Witnessing a diner Built Interior

Hunter Hoskins

Jeremy Kramer

Interior Built Environment

What once was the old Hospitality High School located on the north west now sits alone, abandoned, locked. With only a paper sign affixed to its surface, serving as a small indicator of what is to come and what was for this historic building. “Planning meeting 1/16/2017”. My assignment- “to document this building’s interior” had been halted, unless I was willing to break multiple civil and federal laws, which a price which carried too much risk.

Undeterred by my set back and motivated to pass the class, let alone the paper, I moved forward, weaving in and out of any place I could physically enter. A hard task, to accomplish only  as a result by the sheer timing of my birth, had placed me below the necessary agegate requirement that a group of politicians and concerned parents decided long before I was born. Regardless that I was well underaged I sought out any place which I could sit myself down and take look at the interior.

An hour passes by and I find myself further and further from my desired starting point. By this time it has started to become darker, and after being turned away from so many bars, clubs and restaurants, due to a lack of space, food priced well above my budget, my age or a combination thereof. I had found myself at the Florida Avenue grill.

 

Located a quick 9 minutes away from my starting location. It’s exterior is unassuming, standard to any roadside diner seen across the country. Dirty chrome plates the outside, while folded up lawn tables chained to the wall guard the entrance. Two heavy set wooden doors are the only observable entrances. Worn from decades of daily use and a sign which claims “The Oldest Soul Food Restaurant in the World” only to be backed up with various slogans such as “Since 1944” and “Zagat’s rated”; these stickers serve as a stark contrast which the exterior claimed to proport laid inside.

Classic to any building in Shaw, entering this grill is like stepping into a time capsule. How far back being determind only by how long ago the interior was updated, or cleaned. For this grill, the menus and interior advertising point to the 1970s.

Upon entering one is seduced by the scent of Southern Cooking and the sizzling of a griddle lubricated with the grease of recooked animal fats. The air laid heavy, heat from the open kitchen permeated the whole restaurant. No one cared or seems to care. Framed signed photos of celebrities circled the interior perimeter of the restaurant. Excluding a few, their identities were all but unknown to me. Actors, Anchormen, Musicians and Community Leaders stretching back to a time before Kodachrome, there in photo props serving as the only identifiers  to who these people might be.

Sitting down, my eyes scanned across the restaurant. At this time the small restaurant was empty, it was between shifts. Regardless the restaurant was not devoid of people. The following are those which remained:

 

An Older man at least 60 years senior with gray facial sported an old Washington Red Skins baseball cap, gray slacks and a green zipped up sweater and beaten up peacoat sat engrossed in a copy of the Washington Times sports section, occasionally picking at an indeterminate dinner platter. A twenty something man with a Hitler-youth haircut, button up shirt and suspenders sit across an equally aged woman in reclaimed and repurposed thrift shop dress well out of fashion. Their table is empty except for her companion’s MacBook and two glasses of water. They are silent expect for the occasional “what about this one” and “no I don’t like the location”. It is clear they are not locals-yet. A car honks in the distance. Black-blue Jeaned green flannel wearing 30 something year consumes a plate of fried catfish while listening to music through over priced headphones. A Sunday dress wearing woman waits impatiently to be noticed. A group of seven college aged kids in matching black shirts surround the cash register, loudly joking and talking among themselves. Their jovial tone permeates the quiet interior with talk of after shift activities and coming up parties. Their companionship and camaraderie is something to envy.

Digital Environment Washington DC Hospitality High School

Hunter Hoskins

Jeremy Kramer

Digital Environment

The building is located at 1851 – 9th Street, NW in the Washington DC neighborhood of Shaw. It currently sits abandoned. Doors locked and lights off.  The building joins many of its, neighbors frozen in time, time capsules to another era; all but waiting to be cracked opened and gentrified for an incoming class of people eager to buy up what is quickly ceasing to be cheap property and even cheaper rents. A small poster affixed to the door reveals its fate “Planning Meeting 1/16/2017” its future is already determined. 1851 – 9th Street, NW which once held not only The Hospitality High School of Washington, DC but also The Odd Fellows Temple, will be rezoned and turned into upper-class apartments. Once again metamorphosing to fit the needs of its environment 1851 – 9th Street, NW once again escapes the wrecking ball.

