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Below is a working list of monographs, articles, memoirs, databases, and websites that examine the experience of immigrants who fought in the Civil War.

Alduino, Frank W., and David J. Coles. “Ye Come from Many a Far off Clime; And Speak in Many a Tongue”: The Garibaldi Guard and Italian-American Service in the Civil War.” Italian Americana 22, no. 1 (2004): 47-63.

Benjaminson, Eric. “A Regiment of Immigrants: The 82nd Illinois Volunteer Infantry and the Letters of Captain Rudolph Mueller.” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society (1998-) 94, no. 2 (2001): 137-80.

Bernstein, Iver. The New York City Draft Riots: Their Significance for American Society and Politics in the Age of the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Burton, William. Melting Pot Soldiers: The Union’s Ethnic Regiments. New York: Fordham University Press, 1988.

Callaghan, Daniel. Thomas Francis Meagher and the Irish Brigade in the Civil War. Jefferson, NC: McFarland 2011.

Conyngham, Daniel. The Irish Brigade and Its Campaigns. New York: Fordham University Press, 1998.

Doyle, Don H. The Cause of All Nations: An International History of the American Civil War. New York: Basic Books, 2015.

Efford, Alison Clark. German Immigrants, Race, and Citizenship in the Civil War Era. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Engle, Stephen. Yankee Dutchman: The Life of Franz Sigel. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1993.

Keating, Ryan W. Shades of Green: Irish Regiments, American Soldiers, and Local Communities in the Civil War Era. New York: Fordham University Press, 2017.

Keller, Christian B. Chancellorsville and the Germans: Nativism, Ethnicity, and Civil War Memory. New York: Fordham University Press, 2007.

Marrara, Howard R., and Howard R. Marraro. “Lincoln’s Italian Volunteers From New York.” New York History 24, no. 1 (1943): 56-67

Miller, Kerby. Emigrants and Exiles: Ireland and the Irish Exodus to North America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Pfeifer, Michael J. “The Northern United States and the Genesis of Racial Lynching: The Lynching of African Americans in the Civil War Era.” The Journal of American History 97, no. 3 (2010): 621-35.

Pivány, Eugene, Hungarians In the American Civil War. Cleveland, 1913.

Pula, James S. “Krzyzanowski’s Civil War Brigade.” Polish American Studies 28, no. 2 (1971): 22-49.

Öfele, Martin W..True Sons of the Republic: European Immigrants in the Union Army. Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2008.

Samito, Christian G. Becoming American under Fire: Irish Americans, African Americans, and the Politics of Citizenship during the Civil War Era. Cornell University Press, 2009.

Sarna, Jonathan D., When General Grant Expelled the Jews. Doubleday: New York City, 2012.

Schurz, Carl, The Reminiscences of Carl Schurz. Vol. 2. New York: The McClure Company, 1907.

Shively, Carol A, ed. Asians and Pacific Islanders and the Civil War. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service.

Swan, James B. Chicago’s Irish Legion: The 90th Illinois Volunteers in the Civil War. Chicago: Southern Illinois University Press, 2009.

Ural, Susannah, ed. Civil War Citizens : Race, Ethnicity, and Identity in America’s Bloodiest Conflict. New York: New York University Press, 2010.

Vogel, Susan Carter. Germans in the Civil War: The Letters They Wrote Home. Edited by Kamphoefner Walter D. and Helbich Wolfgang. University of North Carolina Press, 2006.

Irish in the American Civil War. Daniel Shiels. https://irishamericancivilwar.com/.

Ninth Regiment Connecticut Volunteers. http://www.ninthregimentcv.com/index.html

Vesterheim, The National Norwegian- American Museum & Heritage Center.