M.A. Cuddi’s Back Story

The image above is of my father, Luis Arroyave, and I In front of the Supreme Court during his first visit to Washington D.C. 

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“Remember how far you’ve come, not just how far you have to go. You are not where you want to be, but neither are you where you used to be.”

~ Rick Warren

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Where I’m From

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Where I am :

I’m a freshman at American University majoring in Public Health.  I plan to minor in public policy, then after I graduate I plan to pursue a career in health policy in protecting the rights for medicaid beneficiaries living in nursing homes.

I am a Colombian American from Jersey City, NJ, the nations most culturally diverse city. In fact, I took my diverse bubble for granted, and once I came to college at American University I soon realized that my upbringing was not representative of the majority of Americans. Throughout the past ten months I’ve grown tremendously both academically and mentally. It was here at American University that I was referred to as a person of color, which enabled me to understand how I am perceived to society. It took me a while to find my niche, but now I am happy to share I have found my niche. In the past ten month’s I have taken this opportunity to explore my interests and learn my limits.

I have been fortunate to meet other people from New Jersey, but unfortunately I have not been able to completely relate to them. Perhaps it is because Jersey city associates itself more with New York City, or perhaps it is the disparities within socioeconomic backgrounds? I’m not sure what it is, but what I do know is that I use to get excited when meeting a person from New Jersey. I quickly realized I  actually enjoy spending time with people different from me. Thus, I tend to gravitate towards all different kinds of people.

It’s been one hell of an educational experience, one year down hopefully three more years to go!

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Where I Want To Be… 

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What I’ve Done In & Outside of class: 

In my College Writing 101  class with professor Hunter Hoskins I have had the distinct opportunity to explore rhetoric through space.  Through this course I was able to explore Shaw, Washington DC, and analyze it’s rhetorical situation through history and my first hand account observation.  Also, I increased my knowledge in the power of rhetoric, and use of rhetoric through mapping commonplaces.  I explored Shaw, Washington through news articles, scholarly journals, food menus, etc. and digital archives in multiple mediums– Essay 1, Mapping Common Places through the creation of a YouTube video, and the creation of an Instagram Page.

Straight to Links:

Check Out the cool work I’ve done!

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Interesting facts about me:

1.) I am the youngest out of three siblings

2.) I’ve been an aunt for more than a decade

3.) Some sports I enjoy playing and watching: Track (200x),  soccer, tennis, hand ball, and fencing

4.) I was raised by a village

5.)  I’ve conducted behavioral and cognitive research

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Want to learn more?

Email: Melanieaacc@aol.com

 

Shaw, Washington DC: Gentrification redefining the neighborhood’s flavor

Shaw, Washington, DC was once home to the African American Renaissance during the roaring 20s, home to the 1960s Washington DC civil rights riots, and home to the US crack epidemic. Now it is home to a vibrant young demographic through the incredibly complex process of gentrification.Over the past century, Shaw has developed a multitude of reputations, but most recently it has been a symbol for its historic African American culture.My investigation of Shaw began as a class assignment to choose a location mentioned in Ruben Castaneda’s  memoir of S-Street Rising, in which I chose the intersection of  O’Street and 5th Street NW where five kids were shot from a gang related drive-by  in December 20th, 1990.  Choosing this location provided me the entry way into exploring Shaw’s neighborhood. During my first visit I documented my experience through videos and photographs, which would later serve as a source of inspiration in my mapping commonplaces project. Through my research on Shaw’s history, I was able compare the last ten years to its current state using google map images. Google Maps allowed me to compare the photos taken during my first visit to what the area looked like ten years ago. My research of Shaw sparked my curiosity in attempting to understand how and why Shaw was undergoing such a rapid change.During my visit I walked from Shaw’s metro station to O’Street and 5th street NW, where I noticed the old and new infrastructure. Using my observation I began  my entire journey documenting newly renovated/developed homes to homes that were foreclosed and abandoned to provide a stark contrast. It is through this lens of juxtaposing new and old infrastructure that I created an Instagram and a Youtube Video, in an effort to demonstrate the rapid “revitalization,” and it’s impact to physical infrastructure. It was also through my visit I sensed a tension that exists between longtime residents to newer residents.The more research I conducted on Shaw’s history and reviewed its current news headlines, is where I realized these were just some of the implications of gentrification.

My video is titled, “Shaw, Washington DC: Gentrification redefining the neighborhood’s flavor,” which attempts to explore the conversation of gentrification in Shaw through images and videos taken by me on my first visitFebruary 12th, 2017. The video incorporates the soundtrack, “ DC or Nothing,”  from the artist  Wale, an iconic DC local artist. In his soundtrack he describes DC during its darkest time when the district was predominantly African American, or as Wale says it “When the city was chocolate.”My video begins with M.A. Cuddi Productions Presents, which is a self-created video production company linked to my Ed Space website. Then the video introduces the audience to  the title, “Shaw, Washington DC,” followed by the address of my location and a brief explanation of its significance. I chose to introduce the address and brief explanation to foreshadow and  inform my audience of the images and videos they will see. Within the first 30 seconds I present my audience on how I arrived to my intersection through images from the metro stop to crossing the streets. Then there is footage depicting my intersection and a young white couple crossing the street, while a middle-aged black man was gardening on his lawn. When the beat drops in the sound-track, the tempo of the music accelerates and so do the images.As Wale says, “ Give respect where I live,”  images of abandoned homes and freshly painted homes side by side present a juxtaposition. When Wale says, “When the city was chocolate, there was death in the air… but he push them white in the hood…,” there’s a video footage depicting  three young adult white males with take out boxes in their hands passing by a group of black locals sitting on the side of the street. While, the black group of men and women standing were discussing how newcomers do not acknowledge their existence; ironically, the three young white males rush through without acknowledging the locals around them. As I continue to walk down Q Street, I focus the video on an image I took of Tiki Seafood and Dacha Beer Garden, followed by each of their menu’s which each present a visual distinction of their target audience. The video proceeds to juxtapose foreclosed boarded homes next to redeveloped homes, as the chorus to the soundtrack says:

I feel something change in the weather, and I’m home, home, home

Don’t let it drift away like a feather and I’m home, home, home

And oh, I gotta find my way

Oh I gotta face the day

But oh I can’t stay away, not never, you’re my home, home, home

I strategically filmed the video as if it were drifting like a feather to strengthen the relationship between the video and soundtrack, representing a parallel between the footage and soundtrack. The video proceeds to the exact location where the five young men were shot from a gang related drive by in 1990, as Wale discusses the loss of a friend which strengthens the parallel between the film and soundtrack even further. As the soundtrack nears the end, the images  the video began with are inverted to symbolize me walking back to the metro stop. I also incorporate a before and after photo of Shaw’s library, which sits across the street from Shaw’s metro stop in the inversion. In order to strengthen the inversion, I reintroduce the title, “Welcome to Shaw.” I strategically include silence and an image depicting the definition of gentrification so that the audience is aware of how the neighborhood is evolving. To emphasize the ramifications of gentrification I reintroduce the ending of Wale’s soundtrack. Additionally, I introduce screenshots of NPR, Washington Post, and BBC article headlines to demonstrate how gentrification has impacted the Shaw. In the ending of Wale’s soundtrack he states  his hopes of these words living, and whenever he is inDC he hopes to be recognized by locals.To end the film, I introduce to the audience  why this track is appropriate to accompany the images and footage. and state the artist’s personal relationship to Shaw.