However, 1851 – 9th Street, NW’s metamorphosis is an odd one, if only because of what, up until fairly recently it housed. 1851 – 9th Street, NW was the home of the now closed Hospitality High School of Washington, DC. The Hospitality High School of Washington, DC was founded in 1998 as charter school which specialized in preparing and training students for a life in the hospitality industry(“Hospitality High > About Us”).

 

It’s closing which occurred less than two years ago appeared rather odd. “Washington DC is quickly changing, with new hotels and resutrants being built every day. The demand for a trained and experienced work force seemed to be at an all-time high, why close it?” I thought. Searching for answers I quickly googled the school and was greeted with a link to a website: http://www.washingtonhospitality.org/. Don’t bother searching that link, it only now hosts a series of adds-placeholders until the domain name is bought up again, if it ever is. Undeterred by this set back. I plugged the address into to https://archive.org/web/ ‘s “Wayback Machine”. This revealed a few hits. While incomplete, the snapshot into the past which the “Wayback Machine” provided was the best I was going to get. I chose the date of “February 8th, 2014” as it not only was the most complete snapshot, but also the most recent before the servers went down.

The website itself is/was very unremarkable. Plain, while employing a limited color pallet. The website for The Hospitality High School of Washington, DC serves five distinct purposes: 1) To provide the outside world with basic contact information on the institution itself. This includes the physical address of the school, its fax and phone number, an email which one can use to request more information (the email is dead as of December 1, 2016). 2) To provide basic information on the school, such as its founding mission. 3) To promote itself, not only of its existence in the first place (the mere existence of the website accomplished this task by itself) but also of its impact on the community. This is accomplished by including media elements such as sound bites and article links from local news agencies which feature the High School. 4) To provide students resources to further their studies. These include an academic calender, links to scholarship applications, necessary forms and documents and a directory of (then) current faculty and staff. Finally, the website saught to provide information to those who sought to be employed by the institution. All in all the website was not different from any other high school website at the time. It was basic by design, and displayed its nessary information in a clear and organized manner.

The website was not designed in such a way as to hide necessary bits of information from the public in hard to access locations. The site design promoted just the opposite, with its home page provided easy to access details nessary details (such as event reminders and contact info) while other information was located in easy to access and understand sub-categories.

 

Due to the necessary route which one has to take to access the site as it previously exisited, it is impossible to achieve a full understanding of the site as no all of it is backed up or backed up correctly. Pictures are missing and drop down menus don’t load where they should.  Not enough information exists to conclude that by the time the school closed, it was not facing any outward hardships nor was it excluding (or not excluding) those who wished to get involved in the hospitality industry.

Works cited:

“Hospitality High > About Us.” N.p., 8 Feb. 2014. Web. 15 Dec. 2016.

+/+

Reading analysis #4

 

Jeremy Kramer

11/7/2016

Professor Hoskins

Analysis #4

His & Hers: Designing for a Post-Gender Society

        In the article of “His & Hers: Designing for a Post-Gender Society,” Suzanne Tick argues that designers fail to aid the gender revolution. She claims that: Designers, who should focus a critical eye on society’s issues, need to work within this discourse and help promote acceptance and change” (Tick). Through this call, Tick hopes that by casting a critical eye on the current gender revolution, designers should then, be working and thinking within a revolutionary mindset. Such a mindset will result in the creation of designs which not only help promote acceptance and change but also work through a genderless perspective.

Despite this call, today’s design landscape is far from equal. The landscape of today is one rooted in Modernism. The Modernism movement was a turn of the century art movement which sought break off from classical and traditional forms in exchange for progressive ideals. As progressive as it was this movement was shaped predominantly by the male perspective. Often this resulted in designs which favored men (Tick). For example Men historically, “have occupied power roles in offices, male necessities dictated the design of prime spaces, while the female secretaries occupied ancillary areas” (Tick).

        Today’s design landscape, however, does not represent the reality among those who utilize it. Society today is fast becoming genderless and for once truly equal. Those who were outcasts and oppressed by society, such as women, minorities and those within the LGBTQ are no longer facing the discrimination they once were.  People are now more aware of others differences, and as a result are looking to challenge and change the status quo. Tick argues that the changes which stem from these difficulties should not be fought but accepted by the general populous.

