Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography 9 and 10



Ledbetter, Danielle. “Is D.C. Still the Chocolate City?” Truth Be Told, 10 Nov. 2015,

In their article Is D.C. Still The Chocolate City authors Danielle Ledbetter and Kaylah Waite give the history of Washington D.C. being one of the “blackest” cities in the United States since the 1970s this reiterating the fact that was is seen today does not match the history of what D.C. has been. Ledbetter and Waite explaining the story behind the nickname of “Chocolate City” for the nation’s capital explaining how the Shaw area was “booming” with black businesses. There are such phrases as “white flight” “The Plan” and “take back” explaining how the idea of white families and individuals moving into areas such as Shaw has been something that has been occurring since the 1950s. The idea of displacement then has is not a new twenty-first century phenomenon rather, it has been happening is the dawn of the “Chocolate City” era and now the population has just gotten larger. Phrases such as “black constituents” are used to explain in thorough detail of the mass of minority individuals and families that walked around the areas where nowadays might not be more than a handful of minority families in sight.

I would use this particular article for the statistics that has within in to help the reader actually visualize the differences throughout the years of the displacement that has gone on in areas such as Shaw. Having such article use the nickname of “Chocolate City” to be the name of almost surprising and knowing the story behind that is an important part of the telling the stories of my built-in environment.



Schwartzman, Paul. “A Bittersweet Renaissance.” The Washington Post, 23 Feb. 2006.,

In this 2006 article, Bittersweet Renaissance Paul Schwartzman interviews natives of Washington D.C. neighborhoods such as Shaw giving them a way to discuss the changes they have seen in they have seen in their neighborhoods and the effects of such changes. Schwartzman breaks down such interviews into subsections that help the reader understand the processes of the changes. When it comes to the “Vanishing Culture” the idea and power of money when it comes to the changing of the neighborhoods around the metropolitan area and the impact it has not only on the people but also on the areas history.

I plan on using this as part of my multimodal final project as direct quotes to help the audience understand the standpoint that many natives have concerning the changes in their area.  To have different direct statements and testimonies from natives that grew up in the area before and after the changes that it is undergoing would help my audience understand that this is a serious matter that affects individuals greatly.

Annotated Bibliography 7&8



 Johnson, Jenna. “Warring Gangs in District’s Shaw Neighborhood Declare Truce.” The Washington Post, 9 June 2007.,

In this article, Johnson’s main argument relates to commenting on the two-infamous gangs in the 5th and O and 7th and O intersection of the Shaw Area. Though they are intersecting the crew’s rivalries have a long history and tension goes back to the beginning of the cocaine epidemic in the 80s. I plan to use this article to demonstrate how Johnson brings the result of the warring gang violence between the 5th and 7th that has been going on for decades, the older members of opposing crews with the help of their community leaders are trying to find a truce. As the veteran crew members state in the article, “As much as people want to blame the youth, it really is us taking the lead and steering them in the right direction.” The author interviewed a that describes the area when entering it as a “war zone.” Johnson shares the encouraging shift of feelings on both sides, where what is more important to them at this point is keeping the “peace” and as a result the safety of everyone in the area.

This article gave me an entrance to think about how what occurs in 5th and O area and look at this intersection affects everything as a whole. At the end of it all, Shaw is an area with families full of children running around during the Spring and Summer enjoying themselves and walking to the nearby library during the school year for their afterschool programs. The thought of the Shaw Area being a ghetto with gang violence is just one side of the story. The only way to break such stereotypes that individuals believe for so many years and as a result has inclined them to stay away from is to first-hand experience it and ask questions.



Myers, Chris and Musgrove, George. “Not Gone, Not Forgotten: Struggling over History in a Gentrifying D.C.” Washington Post, Accessed 13 Apr. 2017.

In their Not Gone, Not Forgotten: Struggling over History in a Gentrifying D.C. authors Chris Myers and Derek Musgrove give a brief history concerning displacement of certain groups of people, mainly African Americans and Latinos in the D.C. area (one area being Shaw my location for this project). The authors use words, such as “history” “struggling”  “fear” and “fighting” to highlight what the minority groups are going through when it comes to being physically displaced.

I want to use Myers and Musgrove’s article for my essay for the portion of history and the importance of having the voices of the natives to be heard and also it demonstrates what is going on in areas such as 7th & O Shaw is the physical removal of the people that were forced to be there in some cases in the first place. Though those natives understand that there will be circumstances where they can no longer live there, they do not want their history to be forgotten at the end of the day.

Annotated Bibliography 5 & 6



Hermanm, Peter. “D.C. Police Arrest Suspect in Fatal Shooting during Dice Game in Shaw.” Washington Post, Accessed 10 Apr. 2017.

This article will be the most recent shooting that I will be using within my final paper. The article is about a teenager, Marcus Martin, who was charged for first degree murder. He, and two other people, were looking to rob people when they noticed some people gambling in a parking lot, those people were teenagers as well only playing dice. In this article I can show my readers the chaos that is occurring in the streets around 7th and O St.

