Reading Analysis

Reading Analysis 6


Letter in gender inclusive bathroom in American University. From the class syllabus

Author, Suzanne Tick argues in “His & Hers? Designing for a Post-Gender Society” that designers today should encourage and support the changing views of gender within their work not matter what because everyone should be equally accepted. In this article, the author discusses modernism and how this particular form draws its influence from mostly male figures. I believe that Tick believes that gender is man made thing and we should look past the norms to create environments. In other words, Tick explains how genderless is becoming more and more common. As explained in the article, a lot of public entities, like schools and large businesses, are coming to accept and incorporate uni-sex and gender-neutral aspects into their basic functions. Here in my school, they believe that by having gender oriented bathrooms not everyone feels comfortable and that is why American University also has gender inclusive bathrooms.  Another point Tick brings up is how Mother Nature is becoming an influence on design because sustainability is becoming increasingly important. Also Tick argues how the ideas of male and female are being overlooked in the modern world to include everyone, and she explains how designers should not fall behind in this ideology

Reading Analysis 5


Picture from Google Maps

In City of Rhetoric, David Fleming concludes that perfect cities of rhetoric, or cities in which civilians can come together to hear each other out fairly and talk through disagreements. He mentions that this isn’t easy, but it is not impossible for people to come together. Fleming argues that as part of our human nature, we keep striving to create “strong publics.” In other words, Fleming ends his book by reflecting on “the urban district” which is a type of the publics that he mentions that thrives. Most importantly he focuses on how the people try to build strong publics; he believes that by learning about city-based education is the first step on changing the way our cities function. For example, Fleming says, “just as we need to make our schools more civic… we need to make our cities more educational…” (209). Specifically, we have the power to change how future generations view public spaces, and we also have the power to change our public spaces to educate us. I believe that Fleming is on something with his ideas in his final chapter. While we may not think about it that much, our cities do teach us a lot. Not only do we learn about the socio-economic class of that area, but how the people have come to be; I believe that this is seen in the physical part of the areas. In his book, the author uses Chicago a place where there is a lot of diversification and socio-economic classes are seen. If one takes the time to educate the young in our communities on relevant matters such as civic discourse, we can look into the future at least hoping that younger generations will be able to create and come up with other things that haven’t been thought of in our time.


RA 4


David Fleming in City of Rhetoric, argues that the environment of a society or community is influenced on how the people in said community respond in three main ways. According to Fleming, the effects from the environment are “contingent,” “nonlinear,” and “dynamic.” In other words, the environment of a community is influenced by its culture. In the chapter “Toward a New Sociospatial Dialect” he examines how conversations take place and whether or not each plan was successful. By coming up with different plans, he stumbled with many barriers until which was 1230 North Burling Street, created an environment where its residents tried to act as one community. The issue with this was the consistency that came about. As Fleming argues that people are attracted by diverse environments and he believes there will be more commonplaces in these neighborhoods. To Fleming, the “sociospatial dialectic” towards one that promotes healthier interactions between people by creating commonplaces in these communities (180). He presents what groups of people and various communities relate to each other when they are living closely together and, contrastingly, when then are segregated, both which lead to issues in social discourse. He shows the balance that can be created within the communities. Although it is difficult to change the culture of an environment that people live in or influence the culture of that specific community, free and open communication remains key to improving the situation. The creation of commonplaces focus on bringing together equality and freedom while they are concurring, but there is a big barrier, which is the members of the community and these people have to be convinced of the opportunities they will have in the future by participating on public discourse or willing to participate to see a change.

RA 3


In City of Rhetoric, David Fleming beliefs that how communities are set up influences how people write, speak, and act changes. He uses the city of Chicago to examine and proof this mostly by studying the demographics and design of the neighborhoods. Fleming attempts to dissect the relationship between the average individual and the large nation-state. By emphasizing the differing roles that individuals fulfill within the two different types of communities, Fleming sets up a contrast for readers, exemplifying the impacts a surrounding can have on its citizens. In closing, Fleming’s evaluation of the way a smaller republic functions, compared to a large nation-state, point to the clear benefits attributed to a smaller democracy, emphasizing how that type of environment would enable a more active participation by the individuals that call it home.