        Despite this acceptance, the current design does not allow for these accommodations. Currently, the design of restrooms, for example, lack a  space which is sensitive to personal issues such as gender identity, as bathrooms currently do not allow for a non-binary system. Thus placing those who are not binary in an uncomfortable place. The only solution Tick claims are the creation of a universal design which accommodates anyone and everyone. Because as Tick states: “having safe places for anybody to function and do what they need to do, no matter who they are, should be our first step.”

Overall Tick believes that the foremost priority to achieving this new gender revolution is to create a space which accepts any and all people. The creation of such a space will require a new design, and as such designers should work to create a design which promotes a genderless society.

Works Cited:

Tick, Suzanne. “His & Hers: Designing for a Post-Gender Society.”Metropolis Magazine, Mar. 2015, http://www.metropolismag.com/March-2015/His-or-Hers-Designing-for-a-Post-Gender-Society/.

 

Reading Analysis #3

Jeremy Kramer

Hunter Hoskins

Reading analysis 3

Education Through Environment

In the essay “Recognizing Campus Landscapes as Learning Spaces,” the authors Kathleen Scholl and Gowri Gulwadi argue what that the college campus itself, with its expansive green spaces and large open spaces, hold a beneficial value far greater than mere aesthetics. The authors hold the view that the outdoor college campuses value is in its ability to provide students a place to recharge and refocus.

Historically, the view was that the university and its campus should be an “ideal community that was a place apart, secluded from city distractions but still open to the larger community enabling their students and faculty to devote unlimited time and attention for…learning, personal growth and free intellectual inquiry.” (pg.1).  Meaning that the Institution had to become self-sufficient. The university not only had to provide the necessities such as dorms and dining halls within in its grounds but physically placed those grounds outside of the community. Designing the campus in such a way as to promote indoor studying; Often this meant settling in rural areas, and building the physical campus in such a way that buildings would be nearby and green spaces would be non-existent. However, this soon would change in 1862.

In 1862 the Morrill Act, which gave public lands to intuitions of higher education for free in exchange that they established institutions of agriculture, science, and technical education, passed. The passage of this act not only resulted in the advent of the land-grant institution but also changed the physical college campus. The Morrill Act required that land-grant institutions had to build brand new buildings which held observational space and laboratories for scientific research and technical education. These requirements countered the traditional design of the college campus, which employed tight clusters of buildings in an effort shield students from the outside world. Land-grant institution sought use their open space in an effort aid student learning by having them interact with their environment through the use of working farms, forests, gardens and greenhouses (pg:1).

These open spaces would not last for long. After the Second World War a student enrollment boom coupled with new scientific research grants from the federal government directly led to rapid expansion in colleges across the country. Institutions of higher education scrambled to build massive projects and new facilities. Massive independent standing structures, whose architecture often failed to match the style of the buildings already on campus replaced the old public campus spaces. The influx of new students resulted in the influx of more automobiles into the campus area. Thus to accommodate this growth, large parking lots which connected to newly built “ring roads” filled in what free space remained. Hemming the pedestrian core from outside. Blocked in by these “ring roads” and new buildings, the modern American college started to resemble its more classical ancestor  This resemblance was short lived. By the 1970s  the sustainability movement along with the grassroots movement changed the campus further. This modern outlook promoted reconnecting with nature and stressed reconnecting with nature as a way to recharge and refocus oneself. These recent movements seek to accomplish this by integrating the campus with open spaces and “green infrastructure” (pg: 1).

If one looks at the historical record, it becomes apparent that the campus evolves in response to the “prevailing philosophy of education” of the period with older universities placing an emphasis on discipline and boundaries, while newer designs emphasize integration and shapelessness (pg:2).

The perfect campus design Scholl and Gulwadi insist is one that creates an atmosphere for holistic learning where “the student’s relationship with the natural and built environment is capable of having an effect on student learning.” (pg: 2).  The authors conclude that such an atmosphere would employ a mixture of different learning styles and types.  Thus resulting in a campus filled with an architectural style which combines natural and urban elements as to regulate learning and restoration cycles, public areas and outdoor learning environments which foster a sense of community and quiet areas for self-reflection and reconnection.

        The holistic campus is a perfect one as it not only provides a balance between the more traditional styles of learning with, the more modern and comprehensive approaches but because it creates an additional resource for the students to learn about not only the world around them but learn about themselves too.