In my final paper, I think it is important to show other crime that has been occurring throughout the Shaw neighborhood. I talk a lot about the insurrections that went on after the Martin Luther King Jr. murder and I write about the crime that happened during and before that, but talking about current news is also important. What I will show is that nevertheless of a gentrified area and regardless of how much safer it is now then what it is used to be, there will still always be terrible acts.


Meyer, Eugene L. “Washington’s Shaw Neighborhood Is Remade for Young Urbanites.” The New York Times, 1 Dec. 2015.,

This article from the New York Times is probably one of the most recently published articles that I used. It talks about a lot of statistics of people that lived in Shaw and the people that are living there currently. It describes the segregation of African Americans and whites in the past and tells the readers how was considered to be “Black Broadway”, with many famous African American performers such as Duke Ellington and Pearl Bailey.

I plan to use this information into my final paper by using the statistics described in the New York Times article. One quote from my paper that was one of the most important facts was the case study which showed “the percentage of households earning less than $40,000 ($20,000 for single people) dropped to 30 percents from 47 percent from 2002 to 2013” ( I continued to use this article to describe the newly gentrified, segregated Shaw neighborhood.

Annotated Bibliography 2

  1. Argument“Three Men Shot in Shaw, Police Say.” NBC4 Washington, Accessed 27 Mar. 2017.

    Although this is a short article, I believe it is important because it outweighs the quantity. For the entire course of the semester, I have been looking at a shooting that occurred many years ago on 7th and O Street in Shaw. A little over a year ago, there was another shooting that saw three men being shot right outside the what was then just a market. The buildings seems to be a place where death occurs and using more information of another shooting at the same location seems quite for the paper.

    I have been doing research about a Giant-turned grocery store (building). I was reading about how someone decided to shoot up the inside of a supermarket and then outside as well. This article seems to change things up quite a bit. It clearly explains how the Giant is becoming a symbol of violence and death in my eyes and incorporating this into my paper is important as it shows that even in a gentrified area, crime still does occur.

Image from Areavibes

2. Background

Shaw, Washington, DC Crime Rates & Statistics. Accessed 27 March 26, 2017.

In my essay I plan to use this great website for looking up the statistics of crime throughout DC and compare it to other cities that are going through the same process. You can find facts about what kind of crime occurs throughout the day, you can compare cities and neighborhoods to others alike, and you can find other things such as the cost of living, education, and housing on an A through F grading system. Overall, this is a good website to use, and particularly for me because crime is an important characteristic on how a neighborhood consists of.

I plan to use the Areavibes website because I believe it is a good way to how sums up what gentrification has done for Shaw. I never state if what is occurring is a good or bad thing, I simply just lay down the facts of what is going on. I discovered and wrote in my paper how crime rate has gone throughout the years because the different scenarios that have taken place down in Shaw over the years.


Annotated Bibliography #1

  1. Background

Boese, Kent. Then and Now: The O Street Market. Accessed 19 Feb. 2017.

This article mentions how the building became a market and it is because Boss Sheperd destroyed the original Northern Liberty market and then, vendors selected the land of 7th and O Street to sell. Furthermore, it debates the architecture of the building and how at first it stable and then with time it tumbled after not only all the social dilemmas, but because of a blizzard, which caused the roof to collapse in 2003

I plan to use this article to support my claims and to look more into how the land was developed into the O Street Market and through the years see all the architectural changes and how they acquired more land to expand. This article is key to start my investigation on the real estate of the neighborhood and maybe this will help me find a linkage between what Marc Fisher discuses in his article about the community. Because as read in class sometimes the architectural appearance of places tend to form the behavior of a place.

  1. Exhibit

Fisher, Marc. “O Street Market: Symbol of Violence Becomes a Marker for D.C.’s Resurgence.” Washington Post, Accessed 19 Feb. 2017.

The article was written in 2013 and published by The Washington Post and it uses other articles published by them years before. It mentions the original O Street Market was abandoned, how the building has been bought by the City Market company and renovated to up bring the community in Shaw, and how with all the renovation and difference of people, whose neighborhood it is. I learned that in every corner of that neighborhood there were dealers and that the area of O Street was full of crime and that in March 31, 1994, a shooting occurred outside the market and eight people were shot including a toddler, FBI security guards, elderly women, and a fifteen-year-old kid was dead.

I plan to use this article because it recollects how the community that lived in Shaw felt in 1994 with all the drug war and in 2016 with all the renovations and development. The writer interviews Karen A’Vant, which is the mother of a victim of the shooting and she recalls how unsafe the neighborhood was, but still they were all a community and now she doesn’t live there, but when she visits it doesn’t feel the same and it’s because it used some a predominantly African-American neighborhood and know it is predominantly White and Latino neighborhood. I plan to search for many changes in the race and class that the community has gone through and this article give me a head start on that.