 

I purposely left the end of my video open to interpretation by my audience; I don’t state if gentrification is a positive or negative phenomenon. Instead, I simply highlight the ramifications and impact it has had on the black community. My main goal through this project was not to draw any conclusions, but instead to demonstrate the relationship between longtime residents to newer residents, while presenting a comparison through infrastructure. To further the comparison between old and new infrastructure in Shaw I created an Instagram page based on photo’s I took, than used google maps to trace back what the area look like ten years ago.

My Instagram profile username is titled, “Shawfullofflavor,” which is in response to Washington D.C.’s topos of chocolate city fusing into a vanilla city.  My profile consist of 27 posted images, and three of them are one’ s I personally took. Using the three images I took and I then went to google maps to track its visual history in the last ten years. The first image is of the intersection between 7th street NW and Qstreet, illustrating two eateries Tiki Seafood and Dacha Beer Garden, which is then followed by two images depicting the same intersection on August 2011 and most recently October 2016. Setting these three images side by side present a juxtaposition by demonstrating the intersection’s infrastructural progression. In 2011 Dacha Beer Garden’s location was once a Chinese take out eatery, but in less than 5 years the aesthetic of its location  was completely. I then divide the first and second image by a row labeled S-HAW, which is divided into three images to appropriately fit on a row. I strategically use the row labeled S-HAW to separate the three images, because the other two images each are accompanied by five photos in order to provide a gradual progression and juxtaposition. For instance, the second image is of Shaw’s library and the chronology of the photo’s goes as follows:  2007, 2009, 2011,  2015, and 2016. The photo’s side by side provides an immediate chronological juxtaposition from the old Shaw library to the current one is standing there today.  The third image, is of a recent colorful development in Shaw. This structure was brought to my attention because it easily popped out, and the reason is  of color contrast from the gray condominium building to bright red, yellow, and magenta fluorescent colors outlining the windows. Color in a neighborhood is a crucial component in forming community, and is why I feel it is an important case study to focus on its chronological development: 2016, Aug.2011, Jun 2011, and 2009. These three photo’s allowed me to create an Instagram page, and exhibit the changes within a decade in Shaw’s infrastructural characteristics. The Instagram page is a supportive exhibit to my video.Through this presentation, I hope to have portrayed an accurate depiction of the continuing gentrification in Shaw’s neighborhood.

References 

Carey, James W. “A Short History of Journalism for Journalists: A Proposal and Essay.” Harvard  International Journal of Press/Politics, vol. 12, no. 1, Jan. 2007, pp. 3–16.

Duggan, Paul“In Gentrified Shaw, Old-Timers Offer Advice to Young — and Sometimes Naive — Newcomers.” Washington Post, https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/trafficandcommuting/in-gentrified-shaw-old-timers-offer-advice-to-young–and-sometimes-naive–newcomers/2016/11/20/a1247940-ada4-11e6-a31b-4b6397e625d0_story.html?utm_term=.a9b04347bf9bAccessed 17 Feb. 2017.

Gringlas, Sam.“Old Confronts New In A Gentrifying DC Neighborhood.” NPR.org, http://www.npr.org/2017/01/16/505606317/d-c-s-gentrifying-neighborhoods-a-careful-mix-of-newcomers-and-old-timers. Accessed 17 Feb. 2017.

Gallaher, Carolyn. “Do Efforts to Mitigate Gentrification Work? Evidence from Washington DC.” Alternate Routes: A Journal of Critical Social Research 28 (2017).

Green, Rodney D., et al. “The Indirect Displacement Hypothesis: a Case Study in Washington, DC.” The Review of Black Political Economy (2017): 1-22.

Hochschild, Adam. Journalists and Historians Can Learn from Each Other. 15 Mar. 2002, http://niemanreports.org/articles/journalists-and-historians-can-learn-from-each-other/.

Lewis, Aidan, and Bill McKenna. “Washington DC from Murder Capital to Boomtown.” BBC News, BBC, 6 Aug. 2014, www.bbc.com/news/magazine-28605215. Accessed 27 Feb. 2017.

Meyer, Eugene L. “Washington’s Shaw Neighborhood Is Remade for Young Urbanites.” The New York Times, 1 Dec. 2015. NYTimes.com, https://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/02/realestate/commercial/development-redefines-character-of-washingtons-shaw-area.html.

Osman, Suleiman. “Gentrification Matters.” Journal of Urban History, vol. 43, no. 1, Jan. 2017, pp. 172–179.

“Shaw.” Washington.org, 17 Feb. 2017, washington.org/dc-neighborhoods/shaw. Accessed 25 Feb. 2017.

Schindler, Sarah. Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment. http://www.yalelawjournal.org/article/architectural-exclusion. Accessed 25 Feb. 2017.

Rogers, Allison. “The Real Estate Market That Defies the Trends.” Time, Time, 5 Jan. 2012, business.time.com/2012/01/05/the-real-estate-market-that-defies-the-trends/. Accessed 25 Feb. 2017.

Home 1230 North Burling Street

 

Reading Analysis 3: Home 1230 North Burling Street

        In Chapter Seven, “Home”, in  City of Rhetoric author David Fleming synthesizes his two previous chapters which discuss blacks’ political participation as subordinate to whites. In history, political initiatives or movements have occurred through political coalitions and for groups of homogeneous intellect or phenotypes to unite and gain political moment. However, the way the black community is scattered throughout the metropolitan region does not provide a conducive environment for (Fleming, 149).  In chapter seven Fleming explores the Cabrini Green neighborhood where he notes the external perceptions of inner-city public housing in the neighborhood and their insufficient political representations. The political representation of the area is nearly non-existent, which in turns allows for the area to be readily demolished and gentrified. The lack of representation is significant because Fleming stresses the empowerment of the black community who want to leave public housing and who want to stay in public housing and rehabilitate the area. Fleming proposes a way to empower the community is to be civically and politically engaged. However, the negative perception outsiders have of public housing residents are barriers to participate, and perhaps the reason residents struggle with voicing their opinions on how they should live, which explains why “public housing residents consistently ask to be seen and treated not as poor, black, or anything else, but as full and normal human beings” (151).

        It is this form of dehumanization is accomplished through rhetorical strategies which Fleming exposes in Chapter 7. For instance, the diction of how outsiders describe the ghetto or public housing neighborhoods presents a narrative that inhibits the growth of the black community through word choice, because every word carries a positive or negative connotation. Fleming argues, the negative language that describes public housing neighborhoods is the very reason why it is easy to easily demolish public housing units and exclude the black community from voicing their opinions about their living conditions. Another contributor to civic disengagement is the placement of public housing and the disunity of black residents.  The rhetoric that surrounds public housing residents is a negative one, and is why Fleming argues the importance of the empowerment of the black community. In order to improve the black community and to no longer dehumanize or view them as inferior is to understand the complexity of these areas, and the importance to empower them to rehabilitate their communities or provide opportunities to leave. The argument matters because a collective homogeneous environment is dangerous because it disregards minorities in society, which endangers the democracy of a state because the tyranny of the majority is not a democratic society. The democracy of America is being endangered by single narratives and skewed rhetoric.

