#1- Georgia Referendum to Amend State Constitution

“Shall Property owned by the University System of Georgia and utilized by providers of college and university student housing and other facilities continue to be exempt from taxation to keep costs affordable?”

The main topic of the sentence comes from one word, “property”. To rephrase, it could be said as “shall property (owned by the University System of Georgia) continue to be exempt from taxation (to keep costs affordable)?” The other information can be saved for a follow up sentence, otherwise it makes the sentence clunky and hard to understand. Too much information given in one sentence makes it hard to understand what the main point is. The words that first jump out are “property”, “utilized”,”exempt”, and “affordable”. In the rhetorical situation, the speaker may be more biased towards keeping costs affordable for students. It is a leading sentence, saying who exactly owns the property, compared to who is actually using it right off the bat. The speaker seems as if they are advocated for lower costs, instead of asking a general question. The speaker may be coming from a background in which they understand and sympathize with the high costs of college and living situations throughout those years. They may just be a student himself. The speaker uses the word “system”. This is powerful because it does not just call out a single university, but the entire university system of Georgia. This has the connotation that is affecting a vast range of students, all struggling with the costs of student housing. It implies that there is an overarching problem here, and makes the reader think about not just the problem in Georgia’s schools, but the U.S. as a whole.

#2 Fleming Quote: Education

[A]n education [. . .] that was designed to support a truly direct, deliberative democracy [. . .] would be an education oriented to the ‘strong publics’ of decision-making rather than the ‘weak publics’ of opinion formation. (205)

This sentence is referencing the design of the American education system and how children are taught today. The issue is that students today are forming more opinions as their ‘publics’ rather than strong, fact based viewpoints. This can cause problems not just in the classroom, but later in life as well, which affects publics as a whole. When everyone has different opinions, not much consensus can go on, thus no formal decisions can be made. If this starts in education, meaning from a very young age, it is hard not to automatically form opinions on a subject without separating it from fact from fiction. This is not to say that opinions are a negative thing, but in this sentence, the context given makes it seem like it is. For example, democracy is crucial to our American society, and requires decision-making. Yet our education system is creating a society that is more willing to form opinions rather than strong publics. Our society is teaching us one things, but expects (and requires) another.

#3 AU Bathroom Sign

Found on the door of an American University bathroom.

Found on the door of an American University bathroom.

Our society has used bathrooms separated between male and female since the beginning of public spaces. This sign is being used a rhetorical device to explain to the public that basically, society is changing. What it is actually says is that anyone can use this bathroom, but it’s symbolism is much greater than that. It is separated into three sections, each explaining a different aspect of the bathroom and how the “other” person (the person who may not understand gender neutral bathrooms) can accommodate themselves. It makes an attempt to comfort them in a way, explaining that yes, these bathrooms are new, but this is the beginning of a new society. Our culture is beginning a change. In another attempt to comfort them, Housing and Dining provides a lock. Maybe this is how change can be implemented, by accommodating both sides, eventually easing people into the idea  of gender neutral bathrooms.

#4 ICs and how to use them

“Territorial publics can be distinguished by how much we know about and are familiar with them; the extent to which we have affinity for and derive emotional sustenance from them; how likely we are to have a voice and be heard in them; how open they are to our differences and conflicts; the extent to which they are independent of other publics; and how effectively they solve their own problems.” (City of Rhetoric- David Fleming)

This sentence is not just IC;IC, but rather a long list of ICs put together. It may seem as if this is a run on sentence, but due to the use of the semi-colon, it not only breaks up each item by the use of a comma, but creates it’s own thought and separate impact using the period. The author may have chose to do this due to each item relating to each other and being part of the same thought, but to show how each item is interconnected while remaining separate thoughts.

#5 Favorite Sentence Reconstructed

“Suffer the pain of discipline or suffer the pain of regret.”