Works Cited

Scholl, Kathleen; Gulwadi, Gowri. “Recognizing Campus Landscapes as Learning Spaces.” Journal of Learning Spaces, vol. 4, no. 1, July 2015.

Commonplace #5

Jeremy Kramer

11/3/2016

 

Common Place

 

 

 

“Shall Property owned by the University System of Georgia and utilized by providers of college and university student housing and other facilities continue to be exempt from taxation to keep costs affordable?”

 

“Shall Property owned by the University System of Georgia and utilized by providers of college and university student housing and other facilities continue to be exempt from taxation to keep costs affordable?”

 

What is noticeable to me about this legislative proposal are the lines: “utilized by providers of college and university student housing and other facilities” and “continue to be exempt from taxation”

I believe what this bill is trying to do is twofold. The first is that it is trying to let third parties who are not part of the university, but instead contractors profit but not having to pay any taxes. The second thing which is going on in this bill is that by having it on the ballot, the legislative representatives are attempting to remove any responsibility to whether or not it passes. What this signals to me is that this bill does not benefit the tax payers of Georgia, but instead special interest groups.

Commonplace 6

 

Jeremy Kramer

11/3/2016

Commonplace 6

 

Original: According to the SBLT, I analyze (but more importantly) input data by looking at all the elements and then seeing how they interact with one another, by doing this I am able to see the most basic parts of the process from a rational angle at which I am able to reduce a complex idea or situation into its most basic parts. This rational way of thinking and inputting data thus makes it very easy for me to describe complex ideas or events to people. Where all this information I gather will lead me or how it will help me, I do not know.

 

Revised: According to the SBLT, I interpret received data by looking at all the parts in seeing how they interact. This method allows me to view the process from a rational angle at which I am able to reduce a complex idea or situation into its most basic parts. This allows me to easily describe complex ideas or events to people. I am unsure what I will do with this newly gained knowledge.

Reading analysis #2

Jeremy  Kramer

Hunter Hoskins

Reading analysis 2

Exclusion through architecture

Is it possible that architecture, something obviously inanimate and unable of thought let alone judgment be exclusionary? According to Professor Sarah Schindler, it is. However not in the way one would imagine.

In  her article “Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment,” Sarah Schindler proposes the idea of built environments. Schindler characterizes built environments as architecture which is a man-made physical feature such as a bridge, highway or park which is designed to make it difficult for certain individuals to access certain places[J3] .

Schindler starts off her essay first describing the two reasons why discriminatory exclusion through the use of architecture and urban planning occurs is, according to Schindler because lawmakers fail to recognize architecture as a form of regulation. Instead, they view architecture only as functional, a-political, and harmless. The second reason is that even if there [J4] were awareness to the potentiality that architecture could be racist, the current existing jurisprudence would be insufficient to address this problem.

The basic legal framework which allows the built environment to exist Schindler states has been in place since the inception of the United States has always enacted laws whose sole purpose was to exclude minorities and those of lower socioeconomic status. As “Legal scholars and historians have repeatedly recounted the formal laws and informal norms that furthered racial and socioeconomic exclusion (pg. 6).” This exclusion has ranged from threats and disapproval to more formal movements through the use of legislation such as the use of “Jim Crow” laws.

These methods have resulted in the form of architecture and planning which seeks to exclude racial minorities and the have-nots from the general public. City planners and architects accomplished this feat by planning massive architectural structures around and even through the neighborhoods of minorities. All done to prevent marginal groups from taking part in leisure activities or other amenities which more privileged groups take for granted.

The clearest example of the impact of the built environment occurred on Long Island NY after World War Two. Acclaimed city planner Robert Moses, specifically built his bridges to Jones Beach too short to allow clearance for large automobiles such as trucks and public buses but tall enough for private cars. In addition to this Robert Moses also vetoed extending the Long Island Railroad to Jones Beach. The impact of this was that minorities and poorer members of society were unable to access Jones Beach during the summer easily; as they could not afford cars and relied mainly on public transportation (i.e.: buses and trains).