 

New Yorkers Keep New York Safe

The image above is a post 9/11 campaign in New York City, “If you see something, say something,” was a response to the 2001 World Trade Center attack. The poster above can be found in New York city’s areas of public transportation, like train stations, bus stops, and  airports. “New Yorkers Keep New York Safe” is a slogan addressing New Yorkers to be vigilant, but also setting the example that every New Yorker comes in all ages, shapes, color, and sizes by providing images 8 x 4 images of different types of New Yorkers. The key to this advertisement is to acknowledge that anybody can essentially look like a New Yorker, but it also places the responsibility on everyone to do their part and be vigilant of any mysterious packages. The repetition of New Yorker is a rhetorical term known as anaphora, which the repetition of the beginning of the phrase.  The effect of repeating “New Yorker” enables the reader, most likely a New Yorker to associate the “If you see something, say something,” with themselves, and the ad places a sense of responsibility for New Yorkers to keep the metropolitan area safe, which addresses New Yorks ethnic diversity.

The “If you see something, say something,” campaign originally began in New York City, but since has expanded to other metropolitan cities like Washington D.C.  The expansion of the campaign can be accredited to many reasons, but I believe two main reasons is the rise of domestic terrorism and the effective use of epistrophe in the slogan, ” If you see something, say something” the repetition of “something” is effective because it is clear to the public anything that seems out of place can be viewed with suspicion, which is also enforced by the image which illustrates a black bag sitting unattended.  Also, the slogan is short, striking, and a memorable phrase has been an effective way for addressing terrorism in the NYC tri-state area, which has caught in other respective metropolitan areas for the risk of a potential attack.

 

Until the End

The image above is a photo of former prime minister, Winston Churchill, in the background. While,  in the foreground an excerpt from his “We Shall Fight on the Beaches” speech is superimposed on the photo. In the excerpt shown above, Churchill uses the rhetorical device anaphora, We Shall. The repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of each line  has the effect of engaging the  audience in a particular emotional experience, and in this case the use of anaphora was to empower Brits to have national pride. In this case, Churchill strategically uses anaphora to strengthen his audience. The speech was in response to lost battles against the Vichy French, which led many to question if England would be taken over by the Nazi’s as well, but to suppress those thoughts he restates the phrase, “We shall fight”, ensuring his audience which was the house of commons and the public as a whole that England will stand there ground to the end.

Shaw: The Rise of Gentrification

A Rhetorical  Analysis on Shaw’s Rise in Gentrification

The latest news in metropolitan cities, like Washington DC, is the concept of gentrification. While most may not understand the phenomenon, journalists have dominated the conversation by addressing its social and economic implications. While this method may seem reasonable, journalists have oversimplified the phenomenon to one term, gentrification. Journalists covering the topic have essentially disregarded a conversation urban-planning scholars have been having for the last four decades, resulting in an appeal to emotion by journalists. Gentrification has come to be a non-dimensional term that excludes the tangible underlying issues such as economic injustices in the neighborhood.  By rhetorically analyzing two eateries and their menus on O Street and a formal Washington DC travel website, in addition to applying Schindler’s method of architectural exclusion, I conclude that gentrification cannot be considered a natural phenomenon, but a multidimensional complexity.   

To further our understanding of the phenomenon of “gentrification” I will focus on  Shaw, a neighborhood in Washington, DC. Using Reuben Castaneda’s narrative from S-Street Rising I am able to understand the neighborhood’s economic downfalls from the crack epidemic. Washington Post journalist, Ruben Castaneda’s memoir S-Street Rising where he explored O’Street NW, Washington DC– where five kids were shot from a gang-related drive-by in 1991. Like the journalists of today, Ruben Castaneda highlighted a fatal, crude, and gruesome narrative applicable to a time where Washington DC acquired the nickname “murder capital” for its astronomical high crime rate, which had a strong association with drug trafficking. BBC Journalists Lewis and McKenna also referenced Shaw’s association to drug tracking and stated how Shaw, a historically African American neighborhood, was once home to segregation and an African-American renaissance before plagued with crime, crack abuse, and gun violence. For example, Shaw post-civil rights movement and the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. led to an uproar of protests which set the stage for decades of poverty to overtake and crime to flourish during the 1980s and 90s (Lewis and McKenna 1).  Since then Shaw has experienced an economic turnaround, a shift in demographics, and redevelopment in infrastructure. Many journalists have accredited Shaw’s revitalization to a simple term, gentrification. However, after my visit, I realized the flourishing phenomenon could not be narrowed down to one mere word. In fact, it is a complex concept requiring understanding because it is not just occurring in DC, it is occurring in every major city in the United States.

By applying Schindler’s method of architectural exclusion, I explore two local eateries in the Shaw and their menus, along with exploring the accessibility to public transportation in the area. To do so, I  rhetorically analyze the way Shaw is marketing economic turn around and shift in demographics using Washington DC’s official travel website. Using the travel website, I explore the rhetorical techniques in Shaw’s gastronomy culture–and how it is being used to appeal to both tourists and young, affluent professionals. In an effort to explore the phenomenon of gentrification more I analyze where this phenomenon may be headed. To conclude, I apply Schindler’s method of architectural exclusion to Shaw’s neighborhood, furthering my understanding of the neighborhoods physical barriers and accessibility.

 Economic Turn Around & Shift in Demographics

Washington DC’s official travel website has an interactive web page for each neighborhood in the district including Shaw. The website’s target audience are both tourists visiting the district, and up and coming working class professionals interested in immersing themselves in the District’s culture. The travel website provides the uniqueness of each DC neighborhood including the activities, events, and gastronomy culture each neighborhood has to offer.

Figure 1. Washington DC’s official travel website: Shaw’s neighborhood web page discusses the area’s rich African-American history during the roaring 1920s, and its current gastronomy, music, arts, and night-scene culture.

The creators of the website are rhetorical strategists, because they are particular on how they want Shaw to be marketed and perceived.  For those who are unfamiliar with the area, and solely rely on DC’s travel website will perhaps never know the role Shaw played during the civil rights movement and DC’s crack epidemic. In fact, Shaw’s webpage romanticizes the area’s rich African-American history during the roaring 1920s, which implies the area once had its epoch of glory but has since faltered. This may explain why the website uses phrases including, “. .. Rapidly developing downtown zone.” (“Shaw” 1).  The website also fails to mention why the area has become a tourist attraction in less than a decade or what economic, political, and social forces led to its “revitalization.” Only mentioning the area’s rich early African American history implies a decline in the area’s cultural richness and prosperity during the 1930s-2000s.

Figure 2. Between the intersection of 7th St NW & Q St NW, Washington, DC 20001.  Two different eateries– (the left) representing the restaurants receiving reviews, ratings, and website attention; (the right) representing the affordable to go fried food eatery.