Not sure who said quote, but it is probably one of my favorite sentences.  I always picture this as a conversation between two people. The sentence could serve as and IC itself, or two DCs put together. Saying “suffer the pain of discipline” alone could be taken as “encouraging” words to keep going, almost acting as an IC, and then “suffer the pain of regret” acts as a DC. If it was used as an IC, it would almost seem like more of an afterthought, as if someone said the first part earlier, and later on had to respond to a certain circumstance with the second part. Or, the entire sentence could be taken as a statement by itself, and a powerful one at that.

#6 2016 election

“I think Donald just criticized me for preparing for this debate. And, yes, I did. You know what else I prepared for? I prepared to be president. And I think that’s a good thing” (Hillary Clinton).

This sentence structure is more like a train of thought. At first, Clinton says a statement, an IC. Followed by another IC. Then a question, which most often is always an IC. An answer to a question could be both an IC or a DC, and in this case, I perceive it more as an IC. Because it feels more like a statement, it is most similar to the structure of an IC. The last part, “and i think that’s a good thing,” is definitely a DC, as you need the first few parts of the quote to understand what this “good thing” really is.

#7 Ortiz

“While David Ortiz keeps teasing us with tweets about a possible return, the Red Sox seem to be doing the same in their own way.” Boston Globe

This quote utilizes the DC;DC format. It could also be perceived as DC;IC, but without the context the first part of the DC, the second part of the sentence is perceived as weak, and may not stand well on it’s own as an IC. Thus I have decided it is a DC. “The Red Sox seem to be doing the same in their own way” does not give enough information to fully disclose what is going on in the sentence. Without crucial information, such as what the Red Sox are doing, the sentence feels like it has no subject. By placing the first DC in front of this sentence, the reader is able to understand the context better.

#8: DC; IC

“They can be as small and homogenous as condo associations or as large and diverse as the world itself. The question for us is: does this kind of variation matter to political and rhetorical theory?… The answer we have tended to give to these questions, I believe, is no: it is important to situate our civic selves somewhere, but it does not really matter where” (Fleming 37).

This quote is utilizing the format of G&B’s “they say, I say”. By using this format, within one sentence the reader is given almost background evidence, as to propose what other people say. The “I say” is not as direct, but still gives the author’s perspective (assuming it is their opinion). This is where the thesis may be located, and will propose the start of analysis.

#9: Shakespeare

“A fool thinks himself to be wise, but a wise man knows himself to be a fool.” (William Shakespeare)

This quote contains two DCs, but makes a power statement when put together. While the second half of the sentence is undeniably a DC, the first part may be able to pass as an IC. “A fool thinks himself to be wise.” It works, but does not feel like a complete thought. When the second DC is added, it makes a complete thought. If the “but” was taken out of the second DC, it could also possibly be an IC, but still feels incomplete. Thus, the sentence structure is DC;DC.

#10: Inspirational Quote

“You wouldn’t worry so much about what people really thought of you, if you only knew just how seldom they do.” (Unknown)

This sentence structure follows DC;DC, or even debatably a DC;IC. If you keep “you wouldn’t worry so much about what people really thought of you alone,” the sentence feels incomplete due to lack of context and like the reader is left on a hanger. The second half of the sentence is also a DC, because without the first part of the sentence there is no context on how “you” and “they” are. It could be taken as an IC, depending on the context. If someone just said “if you only knew how seldom people thought of you”, the sentence would become an IC.

According to Wikipedia, Commonplace Books are defined as: "Such books are essentially scrapbooks filled with items of every kind: recipes, quotes, letters, poems, tables of weights and measures, proverbs, prayers, legal formulas. Commonplaces are used by readers, writers, students, and scholars as an aid for remembering useful concepts or facts they have learned. Each commonplace book is unique to its creator's particular interests."

According to Wikipedia, Commonplace Books are defined as: “Such books are essentially scrapbooks filled with items of every kind: recipes, quotes, letters, poems, tables of weights and measures, proverbs, prayers, legal formulas. Commonplaces are used by readers, writers, students, and scholars as an aid for remembering useful concepts or facts they have learned. Each commonplace book is unique to its creator’s particular interests.”