To understand how and why Robert Moses built environment had such a significant effect on the disenfranchised of New York City, one must understand the power which architecture holds. Using the example of a simple highway Lessig states that “a highway [which] divides two neighborhoods limits the extent to which the neighborhoods integrates. That a town has a square, easily accessible with a diversity of shops, increases the integration of residents in that town. That Paris has large boulevards limits the ability of revolutionaries to protest. That the Constitutional Court in Germany is in Karlsruhe, while the capital is in Berlin, limits the influence of one branch of government over the other. These constraints function in a way that shapes behavior. In this way, they too regulate.” (pg:5)

According to Schindler, resolving the built environment has been slow, is because it is a multifaceted issue. To start because the courts fail to realize that “Architectural exclusion is different in that it is concerned with the placement and location of infrastructure that physically separates and inhibits access, not just disparities in treatment based on geographic location.” (Pg:7).  Another reason is that the current legal protections are insufficient to deal with the built environment is because simply, they did not exist during the creation of the exclusionary zoning policies and architecture. The final issue is that even though “zoning ordinances [which] explicitly divided cities along racial lines were struck down many years ago, [the] walls and roads continue to divide cities along racial lines.”

Changing this problem is possible. The obvious remedy would be to only design buildings and structures so that they are inclusive and modifying old ones, so they become.   Simple construction and renovation won’t solve all the issues. To make a permanent change, we as a society have to modify the law. Either through legislation or litigation, it must be done.

Works Cited:

Schindler, Sarah. “Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation through Physical Design of the Built Environment.” N.p., 2015. Web. 23 Sept. 2016

Reading Analysis #1

Jeremy Kramer

Reading Analysis 1

City of Rhetoric Chapter 9 Reading Analysis

In chapter nine of his book City of Rhetoric, David Fleming counters the idea which states that simply manipulating one’s surroundings is the only thing which is needed to change the way a city interacts with itself. Fleming says that while placing community services (such as schools, restaurants, and libraries) within walking distance is beneficial, what creates change is public spaces which allow people to come together as equals (p.197). However, this ideal city cannot just be created through a single set of criteria. Fleming argues, that instead, what is needed is an entirely new way of how we think about cities and how residents interact with each other.

        Fleming believes that the older way of thinking does not work. It fails to bring people together. A new way of thinking which promotes a “new public philosophy,” instead, is needed. “Public philosophy,” Fleming believes at its core, pays attention to “our plurality and our unity,” “our undeniable bonds and our inevitable conflicts” and allows people to appreciate “our commonalities even as we confront our differences.” Combined these core pillars come together to create a new city which is not only diverse but is so diverse that the mere idea of such a thing is utterly natural. (p.202)

        Fleming states the obstacles which hinder the general adoption of this ideal way of thinking are the result of three points. The first is that we need to stop placing social mobility over stability. Fleming believes, that while this way of thinking is good for economic, it is not suitable for creating an overall sense of community as it promotes a social detachment from the local community. The second point is that we must stop associating political position with self-interest, but instead political stance should represent a “large number of diverse people unified by a single commonality despite their differences.” (pg. 204). The final obstacle is that there lacks a language which deals with conflict but does not involve assimilation and separation “which privileged depth over mobility, and publicity over self-interest and conflict over harmony. (pg. 204).

        Finally, Fleming concludes that it is possible to overcome these obstacles. Specifically by starting at the school level, because according to him schools can produce a “great deal in democratic community-building” (pg. 206) which can give children a new way to view their community and change the overall rhetoric. These lessons teach via four distinct projects, each designed to tackle one of the four obstacles. The first is a memory; Before any change in their community or learn about the city’s present makeup, people must first learn about their past, this project focuses on teaching their past, and the past of their community. The second is mapping; By encouraging students to map their local communities, we are helping them to uncover what usually goes on unseen and then they can develop a hypothesis on it and account for what they see and hear. The third project deals with judgment.  In this project, students receive the ability to judge and debate real cases in the classroom, and then after doing so, they can create a collaborative judgment and then reflect on how they reached that point and their practices. Through this method, we are teaching our young generations/students how to have effective rhetoric. The final project which Fleming proposes involves design. Students should work together to discover problems and produce feasible, and creative solutions to them, which they then as a community would implement.

        In short, Fleming states that if one wishes to change a city for the better, they must change how people think, and to do that, one must start at the schools. Emphasizing the idea that students are the easiest to influence as their minds are still malleable they have not been exposed to other ways of thought and the public schools provide an excellent location to provide students the political skills, knowledge and dispositions necessary for this “new public philosophy”

 

Works Cited:

Fleming, David. City of Rhetoric: Revitalizing the Public Sphere in Metropolitan America. Albany: SUNY, 2008. Print.