Washington DC’s official travel website promotes Shaw’s newest cafe’s, restaurants, bars, clubs, and high-end shopping centers.  Shaw’s website goes to the extent of promoting local eateries, theaters, bars, and clubs by embedding hyperlinks to every establishment mentioned in the website. Hyperlinks make the website easily navigable to local establishments and accessible for an individual to access and view a restaurant’s menu, hours, and specialties. However, the downfall of  Shaw’s website is its failure to incorporate non-new establishments, like the restaurant Tiki Seafood. Figure 2 depicts two eateries in Shaw; on the left is, Dacha Beer Garden (which is featured on the DC website) and on the right is  while right across the street, Tiki Seafood, is not mentioned once which makes it clear that DC is selling a narrative aimed towards young, affluent professionals, not accentuating or marketing pre-existing food establishments. The marketer’s strategically incorporated adjectives with positive connotations to describe Shaw, especially when it comes to its gastronomy scene using words like “sizzles,” “historic,” “quirky” and “historic.” For example, “The dining and bar scene in Shaw sizzles, with new spots opening up on 7th and 9th Streets and in the neighborhood’s quirky, historic alleyways” (Shaw). The adjectives used are associated with positive connotations. Repetition of adjectives with positive connotations can be found throughout the web page describing Shaw.  For instance, the creators or marketers of the website have a labeled Shaw in four simple adjectives: “Shiny,” “Hip,” “Historic,” and “Buzzing.” Each adjective not only represents an illusionary affluent image of Shaw to tourists, but also to potential residents. These four adjectives are associated with positive connotations which may be a true concept for some living in Shaw–particularly newcomers.

The sentence dedicated to Shaw’s gastronomy uses asyndeton, the rhetorical device in which an author strategically chose to eliminate conjunctions.  The omission of conjunctions allows the author to make a speech more dramatic and effective by speeding up its rhythm and pace, for instance:

“Hot tables include Espita Mezcaleria for inventive southern Mexican cuisine, The Dabney for Mid-Atlantic seafood and southern sides cooked over a wood fire, The Red Hen for wood-fired Italian cuisine in a rustic, homey environment and Thally Restaurant, a laid-back New American concept with a homespun soda operation.” (Shaw)

This sentence is linked by four commas with the omission of conjunctions, which forces the reader to speed the pace of reading, and is an effective way of placing emphasis on the myriad of cuisine Shaw has to offer. Rather than saying, Shaw offers four distinct types of cuisine the writer strategically used commas, and omitted conjunctions to quicken the pace, which creates a parallel/comparison between the different types of eateries. The web page has one sentence dedicated to mentioning local eateries, and as noted earlier, the web page fails to mention pre-existing establishment like the  Tiki Carry Out (see Figure 1) but promotes Dacha Beer Garden building as the webpage’s wallpaper. To grasp a better understanding of why Tiki Seafood and many pre-existing eateries alike are not mentioned on Shaw’s web page I conducted  a rhetorical analysis of Tiki Seafood and Dacha Beer Garden food menus:

Figure 3. Courtesy of MenuPix. The image above is Shaw’s eatery, Tiki Seafoods,  take out menu.

Figure 4. The image to the left is Shaw’s eatery, Dacha Beer Garden, take out menu.

Tiki Seafoods’ one and only menu is a tri-fold carry out pamphlet offering six various categories– “Chicken Wings, Beverages, Breakfast, Sandwiches, Sandwiches & Subs, Specials, and Side Orders.” Unlike Dacha Beer Garden’s 5 categories– “Appetizers”, “Brats”, “Skewers”, “Entrees”, and “Slides”. Tik’s tri-fold pamphlet has an orange checkerboard accenting its borders with food caricatures, including double-decker burger, french fries, root beer float, eggs, and bacon. The cheapest priced item is a small beverage for .85 cents, and the most expensive item is ten pieces of chicken wings for $8. Hamburgers on Tiki’s menus are $2.39, however, compared to Dacha Beer Garden a hamburger is not only $15, but it refers to the exact food item as a beef burger, not a hamburger.  The cheapest items on Dacha Beer Garden’s can be found under the “Sides” category for $5. Moreover, the Dacha Beer Garden’s background is an attractive woman’s face with short hair, who looks like she stepped out of the roaring 1920s. The background is identical to the iconic mural on the side of Dacha Beer Garden’s brick building. The aesthetics of Dacha Beer Garden’s menu elegantly uses a bright cherry red to highlight the five categories, additional fees, and traditional daily events. The prices in  Dacha Beer Garden menu are whole numbers, while Tiki Seafood’s  menu has low and estimated prices. Both establishments are right across the street from one another, but each establishment addresses two different audiences. For instance,  Dacha Beer Garden has more healthy options and is pricier compared to Tiki Seafood. The economic disparity struck me, considering the two eatery establishments are across the street from each other. Clearly Dacha Beer Garden seeks to attract new residents and exclude former residents used to affordable prices from restaurants such as Tiki Seafoods.

Where is this Phenomenon headed?

Looking at Shaw’s marketing we can see evidence of gentrification’s inevitability. Especially when the Washington DC travel website seeks to create a clear depiction of what the neighborhood aspires to be. This inevitable process is spawned by job availability. It is the reason why you see young, affluent professionals flocking  to Shaw and the same reasons why former residents flocked to Shaw decades ago (Duggan).  

In addition to DC’s official travel website highlighting Shaw’s new restaurants, another factor of gentrification is the housing market. The housing market in Washington DC is flourishing, which can be accredited to a limited amount of space increasing competition for house purchasing and newly available jobs in the area (Rogers). Gentrification is a complex and messy process, but it narrows down to location, placement of transportation, infrastructure, and financial feasibility.

During my visit to Shaw, I walked on V Street, currently the home to many new restaurants and apartment complexes, and I saw visible evidence of the change that has occurred in Shaw. While there I observed the tension between local natives and newcomers/tourists as they were exiting a restaurant with take-out containers in their hands.  The young group of affluent professionals coming from Dacha Beer Garden were walking down the street passing a group of older African-Americans folk sitting on the sidewalk. As I was walking by, I was inclined on recording the encounter, once I heard an older black gentleman with a “Seals,” discussing how he is treated unfairly as a black veteran, and how much change Shaw has undergone since the 90’s. As soon as he mentioned the 90s, I connected the dots, because in 1991 the Green line was established, and for the very first time, Shaw had its own metro stop, which allowed the once isolated area to be easily connected to different neighborhoods in different wards (History 4). Not only were they connected to surrounding neighborhoods it allowed Shaw to gain economic productivity.

Figure 6. Courtesy of the Greater Washington the image above depicts an animated slide show of DC’s Metro before the Green-Line.

Figure 5. Courtesy of the Greater Greater Washington the image above depicts an animated slide show of DC’s Metro after the Green-Line.

After my encounter, I quickly realized what I had experienced was the product of architectural exclusion.

