In his book, 2.0, Cass Sunstein makes the argument that instead of uniting the people; social media is only dividing us apart. Social media is a place where every individual has the liberty to express their beliefs and thoughts without any repercussions. According to Sunstein, this is not a positive thing. There will always be a group on social media that band together because they all have the same beliefs, especially in a political setting. It is hard to understand opposite sides of the spectrum when one is only exposed to the people that they identify the most with, which means that someone who is not open to democracy will end up never becoming open to democracy and therefore biased to their own perspectives. Also, social media is a platform for many extreme groups such as terrorism. This platform is used to recruit members as well as exploit social media.

The National Democratic Institute would refute Sunstein’s argument and instead say that technology and the use of social networks is imperative because it helps to start movements and show the government that the people can be just as involved in decision making as someone who works within the government. Owning social media helps with advocating social issues and raising awareness about events.

“A person’s duty is to achieve success through hard work and thrift, such success being a sign that one is saved.” -Max Weber

According to Weber, “protestant ethic” is the view that an individual must work hard and put a lot of effort into what they are doing in order to be ‘saved’. Weber argued that Calvinism encouraged a different outlook on how to be a great worker than what was known to those people in the past. In fact, he says that Calvinists believe that there were only a certain amount of spots in Heaven, and that they must do everything in their power to “reserve” those spots. This comes to my earlier definition of the protestant ethic: these people were always on the lookout for different signs that show that they have been saved, or assured that they will have a space in heaven. I find this to be very interesting because while they were too busy looking for signs, they didn’t realize that they were constantly contributing to their society and community.

Weber also argues that the act of being around your community and working hard for what you achieve contributes to the beginning of capitalism. Although this is true, that is not the only reason that working hard for your community can give back. This also is very important for creating a culture of innovation. If I am using Steve Jobs as an example, his inventions and ideas not only helped the rest of the community, but it also helped all of the others who had around the same ideas as him to become great at what they do. I think that when Weber argues that being great at what you do he takes into consideration the amount that it can help the overall community. When Jobs came out with the first Apple product years ago, he made an impact on the entire world. Apple is now the largest company worldwide to have ever put out so many electronics and have been successful in doing so.

“Across the United States, you can hear calls for us to revitalize our national competitiveness. But wait—who is “us”? Is it IBM, Motorola, Whirlpool, and General Motors? Or is it Sony, Thomson, Philips, and Honda?” – Robert Reich

Robert Reich makes a valid argument in his article, “Who is Us?”. Reich argues that although it is very important for a cooperation to be established, it is just as important to open our borders to the people who’d like to work as a part of this cooperation. For example, there are millions of investors around the world that are willing to make American companies so much better, but there are places that still won’t accept them based solely on the fact that they are not “waving the American flag.” It is important to understand that an American cooperation is never fully an American cooperation. With all of the great minds and people overseas, every product that is made in the United States has some influence (if not A LOT of influence) from another country. For example, it is incredible the amount of pieces in the iPhone that are produced by companies abroad. In fact, the entire design of the iPhone 7 was designed in Israel.

Reich would definitely not agree with Trump’s assertion that Apple should manufacture the iPhone and other devices here in the United States. Reich would argue that Trump doesn’t understand that pretty much the majority of the iPhone is manufactured somewhere in Japan, or China, and being taken over by companies on a global scale. It is not realistic to tell Apple that they can only produce their products from the United States because in that case, it won’t be half as good as a product created with the help of companies worldwide. The pieces, design, and overall environment of the phone would be nothing like it is now.

“Education is an important tool that is applied in the contemporary world to succeed, as it mitigates the challenges which are faced in life. The knowledge gained through education enables individuals’ potential to be optimally utilized owing to training of the human mind. This opens doors of opportunities enables individual to achieve better prospects in career growth.”


This is the opening introduction of an essay of education, and why it is so important in the modern world. This introduction does, in fact, follow Graff’s forms. Graff explains that in every introduction, there is a part that explains what the author thinks about the certain topic, and what the rest of the world may believe about the topic. This introduction expresses that some may think that education is a topic that should be taken for granted, while the author believes that it is one of the most important aspects of the modern world.



“A society which is uneducated cannot think on rational lines. In the medieval period, long before the renaissance, people often fought mindless wars that resulted in bloodshed, as they were illiterate and ignorant. Importance of education in modern times cannot be understated as it forms an integral part of our lives in following ways:”


This second introduction is similar but also different in many ways. It is similar because both introductions talk about education and the importance of it, but this introduction does not really follow Graff’s form. It describes how life was in the past, and how much it has changed for future generations.