Chapter 6 of the books “The New Urbanism” first talks the North Town Village and how it reminds the public that suburban relocation is not a viable solution for the problem of urban poverty to achieve the facilitation of social interaction and to avoid class systems. It first introduces the idea of an economically diverse urban village by explaining how the public housing projects became uninhabitable and their deterioration can be traced right to federal housing programs. Also, the government thought that the apparent alternative to remedy was to deconcentrate the poverty in existing projects by bringing in higher-income residents. Fleming, mentions that the renewal on the Near North Side Re-establishes the characteristics of the Cabrini Green public housing that make it a troubled place and then lists development plans that aimed to redevelop it. The North Town Village was built with a long-term goal of lasting beauty, survival, and practicality (Fleming, 132). The main intention of the development of this mixed income community was to take advantage of the prime location and proximity to transportation in order to “revitalize the Cabrini Green neighborhood” and to encourage interaction between families of various incomes (Fleming, 145). There are many rhetorical aspects of North Town Village, mainly because of the numerous purposefully designed parts of the architecture, but in page 144 Fleming mentions how some reports suggest that there haven’t been any social changes, people may suffer if their wasn’t so much of a social mix, effects between black and white people are too strong, meaning that white people benefit more than blacks.

Though, most of the staged measures were in the form of gatherings, there were a couple architectural ones as well. In addition, to the obvious intention of the proximity of living spaces, the designer also included many common, open spaces with the goal of guiding the people that live there to conserve, observe, and learn about each other. These open paths, decks, and common lawns were all designed to promote a sense of safety, community, and unity. In terms of the staged attempts at bringing the community together, there is still the large problem that the rich and poor are inherently different. In some ways, these efforts may have even further drawn attention to the differences between them and increased the distance between these families with various incomes. The exterior of these houses and the location to supermarkets and other stores are still aimed towards those who are more well-off in the community. It can be argued that the poor are even more alienated in North Town Village, their circumstances made even more obvious by their richer neighbors and the “stories” they may tell. Though the intentions of the designer were well-intended, it seems that the real effects of the architecture of this community may not have lived up to its ambitious intentions.

Reading Analysis 2


In “Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment” relates to how living environments and common places in different cities around the United States are knowingly structured to exclude members of the community that don’t share the same privileges. Schindler talks about how the architecture of places are designed to make more difficult or impossible for poor people to go places where it was easier to get to by whites. She mentions “that even the access to public beaches was affected because the bridges were designed to be so low that buses could not pass under” (Schindler 1). For many people, the physical appearance of things appears pretty, but for others, it looks unfair. Schindler examines the organization, design, and placement of the architecture used for a representational contribution to the exclusion and isolation of other members of the community by studying the impact that it has on residents, which is determined by the architectural regulation that allows the government to shape the community. What mainly supports the author’s article is the Lawrence Lessig’s regulatory theory, which emphasizes that architecture regulates or limits the behavior of the people, and when it refers to the “architecture” it does not stand with buildings and neighborhoods, but it is used in a more broader sense that includes public engineering, city developments, urban projects, and routings. In the article, it is mentioned that neighborhoods have gathered to prohibit the expansion of public transportation, so the poorer wouldn’t have an easy way to pass through their neighborhood, which by “their” refers to a more social economic stable person.

Reading Analysis #1


Isabel C. Polo

Professor Hoskins



Reading Analysis 1


In part one of City of Rhetoric, David Fleming starts disagreeing with the civic and government standards made in 1994 that say, in other words, “that the citizens of the United States are better defined by their political views, rather than national origin, race, gender, class, religion, or ethnicity”(Fleming, 20). The author argues that this is a problem because a specific place isn’t build up by the place itself but by the people that live there. If the civilians of a specific territory all think alike then they are depriving themselves of knowledge and different opinions causing them an unidentified civic identity.

He then starts to mention places of political theory that explains the different governing types, which include: republicanism that might be too demanding for the citizens and liberalism that mainly focuses on small boundaries that people could go to and express how they feel. Also the persistence of space, which means that space matters. The essence of the author’s arguments in this part, for me is the most important because he is trying to argue that many things can change the value of a place because we all know that some places are nicer than others, but most importantly he says “there is a great deal of mobility in the highest and lowest socioeconomic strata, but the dream of the people is not migration- it is to improve their lives in the places they already live” (Fleming, 34) I find this to be shocking in a way because this isn’t the sense that I feel nowadays I feel that people prefer to move across the country to live in a better way than before.


Work Cited

David Fleming. City of Rhetoric: Revitalizing the Public Sphere in Metropolitan America. SUNY Press, 2008. Page 20,34