Applying Architectural Exclusion

So far we have discussed the social constructs of society: both financial and cultural environments in Shaw. However, through architectural exclusion the cause of economic turnaround can be attributed to a shift in demographics and redevelopment in infrastructure. Schindler’s concept of architectural exclusion is concerned with the “placement and location of infrastructure that physically separates and inhibits access” (Schindler 19).  Schindler concept of architectural exclusion is referring to the placement of physical barriers and facilitators like bridges, crosswalks, train stations, or bus stops. For example, Shaw is in prime real-estate for young, affluent newcomers that work near the national mall considering it is nearly 15 minutes away. The placement of transits, highway routes, bridge exits, and road infrastructure is the main cause for both social seclusion and economic exclusion. In the last decade, Shaw’s has experienced an entirely new facelift about its built environment. For example, when using Google Maps tool to compare what the area near the metro stop station looked like in 2007 to now, one can notice the newly painted bike lanes, and a new library right off the metro stop. What may seem like nuances to an individual strolling by the neighborhood may not notice the crowd of people it attracts and excludes.

Shaw’s has improved its built environment from newly paved streets, new sidewalks, new traffic lights, and easy access to transportation. A visible contributing factor to recent redevelopment in Shaw is the easy access to transportation, which explains why the area near the metro is covered in new paint, newly paved streets, and right off 7th Ave where new restaurants dress the strip. The newly built environment and location must do with the metro station built in the 1990s and young affluent professional flocking to Shaw (Lewis and McKenna 1). Using several concepts from Schindler’s article, “Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment,” I assessed the environment I was visiting. Schindler emphasized the importance of law, but ultimately she believed architecture was more powerful than law, and the reason to why architecture is more important is because the law is, “less explicit, less identifiable, and less familiar to courts, legislators, and the public” (1941). Thus, far, I focused on the social and economic impacts that have resulted from gentrification, but I have yet to explore the impact architecture plays in Shaw, rather than mentioning Shaw’s metro-line and its placement and impact to the community. On my visit, I stayed on the lookout for physical barriers because it is known architecture has been created above the law to restrict access to certain areas of a community through the incorporation of low bridges, road closings, construction of walls, placement of transit, highway routes, etc. I did notice a few road closing signs due to construction, and I noticed the placement of transportation was right next to the library and a walkable distance from 5th street where all the restaurants are located.

Figure 6. Shaw’s one and only metro station, 1701 8th St NW, Washington, DC 20001.

Conclusion

By rhetorically analyzing two eateries and their menus on V Street and a formal Washington DC travel website, in addition to applying Schindler’s method of architectural exclusion I conclude that gentrification cannot be considered a natural phenomenon, but a multidimensional complexity.  I cannot claim or generalize all journalists to have simply covered the social and economic aspect. BBC journalists Lewis’ and McKenna acknowledge a contributing factor to Shaw’s drastic change in culture is due to the construction of the metro line, which allows for Shaw to be connected to the rest of DC  (1). Schindler believes the government can regulate infrastructure and architecture, which shapes an individual’s experience and behavior of being excluded or included in their respective communities. However, I noticed how infrastructure’s role in society is often overlooked by locals, because of the economic disparity present and the hostile social interaction with new and former neighbors. For society to understand the underlying implications of the power of rhetoric, news watchers and readers alike must hold their information accountable to reporting underlying truths because the root of the cause will enable individuals to understand and to better address the issue. In this case, individuals must be aware of the power of placement of architecture and its power to dictate human behavior. To further explore the phenomenon of gentrification in both Shaw and similar metropolitan neighborhoods, it is imperative for more urban planning scholars to apply Schindler’s method of architectural exclusion when discussing gentrification.  Other potential areas to explore are laws set in place to protect public housing, tenants, and house owners from losing their homes to high property taxes.  If such laws exist, how effectively are they being enforced?

Works Cited

Carey, James W. “A Short History of Journalism for Journalists: A Proposal and Essay.” Harvard  International Journal of Press/Politics, vol. 12, no. 1, Jan. 2007, pp. 3–16.

Duggan, Paul“In Gentrified Shaw, Old-Timers Offer Advice to Young — and Sometimes Naive — Newcomers.” Washington Post, https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/trafficandcommuting/in-gentrified-shaw-old-timers-offer-advice-to-young–and-sometimes-naive–newcomers/2016/11/20/a1247940-ada4-11e6-a31b-4b6397e625d0_story.html. Accessed 17 Feb. 2017.

Fleming, David. “City of Rhetoric: Revitalizing the Public Sphere in Metropolitan America.” David Fleming: 9780791476505: Amazon.com: Books, www.amazon.com/City-Rhetoric-Revitalizing-Metropolitan-America/dp/0791476502. Accessed 25 Feb. 2017.

Gallaher, Carolyn. “Do Efforts to Mitigate Gentrification Work? Evidence from Washington DC.” Alternate Routes: A Journal of Critical Social Research 28 (2017).

Green, Rodney D., et al. “The Indirect Displacement Hypothesis: a Case Study in Washington, DC.” The Review of Black Political Economy (2017): 1-22.

Gringlas, Sam.“Old Confronts New In A Gentrifying DC Neighborhood.” NPR.org, http://www.npr.org/2017/01/16/505606317/d-c-s-gentrifying-neighborhoods-a-careful-mix-of-newcomers-and-old-timers. Accessed 17 Feb. 2017.

History | WMATA. https://www.wmata.com/about/history.cfm. Accessed 27 Apr. 2017.

  Hochschild, Adam. Journalists and Historians Can Learn from Each Other. 15 Mar. 2002, http://niemanreports.org/articles/journalists-and-historians-can-learn-from-each-other/.

Lewis, Aidan, and Bill McKenna. “Washington DC from Murder Capital to Boomtown.” BBC News, BBC, 6 Aug. 2014, www.bbc.com/news/magazine-28605215. Accessed 27 Feb. 2017.

Meyer, Eugene L. “Washington’s Shaw Neighborhood Is Remade for Young Urbanites.” The New York Times, 1 Dec. 2015. NYTimes.com, https://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/02/realestate/commercial/development-redefines-character-of-washingtons-shaw-area.html.

 

Osman, Suleiman. “Gentrification Matters.” Journal of Urban History, vol. 43, no. 1, Jan. 2017, pp. 172–179.

Restaurant Menu | MenuPix. http://www.menupix.com/menudirectory/menu.php?id=502222. Accessed 24 Apr. 2017.

Rogers, Allison. “The Real Estate Market That Defies the Trends.” Time, Time, 5 Jan. 2012, business.time.com/2012/01/05/the-real-estate-market-that-defies-the-trends/. Accessed 25 Feb. 2017.

“Shaw.” Washington.org, 17 Feb. 2017, washington.org/dc-neighborhoods/shaw. Accessed 25 Feb. 2017.

Schindler, Sarah. Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment. http://www.yalelawjournal.org/article/architectural-exclusion. Accessed 25 Feb. 2017.

 

Shaw: Rise of Gentrification

 

A Rhetorical  Analysis on Shaw’s Rise in Gentrification

The latest news in metropolitan cities, like Washington D.C., is the concept of gentrification. While most may not understand the phenomena, journalists have dominated the conversation by addressing its social and economic implications. While this method may seem reasonable, journalists have oversimplified the phenomena to one term, gentrification. Journalists covering the topic have essentially disregarded a conversation urban-planning scholars have been having for the last four decades, resulting in an appeal to emotion by journalists. Ultimately leading to the failure of acknowledging the underlying issue, and essentially providing a one size fits all blanket solution by labeling it gentrification. A complex concept simplified to one word is injustice to people directly affected by this phenomena, and for society to understand for human beings to normalize it and one day historicize it.

