Archive of ‘Annotated Bibliography’ category

Project 2: Mapping Commonplaces

For my final project in my Spring college writing class, I have chosen to reflect upon the cultural, demographic, and socio economic changes in Shaw. Through Le Diplomate, a French bistro located on 14th Street, I discover the true gentrification that is taking over the Shaw area and beyond. But is it for the worse or better?

My complex local system, CLS for short, is the building where the drugs were hidden in S Street Rising by Ruben Castaneda. My site is located at 1340 S Street NW, located in Shaw, Washington D.C. When I first travelled to Shaw, I was quite lost and unaware of my surroundings, as I only came for one job, to take pictures and videos of my site. But as I stepped out of the car and began to walk around, not only did I notice things, I realized them too. I realized I had been to Shaw before. I had come here multiple days and nights to eat at the fun restaurants and shop at the boutique stores. Little did I know that it was the same neighborhood I would spend all semester uncovering and discovering. 

The gentrification of this neighborhood, in this case, is not necessarily a bad thing because of the new demographics it brought, the revenue, and beautiful construction.

 One of my favorite places to eat in Shaw is a cafe called Le Diplomate, which is located a few blocks south of my site. 14th Street has really taken over and revitalized the Shaw area, and in my opinion, in a great way. 14th street has become popular for millennials to eat at new cafes sand shop at the chic furniture stores to the speciality stores. The new stores and restaurants are placed in areas in which the owners believe their store will thrive. The places that have recently come about in the Shaw area show the extreme gentrification of the neighborhood. Besides restaurants, shopping such as West Elm, a higher end furniture store, Lulu Lemon, an elite workout clothing store, grocery stores such as Trader Joe’s and Whole Foods, and various trendy bars prove that Shaw’s demographics are changing. However, there is tension between the young higher class citizens moving into this area and the older, lower class residents who want to keep their ground, and not have the area change.

Le Diplomate is a french cafe serving brunch, mid-day, dinner, and drinks. The European design and quality food attract elite people to this restaurant. From what I’ve observed the times I have been there, the place was flooded with millennials. The aesthetic of the food made the diners eager to take pictures of everything they ordered. Not only does this restaurant have very “instagram worthy”, artistic food but the experience of dining here is what brings the customers back. The authentic french cuisine, the tasteful decoration, refined music, and the professional waiters make customers forget they’re in D.C., and escape from reality. The elegant appearance of the restaurant and fresh, warm loaves of bread at the entry way satisfies every customer who walks in.


However, Le Diplomate is not the only bistro in Shaw that has mastered this skill. Up and down 14th Street lies individual, unique, and creative restaurants. Le Diplomate is a great success story, only opening about 4 years ago, it attract millennials, hipsters, and socialists, as well as Michelle Obama and other politicians.

(Above is an interesting article about Stephen Starr, from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the creator of Le Diplomate bistro.)

While Shaw is being gentrified, my site remains untouched. It’s a very private house, even with intensive internet search, I couldn’t find all the details of my site. The last time it was sold was 15 years ago and now, it is worth over a million dollars, because of it’s location. Shaw is drawing in a newer crowd because of its demolition and reconstruction and it is now home to higher income residents who are demanding more from this neighborhood and in return, getting exactly what they want. 1401 S Street is a 5 star apartment building located directly diagonal from my site.

Jack Evans, now mayor of D.C., launched his campaign in front of the Bistro in June 2013. Evan says, “’what better place to showcase the change on 14th Street and the city than with the transformation from a vacant laundry to a fancy restaurant?’ he says. ‘It represented everything I was running for.’” Although not everyone, mostly the residents who have been living in Shaw for decades now, agree with the gentrification of their neighborhood, it seems that everyone else is for it. Gentrification in the Shaw area is growing their economy. With Le Diplomate opening only 4 years ago, Starr admits that his restaurant isn’t what made 14th Street “hot”, as it was already booming with restaurants and stores before his. However, he has deeply contributed to the changed perception of Shaw. 


