Complete Annotated Bibliography


Meyer, Eugene L. “Washington’s Shaw Neighborhood Is Remade for Young Urbanites.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 1 Dec. 2015.

Background – This source describes how the Shaw neighborhood has been redone for the new, young tenants moving to these areas.  Especially in the S street neighborhood, many glass-clad coffee shops and bars have popped up at former residences of black businesses.  These places all have similar interiors and can give us a small look into what has changed and what has remained the same.

Stacy, Christina Plerhoples et al. “Gentrification and Business Changes: A Lack of Data for Sound Policy.” Urban Institute, Urban Wire, 4 Aug. 2015.

Exhibit – This article provides graphs and statistical information regarding business changes in the Shaw/S street area.  It maps the influx of new business in the area since the early 1990s and what types of businesses arrived.  The total number of businesses has been on a steady rise.  The number of full service restaurants has actually fallen.  The most notable is the massive increase in limited service business, especially from 2003 to 2004.  This is most likely due to the rise of coffee shops, for young urban dwellers arriving in the area, replacing older businesses.

Cheston, Thor. “Our Story.” Right Proper Brewing Company, 2013.

Background – This webpage belongs to the Right Proper Brewing Company.  The page explains the history of the company and some of the features along with it.  It goes into detail about the history of the building which has proven useful when comparing it to the historical building.  It provides all of the information needed to get a full understanding of it’s changes.

Areavibes. “Shaw, Washington, DC Cost of Living.” Cost Of Living In Shaw, Washington, DC, Areavibes, 2015.

Exhibit – This website gives information on the cost of living and housing in Shaw.  It provided basic statistics used in the paper to contrast how the area used to be.  Along with this information, it lists interesting comparisons of basic amenities from milk and shampoo to transport and healthcare between DC and the rest of the United States.

“Addiction Battled Ambition For Reporter Caught In D.C.’s Crack Epidemic.” NPR. NPR, n.d. Web. 06 Oct. 2016.

Argument – This source was a brief interview given by Castaneda about his time on S Street.  It gives a description of the neighborhood and provides details on its atmosphere.  It also talks about how Baldie respected the neighboring church and how he would take care of it like a home.  It mentions how Baldie died in prison which could be an entry point for the discovery of a death certificate which may provide more information on how Baldie lived.  One may be able to follow a path from his death to his life on S Street.

Classified ad 3 — no title. (1994, Jul 12). The Washington Post (1974-Current File).

Background – This record provided data on the seizure of Baldie’s home.  It lists Garnell Campbell as one of the individuals whose property had been confiscated by the city due to his arrest.  It lists the price of his residence at $304,000.  This can be seen as an exhibit of facts for an argument about changes in housing prices.

@Homesnap. “618 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20001.” Homesnap. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Oct. 2016.

Exhibit – This website provided information on the current value of Baldie’s house.  The house, located at 618 S Street, is worth close to a million dollars now, which is crazy to think about if you go back just a few years.  It isn’t just because the house was cleaned up, but because of the gentrification in the neighborhood which led to the rise of the area as the new, hip part of DC.

Schwartzman, Paul. “Amid Glittering Renewal, Violence Evokes a Neighborhood’s Bloody past.” Washington Post. The Washington Post, 30 Aug. 2015. Web. 12 Oct. 2016.

Argument – This source is interesting as it was written by the same author nine years after the following article.  They both share a similar concept, but in this article he describes the, “thicket of new gleaming towers, health clubs and hipster-happy cafes and restaurants” (Schwartzman 2015).  This article is written after the full gentrification and transformation of the neighborhood has been completed.  This is a fascinating glimpse into how any area can change so fast.

Schwartzman, Paul. “A Bittersweet Renaissance.” Washington Post. The Washington Post, 23 Feb. 2006. Web. 12 Oct. 2016.

Background/Exhibit – This article from the Washington Post provides an argument against the gentrification of the Shaw neighborhood and more specifically S Street.  Since the days when Baldie lived on S Street, the area has changed a lot.  Schwartzman documents the beginnings of this change in 2006 and discusses how the culture of the neighborhood was beginning to vanish.

“United States of America v. Garnell A. Campbell, Also Known As Baldie, Appellant, 72 F.3d 920 (D.C. Cir. 1995).” Justia Law. Justia, n.d. Web. 06 Oct. 2016.

Background – This citation provides background information on Baldie’s case.  The source gives a brief description of the trial including the presiding judges and the evidence that was displayed on trial.  Included in the evidence is a videotape from 1620 S Street NW, the house in which Baldie was arrested.  This address allows one to start to trace a map of the activities on S Street, including not only Baldie’s home, but his “workplace” as well.  The date of the trial and case identification could also prove useful, if in the future one needs to look up further information on either Baldie’s trial or use the information to provide a better description of the local, urban environment.  The title of the case also allows one to further research the court hearing from there and potentially gather more information on some of the locations mentioned on S Street.  This information can provide a deeper glimpse into the life of Baldie during his reign as kingpin of S Street.

Abrams, Amanda. “U Street Corridor: The Difference a Decade Makes.”UrbanTurf. N.p., 11 Sept. 2011. Web. 09 Oct. 2016.

Argument – This article discusses the storied history of the U Street neighborhood.  It provides a different viewpoint than many of the other sites, arguing that the revitalization project has been good for the neighborhood.  It talks about the steady arrival of new business that lifted the area out of crime and poverty in the late 1990s.

Franke-Ruta, Garance. “The Politics of the Urban Comeback: Gentrification and Culture in D.C.” The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 10 Aug. 2012. Web. 09 Oct. 2016.

Argument – This was an interesting article by The Atlantic about gentrification in Washington, DC.  The article focuses mainly on Uptown DC.  It discusses the history of the Shaw neighborhood and the revitalization efforts made by the city.  The article provides census data to show gentrification over the years.  It provides an interesting point of view from both sides, debating the benefits and problems caused by gentrification. This perspective argues that the blame of the gentrified communities should be placed not only on real estate developers and hipster businesses but middle class African Americans who fled the area following riots and the influx of drugs.

Lewis, Aidan. “Washington DC from Murder Capital to Boomtown.” BBC News, BBC, 6 Aug. 2014.

Method – This article by the BBC exhibits an outsider perspective to actions in the United States.  It links to videos with eyewitness accounts of the riots, crime, and reconstruction that took place in parts of Shaw and the other minority neighborhoods of DC. Unfortunately, I was unable to embed the videos into the site, but following the link provided offers a fascinating view of the city during its time as the drug capital.  These firsthand experiences all take a different view on the causes and actions that led to the evolution of the city.

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