To further our understanding of the phenomena of “gentrification” I will focus on the Washington D.C. neighborhood, Shaw. The focal point of my essay was inspired by former Washington Post journalist, Reuben Castaneda’s memoir “S-Street Rising,” where he explored O’Street NW, Washington D.C.– where five kids were shot from a gang-related drive-by in 1991. Like the journalists of today, Ruben Castaneda highlighted a fatal, crude, and gruesome narrative applicable to a time where Washington D.C. acquired the nickname “murder capital” for its astronomical high crime rate, which had a strong association with drug trafficking. Shaw, a historically African American neighborhood, was once home to segregation and an African-American renaissance before plagued with crime, crack abuse, and gun violence. For example, Shaw post-civil rights movement and the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr led to an uproar of protests which set the stage for decades of poverty to overtake and crime to flourish during the 1980s and 90s (Lewis and McKenna 1). However, in the past decade, Shaw has experienced an economic turnaround, a shift in demographics, and redevelopment in infrastructure. Many journalists have accredited Shaw’s revitalization to a simple term, gentrification. However, after my visit I realized the flourishing phenomenon could not be narrowed down to one mere word. In fact, it is a complex concept requiring understanding because it is not just occurring in D.C., it is occurring in every major city in the United States. To further explore Shaw’s flourishing phenomenon, I have applied associate law professor Sarah Schindler’s concept of architectural exclusion.

Applying Schindler’s method of architectural exclusion I explore local eateries and their menus, along with exploring the accessibility to public transportation in the area. To do so, I  rhetorically analyze the way Shaw is marketing economic turn around and shift in demographics using Washington DC’s official travel website. Using the travel website, I explore the rhetorical techniques in Shaw’s gastronomy culture–and how it is being used to appeal to both tourists and young, affluent professionals. To explore the phenomena of gentrification I then further my understanding of where this phenomena may be headed. To conclude, I apply Schindler’s method of architectural exclusion to Shaw’s neighborhood, furthering my understanding of the neighborhoods physical barriers and accessibility.

 

 Economic Turn Around & Shift in Demographics

Washington DC’s official travel website has an interactive web page for each neighborhood in the district including Shaw. The website’s target audience are both tourists visiting the district, and new working class professionals residents interested in immersing themselves in the District’s culture, and it The travel website provides the uniqueness of each DC neighborhood including the activities, events, and gastronomy culture each neighborhood has to offer.

Figure 1. Washington DC’s official travel website: Shaw’s neighborhood web page discusses the area’s rich African-American history during the roaring 1920s, and its current gastronomy, music, arts, and night-scene culture.

The creators of the website were rhetorical strategists and were particular on how they wanted Shaw to be marketed and perceived.  For those who are unfamiliar with the area and solely rely on the website will never know the role Shaw played during the civil rights movement and DC’s crack epidemic. In fact, Shaw’s webpage romanticizes the area’s rich African-American history during the roaring 1920s, which implies the area once had its epoch of glory but has since faltered which may explain why the website uses phrases including, “… Rapidly developing downtown zone.” (Shaw, 2017).  The website also fails to mention why the area has become a tourist attraction in less than a decade or what forces led to its “revitalization.” Only mentioning the area’s rich early African American history implies a decline in the area’s cultural richness and prosperity during the 1950s-2000s.

Figure 2. Between the intersection of 7th St NW & Q St NW, Washington, DC 20001.  Two different eateries– (the left) representing the restaurants receiving reviews, ratings, and website attention; (the right) representing the affordable to go fried food eatery.

Washington DC’s official website promotes Shaw’s newest cafe’s, restaurants, bars, clubs, and high-end shopping centers.  In fact, Shaw’s web page promotes local eateries, theaters, bars, and clubs by embedding hyperlinks to every establishment mentioned in the website. Hyperlinks make the website easily navigable to local establishments and accessible for an individual to access and view a restaurant’s menu, hours, and specialties. However, the downfall of  Shaw’s website is its failure to incorporate non-new establishments, like the restaurant ] Tiki Seafood. Figure 2 depicts two eateries in Shaw– the restaurant to the left, Dacha Beer Garden, is featured on the D.C. website, while right across the street, Tiki Seafood, is not mentioned once which makes it clear that D.C. is selling a narrative aimed towards young, affluent professionals, not accentuating or marketing pre-existing food establishments. The marketer’s strategically incorporated adjectives with positive connotations to describe Shaw, especially when it comes to its gastronomy scene like “sizzles,” “historic,” “quirky” and ” historic.” For example, “The dining and bar scene in Shaw sizzles, with new spots opening up on 7th and 9th Streets and in the neighborhood’s quirky, historic alleyways” (2017). The adjectives used are associated with positive connotations. Repetition of adjectives with positive connotation can be found throughout the web page describing Shaw; For instance, the creators or marketers of the website have a labeled Shaw in four simple adjectives: “Shiny,” “Hip,” “Historic,” and “Buzzing,”, each adjective not only represents Shaw to tourists but also for potential residents. These four adjectives are associated with positive connotations which may be a true concept for some living in Shaw, particularly newcomers.

The sentence dedicated to Shaw’s gastronomy uses asyndeton, the rhetorical device in which an author strategically chose to eliminate conjunctions.  The omission of conjunctions allows the author to make a speech more dramatic and effective by speeding up its rhythm and pace, for example:

“Hot tables include Espita Mezcaleria for inventive southern Mexican cuisine, The Dabney for Mid-Atlantic seafood and southern sides cooked over a wood fire, The Red Hen for wood-fired Italian cuisine in a rustic, homey environment and Thally Restaurant, a laid-back New American concept with a homespun soda operation.” (Shaw, 2017).

This sentence is linked by four commas with the omission of conjunctions, which forces the reader to speed the pace of reading, and is an effective way of placing emphasis on the myriad of cuisine Shaw has to offer. Rather than saying, Shaw offers a four distinct types of cuisine the writer strategically used commas, and omitted conjunctions to quicken the pace, which creates a chain of the different types of eateries.

The web page has one sentence dedicated to mentioning local eateries, and as noted earlier, the web page fails to mention pre-existing establishment like the  Tiki Carry Out (see Figure 1) but promotes Dacha Beer Garden building as the webpage’s wallpaper. To grasp a better understanding of why Tiki Seafood and many pre-existing eateries alike are not mentioned on Shaw’s web page is through a rhetorical analysis of Tiki Seafood and Dacha Beer Garden food menus:

 

Figure 3.  Courtesy of Menu Pix.The image above is Shaw’s eatery, Tiki Seafoods,  take out menu.

Figure 4. The image to the above is Shaw’s eatery, Dacha Beer Garden,   take out menu.

