides information about the redevelopment of Stadium-Armory Metro Station that is scheduled to take place sometime in the next year. The two building plan includes 400,000 square feet of retail space, 354 apartments, and 225 underground parking spaces.

I used this article as an argument. The redevelopment of Hill East is making the neighborhood nicer. I argue that developers would not chose to invest in areas that a ridden with crime. Since new developments are popping up near Potomac Gardens, the neighborhood must not be as bad as everyone believes and a prison grade fence at Potomac Gardens is no longer necessary.


11. “Potomac Gardens.” Wikipedia.org, 2016, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potomac_Gardens.

This Wikipedia page provides the basic background information for Potomac Gardens Apartments. It states the address, owner, and when the complex was built. The article also references the total number of units and how they are divided into family and senior housing. The page has an entire section dedicated to the history of Potomac Gardens and focuses on the installation of the fence and the protests that occurred shortly after.

I used this source for background information.


12. “Potomac Gardens Family.” District of Columbia Housing Authority, www.dchousing.org/.

This is a page from the District of Columbia Housing Authority’s website. The page specifically talks about Potomac Gardens Apartments. Instead of referring to the complex as an apartment building, they name the complex “Potomac Gardens Families.” The website describes the individual units as “family homes” and provides a list of nearby schools. The images that can be found on this page do not show the fence. The photographs were either taken inside of the fence or cropped so the fence is not visible.

I used this source to reference Potomac Gardens’s emphasis on creating a family friendly environment. I also mention that the images they use on their website, and mention that they do not show the fence. I use the information provided on this webpage and compare it to the information found on Cambridge Row’s website. Cambridge Row appeals to young professionals while Potomac Gardens appeals to families.


13. Sheir, Rebecca. “What Does the Future Hold for Capitol Hill’s Potomac Gardens?” wamu.org, American University Radio. 16 January 2015. Accessed 2 October 2016.

In this article, Rebecca Sheir talks about the evolution occurring in the neighborhood of Hill East. She states that Hill East is “bursting with new retail, restaurants, and bars.” Sheir emphasizes the impact Cambridge Row Condominiums development has had on Potomac Gardens residents. Many Potomac Gardens residents fear that the developers of Cambridge Row will force them to move out.

I used this article to explain the current controversy over the fence at Potomac Gardens. I use Sheir’s interviews with current residents as exhibits. I also used this article to reference the development of Cambridge Row and Hill East. I use the information about Hill East as an argument against the fence at Potomac Gardens.

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Grace Wilmeth

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