Built Environment exterior French Street

Jeremy Kramer

Built Environment Exterior

 

The first thing one sees when they approach French street are the colors. Vibrant, and unique each house is painted a different pallet. Although the houses are beautiful, an unknowing eye could easily miss the turbulent history of the location. French Street is located in the Washington DC neighborhood known as Shaw. Shaw, a historically black neighborhood was once known as the epicenter of African American culture in the United States during the turn of the century. But by the mid ‘80s Shaw was no longer the cultural capital it once was but a shadow of its former self. It had turned from an area known for its arts and music into an area known for crack, prostitution and burnt out buildings. Today, forty years later the area has greatly changed, many of the older buildings have been renovated and turned into luxury condos, only to be neighbored by empty foundations and oddly located parks- scars of the past standing as reminder that the area still hasn’t changed all that much from what it once was to what it is becoming.

At the end of the block sits a park, it isn’t that odd, parks are commonplace in Washington DC. However, what makes this park peculiar isn’t so much the place where it is located, but what it once was. This park was once the location of a row house, which capped off the end of the block. This house, which most likely burnt down during the riots following the assignation of Martin Luther King Jr in 1968, is now the site of a park. The proof of what this park once was, is easily seen because the neighboring apartment just cuts off. Lacking any windows, the only thing looking over the park is a simple mural of flowers. A serine image for the turbulent past this block once held.

Going down the block from the park, you see that the change occurring in French Street hasn’t finished. Houses are still getting restored and re-painted, some are still gutted while others look as though they were just built. But this is only superficial; French Street still is recovering. For example, when I visited French Street a few weeks back, I wasn’t paying too much attention to where I was walking and I stepped on some glass which happened to be littering the sidewalk. At first, I thought that I had merely stepped on a broken beer bottle that someone had thrown there (French street is located right around the block from a small cluster of trendy bars so this was not a crazy idea), but as I look closer I realize that what I had, in fact, stepped on was automobile glass. The clear sign that some person had their car broken into fairly recently.

This shows the perfect dichotomy of this block, on one hand, you have young Yuppie couples walking their children down the street on a brisk fall evening, between well-manicured lawns and luxury automobiles, while on the other hand, you have a car being broken into and gutted buildings who haven’t seen a proper owner in at least 25 years let alone a proper coat of paint.

This dichotomy is only a short lived phenomenon. As more wealthy residents move in and push out the older inhabits, these empty lots and decrepit homes will become luxury condos and dog parks. Despite all the renovation which has and will occur, it can never cover up the past, as it the rhetoric of the city is seared into the block.

Commonplace 2

The Problem with an Operationally Nuclear North Korea by: Gregory J. Moore:

Miss Sasaki went back to her office and sat down at her desk. She was quite far from the windows, which were off to her left, and behind her were a couple of tall bookcases containing all the books of the factory library, which the personnel department had organized. She settled herself at her desk, put some things in a drawer, and shifted papers. She though that before she began to make entries in her lists of new employees, discharges, and departures for the Army, she would chat for a moment with the girl at her right. Just as she turned her head away from the windows, the room was filled with a blinding light. She was paralyzed by fear, fixed still in her chair for a long moment…Everything fell, and Miss Sasaki lost consciousness. The ceiling dropped suddenly and the wooden floor above collapsed in splinters and the people up there came down and the roof above them gave way; but principally and first of all, the bookcases right behind her swooped forward and the contents threw her down, with her left leg horrible twisted and breaking underneath her. There, in the tin factor, in the first moment of the atomic age, a human being was crushed by books.

They say I say: This passage reflects Graff’s they say I say because Moore is using Miss Sasaki’s firsthand experience to show the power of nuclear weapons on a human scale.

 

 

The Harlem Renaissance by: Marie E. Rodgers

In 1919, soldiers returned home from the Great War, World War 1. Many Black and White Veterans became disillusioned by the lack of economic opportunity. However, unrest had been brewing among African American soldiers even before then.

They say I say: This passage reflects Graff’s they say I say because Rodgers uses the African American experience post-war to show how other people reacted before Rodgers goes into the history of the Harlem Renaissance.