Tiki Seafoods’ one and only menu is a tri-fold carry out a pamphlet which offers six different categories– “Chicken Wings, Beverages, Breakfast, Sandwiches, Sandwiches & Subs, Specials, and Side Orders.” Unlike Dacha Beer Garden’s 5 categories– “Appetizers”, “Brats”, “Skewers”, “Entrees”, and “Slides”. Tik’s tri-fold pamphlet has an orange checkerboard accenting its borders with food caricatures, including double-decker burger, french fries, rootbeer float, eggs, and bacon. The cheapest priced item is a small beverage for .85 cents, and the most expensive item is ten pieces of chicken wings for $8. Hamburgers on Tiki’s menus are $2.39, however, compared to Dacha Beer Garden a hamburger is not only $15, but it also not called a hamburger not a beef burger.  The cheapest items on Dacha Beer Garden’s can be found under the “Sides” category for $5. Also, the Dacha Beer Garden’s background is an attractive woman’s face with short hair, who looks like she stepped out of the roaring 1920s. The background is identical to the iconic mural on the side of Dacha Beer Garden’s brick building. The aesthetics of Dacha Beer Garden’s menu elegantly uses a bright cherry red to highlight the five categories, additional fees, and traditional daily events. The prices in  Dacha Beer Garden menu are whole numbers, while Tiki Seafood’s  menu has low and estimated prices. Both establishments are right across the street from one another, but each establishment addresses two different audiences. For instance,  Dacha Beer Garden has more healthy options and is pricier compared to Tiki Seafood. The economic disparity struck me, considering the two eatery establishments are across the street from each other.

Where is this Phenomenon headed?

A few reasons why gentrification is inevitable is beginning with Shaw’s marketing, which is a clear depiction of what Washington D.C. hopes the area to be, including displacing locals. It is an inevitable process, and while it is truly young, affluent professionals are the future,  the reason for many of them flocking to Shaw are the same reasons many locals living there flocked decades ago– job availability. The same reasons why a new influx of young people are moving into Shaw is the same reason African-American professionals moved in decades ago. The housing market in Washington D.C. is flourishing, and a few reasons for this phenomenon is gentrification, a limited amount of space increasing competition for house purchasing and newly available jobs in the area. Gentrification is a complex and messy process, but it narrows down to location, placement of transportation, infrastructure, and financial feasibility.

During my visit to Shaw, I walked on V Street, currently the home to many new restaurants and apartment complexes, and I saw visible evidence of the change that has occurred in Shaw. While there I observed the tension between local natives and newcomers/tourists as they were exiting a restaurant with take-out containers in their hands.  The young group of affluent professionals coming from Dacha Beer Garden were walking down the street passing a group of older African-Americans folk sitting on the sidewalk. As I was walking by, I was inclined on recording the encounter, once I heard an older black gentleman with a “Seals,” discussing how he is treated unfairly as a black veteran, and how much change Shaw has undergone since the 90’s. As soon as he mentioned the 90s, I connected the dots, because in 1991 the Green line was established, and for the very first time, Shaw had its own metro stop, which allowed the once isolated area to be easily connected to different neighborhoods in different wards.

Figure 6. Courtesy of the Greater Greater Washington the image above depicts an animated slide show of D.C.’s Metro before the Green-Line.

Figure 5. Courtesy of the Greater Greater Washington the image above depicts an animated slide show of D.C.’s Metro after the Green-Line.

After my encounter, I quickly realized what I had experienced was the product of architectural exclusion.

Applying Architectural Exclusion

So far we have discussed the social constructs of society: both financial and cultural environments in Shaw. However, the cause of economic turnaround is a shift in demographics and redevelopment in infrastructure is architectural exclusion. Schindler’s concept of architectural exclusion is concerned with the placement and location of infrastructure that physically separates and inhibits access (Schindler 19). Shaw is in prime real-estate for young, affluent newcomers that work near the national mall considering it is nearly 15 minutes away. The placement of transits, highway routes, bridge exits, and road infrastructure is the main cause for both social seclusion and economic exclusion. In the last decade, Shaw’s has experienced an entirely new facelift about its built environment. For example, when using Google Maps tool to compare what the area near the metro stop station looked like in 2007 to now, one can notice the newly painted bike lanes, and a new library right off the metro stop. What may seem like nuances to an individual strolling by the neighborhood may not notice the crowd of people it attracts and excludes.

Shaw’s has improved its built environment from newly paved streets, new sidewalks, new traffic lights, and easy access to transportation. A visible contributing factor to recent redevelopment in Shaw is the easy access to transportation, which explains why the area near the metro is covered in new paint, newly paved streets, and right off 7th Ave where new restaurants dress the strip. The newly built environment and location must do with the metro station built in the 1990s and young affluent professional flocking to Shaw (Lewis and McKenna). Using several concepts from Schindler’s article, “Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment,” I assessed the environment I was visiting. Schindler emphasized the importance of law, but ultimately she believed architecture was more powerful than law, and the reason to why architecture is more important is because law is, “less explicit, less identifiable, and less familiar to courts, legislators, and the public” (1941). Thus, far, I focused on the social and economic impacts that have resulted from gentrification, but I have yet to explore the impact architecture plays in Shaw, rather than mentioning Shaw’s metro-line and its placement and impact to the community. On my visit, I stayed on the lookout for physical barriers because it is known architecture has been created above the law to restrict access to certain areas of a community through the incorporation of low bridges, road closings, construction of walls, placement of transit, highway routes, etc. I did notice a few road closing signs due to construction, and I noticed the placement of transportation was right next to the library and a walkable distance from 5th street where all the restaurants are located.

Figure 6. Shaw’s one and only metro station, 1701 8th St NW, Washington, DC 20001.

I cannot claim or generalize all journalists to have simply covered the social and economic aspect. In fact,  BBC journalists Lewis’s and McKenna acknowledge a contributing factor to Shaw’s drastic change in culture is due to the construction of the metro line, which allows for Shaw to be connected to the rest of DC  (1).Schindler believes government can regulate infrastructure and architecture, which shapes an individual’s experience and behaviors. However, I noticed infrastructure’s role in society is often overlooked by locals because the economic disparity present and social interaction with new neighbors are hostile. For society to understand the underlying reason, news watchers and reader alike must hold their information accountable to reporting underlying truths because the root of the cause will enable individuals to understand better and address the issue. In this case, individuals must be aware of the power of placement of architecture and its power to dictate human behavior. To further explore the phenomena of gentrification in both Shaw, and similar metropolitan neighborhoods it imperative for more urban planning scholars to apply Schindler’s method of architectural exclusion when discussing gentrification.  Another potential area to explore are laws set in place to protect public housing, tenants, and house owners from losing their homes to high property taxes, and if such laws exist, how effectively are they being enforced?

Works Cited

Carey, James W. “A Short History of Journalism for Journalists: A Proposal and Essay.” Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, vol. 12, no. 1, Jan. 2007, pp. 3–16.

Duggan, Paul“In Gentrified Shaw, Old-Timers Offer Advice to Young — and Sometimes Naive — Newcomers.” Washington Post, https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/trafficandcommuting/in-gentrified-shaw-old-timers-offer-advice-to-young–and-sometimes-naive–newcomers/2016/11/20/a1247940-ada4-11e6-a31b-4b6397e625d0_story.html. Accessed 17 Feb. 2017.

Fleming, David. “City of Rhetoric: Revitalizing the Public Sphere in Metropolitan America.” David Fleming: 9780791476505: Amazon.com: Books, www.amazon.com/City-Rhetoric-Revitalizing-Metropolitan-America/dp/0791476502. Accessed 25 Feb. 2017.