9 and 10

annotated bibliography 9 and 10:


Steadman, Philip. Hodgkinson, Simon. “Nuclear Disasters and the Built Environment” Butterworth & Co.1990

Philip Steadman and Simon Hodgkinson discuss in their book the effects that the nuclear disasters, specifically Hiroshima (1945), and Chernobyl (1986), had on our man-made places, that is, our built environment. They explain that there has been various books and scholarly articles about the medical and social consequences of nuclear war, but never the effect nuclear war has on places that our lives are conducted. Steadman and Hodgkinson argue a good point, that our built environment represents so much more than just our workplace, or home, but our history, our generations and countless lives, our achievements and cultural identity. The book goes into detailed consequences about what would happen to our built environment in two different situations: a nuclear accident leading to radioactivity and a nuclear attack.

This article is useful because it explains what a real built environment is, besides the buildings and man made places, the authors prove that it represents so much more. And they show that through what would change about our environment through nuclear attacks.


Perdue, Wendy,Collins. Stone, Lesley, A. Gostin, Lawrence, O.”The Built Environment and Its Relationship to the Public’s Health: The Legal Framework” American Public Health Association. 2003 September; 93(9): 1390–1394.

Wendy Collins Perdue, Lesley A. Stone, and Lawrence O. Gostin all argue in their scholarly article that public health still greatly effects the built environment. They begin with the industrial revolution that lead to diseases and many deaths because of the governments leinent laws on working conditions and over population in urban cities. Perdue, Stone, and Gostin also directly link health issues to the design of a city. Solutions for today include the public health advocates that can help design cities better suited for a healthy lifestyle but figuring out the legal ways to do so. To change the built environment one must understand the legal pathways to begin.

This article is useful because it shows that the built environment not only effects behavior, but also a persons health. This article also shows how much effort,time, and money goes into creating a built environment because of all the factors that builders/designers must take into account in order to create a successful city.

7 and 8

Annotated bibliography 7 and 8:

Parson, Don. “The Decline of Public Housing and the Politics of the Red Scare: The Significance of the Los Angeles Public Housing War.” Journal of Urban History, 33, 3, Mar.2007: 400-417. EBSCOhost.


Don Parson argues that 1950’s public housing decline was linked directly to the role of the Red Scare. This is shown through the Los Angeles pubic housing war, although, however, there was public housing in major cities all over the country at this time. Public housing int he United States in general peaked during the 1950’s and then suddenly decreased. Parson explains how the Red Scare tactic was used to diminish a huge public housing unit, and take out the mayoral regime which was pro-public housing at the time.

Although this article is based in Los Angeles, it still supports my argument because it is about public housing and more importantly that not everyone agrees with it. This article shows the power of the federal government.

Husock, Howard. “Moving out of Public Housing.” Public Interest, no. 150, Winter2003, p. 89. EBSCOhost,


Howard Husock discusses the goals of public housing, how it was once a great success, and then what went wrong. Husock says that as more Americans were moving to the suburbs, public housing became the worst housing in America because crime and drug rates had risen tremendously due to the dominant low-income single parent families that were occupying the space (90). He then goes on to say how much money and time the federal government but into fixing public housing in order to re establish the American dream. The government had spent $4.5 billion on renovations and Husock believes it is necessary to demolish all public housing.

This article is very useful because it tells me exactly what was wrong with pubic housing from the beginning and why, in Husock’s eyes, this establishment was never going to work.



5 and 6

Annotated bibliography 5 and 6:


How the Mall Means:

Evans, Jocelyn J., York Kirsten B. “An Analysis of the National Mall as a Cohesively Built Environment” Perspectives on Political Science. 42, 3, July 2013: 117-130. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/10457097.2013.793515.

In this scholarly article, Jocelyn J. Evans and Kirsten B. York examine the three different plans the National Mall used in the past in order to develop it for the future, and to further understand the civic space and  social meaning of the National Mall. Evans and York also argue that American’s National Identity lies within the National Mall and its rhetorical meaning.

This article will further help my argument because it shows how important architecture and design is in a public space, and the different people it may draw in. Washington D.C. is not only the nations capital, but it represents our country in so many ways, and the National Mall is the most important tourist attraction where people from all  over come to a space, a political space, despite their difference in beliefs.


Bader, Aya Peri. “A model for everyday experience of the built environment: the embodied perception of architecture” The Journal Of Architecture. 20, 2, 2015: 233-267. Taylor & Francis Online. Web. 29 Apr. 2017.

Aya Peri Bader, author of “A model for everyday experience of the built environment: the embodied perception of architecture”, she explores the way architecture is viewed by people when they are distracted. She believes that humans are and will always be preoccupied with their own lives and the impact of architecture has nothing to do with how concentrated or attentive we may be. In this five part scholarly article, Bader takes us through a very detailed structure of her stand on this issue as well as her credible and feasible model called LEBEN, which stands for Lived Experience of the Built Environment. Bader also considers the urban surroundings that contribute to the daily experience of architecture.

This article is very useful because the author applies her own method and model to an issue that is related to my argument and overall theme of my essay.




annotated bibliography 1:

Tyrrell, Mark. “How Your Environment Influences You.” How Your Environment Influences You        Uncommon Knowledge. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2017. <http://www.uncommon->.


Mark Tyrrell is the author of article “How your environment influences you” and explains that our environment affects us more than one may think. It is the stem of all our behaviors and reactions to things around us. Terrell gives us examples such as language, and how a person can “build up an environment of words” that the other person might begin to respond to.

This source will be useful in my essay because it explains how we are highly susceptible to environmental triggers, which helps support my argument of the demographics of people living in Shaw 30 years ago, to the people living there today. The environment of Shaw 30 years ago wasn’t healthy, it was drug-ridden, poor, and uneducated because the environment was run down. But reconstruction of Shaw brought in new people.

Annotated Bibliography 2:



Deirdre Oakley and Keri Burchfield, authors of article “Out of the Projects, still in the hood”, explain Chicago’s efforts in 1992 to change public housing for the better by relocating the residents living there in order to redevelop the community and create a mixed-income neighborhood. However, only a small portion of the people who were forced out of their homes in public housing will be able to move back into the new and updated public housing. There are also spatial constraints on the relocated individuals because they were mostly moved into poor African-American neighborhoods.

This article will be helpful in my essay because it goes further helps me understand the book we are reading, City of Rhetoric, which talks specifically about the different public housing in Chicago.

annotated bibliographies 3 & 4

annotated bibliography 3:

King, Margaret J. The Power of Place. S.l.: Harper Perennial, 2007. The Power of Place: How Environment Affects Brain Function and Meaning. Web.


Margaret J. King, Ph.D., author of The Power of Place: How environment affects brain function and meaning, argues that our subconscious mind is highly sensitive and reactive towards our physical surroundings. King goes on to ask the audience to try a thought experience in order to further prove her point. She gives an example of mini-environments such as a conference room or swimming pool and explains how human behavior changes accordingly. King continues the conversation by looking further into the way places are arranged such as a chairs in a classroom. Rows compared to circle seating compared to group tables. Or how a theme park is set up. Experts have experimented that sound connects more with our brain centers than sight and gave the example of the music in a film and whether that signals our body to relax, frighten, leave, and so on.

I plan to use this argument to further my point about how our environment shapes who we are, and the people we become. Especially because coming to college I have noticed that I am a changed person.

Frank, Lawrence D., and Peter Engelke. “Multiple Impacts of the Built Environment on Public Health:Walkable Places and the Exposure to Air Pollution.” International Regional Science Review. Vol. 28, no.2, 193-216.Apr. 2005. Web. 28 Mar. 2017.


Frank Lawrence received his Ph.D. at University of Washington and is currently a professor and bombardier chair at the University of British Columbia. Peter Engelke received his Ph.D. in history at Georgetown University and is currently working for the Atlantic Council’s Strategic Foresight Initiative. Lawrence and Engelke argue in their scholarly article that the design of every city has public health consequences. The auto dependence in a city due to limited opportunities to walkable stores, restaurants, and other places leads to obesity in the U.S. And therefore land use patterns and transportation investment shape our desire to walk or drive. Lawrence and Engelke go on to say that the elements of a built environment such as the placement of buildings, streets, and the general design can have powerful psychological effects on human senses. Fear of social isolation and physical safety are some that they mention. They define what a built environment is and public health and then connect the built environment to travel behavior, air quality, and physical activity and the various changes cities and humans can make to better themselves and the world.

This is a great source that connects to the scholarly article I mentioned above because generally speaking, they are the same topic but specifically talk about different issues in a built environment. I will use this source to further my argument by providing background information on the ways our built environment affects human health, not just our political views.