Gallaher, Carolyn. “Do Efforts to Mitigate Gentrification Work? Evidence from Washington DC.” Alternate Routes: A Journal of Critical Social Research 28 (2017).

Green, Rodney D., et al. “The Indirect Displacement Hypothesis: a Case Study in Washington, DC.” The Review of Black Political Economy (2017): 1-22.

Gringlas, Sam.“Old Confronts New In A Gentrifying D.C. Neighborhood.” NPR.org, http://www.npr.org/2017/01/16/505606317/d-c-s-gentrifying-neighborhoods-a-careful-mix-of-newcomers-and-old-timers. Accessed 17 Feb. 2017.

   Hochschild, Adam. Journalists and Historians Can Learn from Each Other. 15 Mar. 2002, http://niemanreports.org/articles/journalists-and-historians-can-learn-from-each-other/.

Lewis, Aidan, and Bill McKenna. “Washington DC from Murder Capital to Boomtown.” BBC News, BBC, 6 Aug. 2014, www.bbc.com/news/magazine-28605215. Accessed 27 Feb. 2017.

Meyer, Eugene L. “Washington’s Shaw Neighborhood Is Remade for Young Urbanites.” The New York Times, 1 Dec. 2015. NYTimes.com, https://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/02/realestate/commercial/development-redefines-character-of-washingtons-shaw-area.html.

Osman, Suleiman. “Gentrification Matters.” Journal of Urban History, vol. 43, no. 1, Jan. 2017, pp. 172–179.

Restaurant Menu | MenuPix. http://www.menupix.com/menudirectory/menu.php?id=502222. Accessed 24 Apr. 2017.

Rogers, Allison. “The Real Estate Market That Defies the Trends.” Time, Time, 5 Jan. 2012, business.time.com/2012/01/05/the-real-estate-market-that-defies-the-trends/. Accessed 25 Feb. 2017.

“Shaw.” Washington.org, 17 Feb. 2017, washington.org/dc-neighborhoods/shaw. Accessed 25 Feb. 2017.

Schindler, Sarah. Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment. http://www.yalelawjournal.org/article/architectural-exclusion. Accessed 25 Feb. 2017.

 

The Checklist for Essay 1

(Put an X next to each line that you have accomplished or taken a look at). Put this at the end of your Google Doc version.)

 

  1. X_______ I have done a rhetorical analysis of text that helps my audience understand my Built Environment using a combo of CATPA, Aristotles Ethos/Pathos/Logos, Kantz’s Encoder/Decoder/Reality/Gaps, Chronos/Kairos. In other words, I have followed the directions (if the directions aren’t followed, then the essay clearly cannot earn 300 points, the minimum to Credible).

 

  1. ___X____ I have developed my own rhetorical stance by creating a They Say / I say, which I have distilled into the following sentence: _While ________________, this essay aims ________ (or something like this).

 

  1. ____X_____ I have incorporated images, links, video, and or sound to enhance my essay’s rhetorical appeal. I have also captioned the images and properly cited them.

 

  1. ____X____  Introduction (See “Indicating Who Cares?)
    1. _____X_______ Does it have a stated aim or goal?
    2. _____X_______First sentence: does it stake a claim, a point of controversy, or lead to a “They Say”?

 

  1. _______X_______ I have smoothly incorporated textual evidence (This is “Skillfull”-level writing, 376 -500 points)

 

From Gerald Graff’s, They Say / I Say:

    1. _____X_____Choose “quotations wisely, with an eye to how well they support a particular part of your text [or argument].” Make sure your quote relates to the topic sentence in some way.
    2. _____X_______Surround “every major quotation with a frame explaining
      1. A) _____X______whose words they are,
      2. B) _____X________what the quotation means, and
      3. C) ______X_______how the quotation relates to your text.”
    3. ______X________  Remember:  “What ‘they say’ must always be connected with what you say.”

 

  1. ______X______Check Citations and WC page (This is Credible-level requirement).
    1. _______X_______ Formatting.
    2. ______X_________ In-text citations’ relationship to WC page.

 

  1. _____X_______Check   for Major Errors (no more than two / a page)
    1. ___X______Frag.: Although I’m home; I’m here to say.
    2. __X_____CS: I am home, I’m here to stay.
    3. ___X______FS: I am home I’m here to stay.
    4. ___X_______SV: The teacher, along with the students, are here to stay.  (should be “the teacher, . . ., is . . .”
    5. ____X________PN AGR: Before a student registers, they should (should be “students” or “she”). General Motors is a big company. They always . . . (Use Control F and search for “They,” and “This”)
    6. _____X_______ Dangling Modifiers /Misplaced Modifers: Before walking away, the breakfast was good (the breakfast can’t walk). You fix these by either adding a “doer” to the DC or changing the IC’s doer to agree with the DC.

 

    1. _____X______ Apostrophe: Hoskins’ class (should be in  MLA, Hoskins’s class).

 

  1. _____X________I have marked the comma patterns on my google doc version of my essay. (50 point penalty for not doing it)

 

  1. ___X____I also marked the comma patterns on two of peers’ essays as instructed.   Peer 1 ____Fabiola________   &  Peer 2_______Jade______ (If you missed that draft day, you won’t have any names to fill in here).

 

  • DC, IC. As I walked down the street, I thought about how happy I was.

IC, DC:. I went home early, which rarely happens these days.

    • IC, and IC. Bob likes Sarah, but he doesn’t like Sam.
    • Sub, describe subj, Verb . . . Sam, whom I like very much, leaves work early every day.
    • X, Y, and Z. Jane likes chocolate, strawberry, and vanilla icecream.

 

  • Intro element, IC: exp: however, I still love you. OR I, however, still love you.

 

 

  1.     _X__   Use the “Literary” Present Tense as Baseline (Aspect).
    1. A. Thomas Jefferson believes that “” ().

 

  1. __X__Topic Sentences  (Goes to Unity / Competent level)
    1. ____X___ Does it stake a claim?
    2. __X___Does the claim clearly relate to the aim?
    3. __X____Does it lean into the paragraph itself?
    4. ___X____ Does it transition from previous paragraph?

 

  1. __X___Conclusion  (See Establishing Why Your Claims Matter)
    1. __X___Does it answer “So What?” or establish why your claim or the debate matters? Or present some hypothetical conclusions? You could also put your discussion into a larger context?

 

  1. Posting to WordPress:
    1. ___X____Category = “Essays”
    2. ____X____hyperlinks and multimodal (images / sound / video /and so on) presentation
    3. ___X____ Shared gdoc with hhoskins@student.american.edu with “Editing” privileges.
    4. ___X____Submitted link to Edspace post
    5. ____X____I have bolded my subjects and underlined my verbs.

 

After Green Line

The image above depicts the website, Greater Greater Washington, and a animated show of D.C.’s Metro evolution in the last 38 years. The image above represents the D.C. metro system after adding the green line, which provides a  visual representation of incorporating neighborhoods like the Shaw. After May 11, 1991: First Green Line stations open—U StreetCardozo, Shaw-Howard Univ and Mt Vernon Sq-UDC— in 1.66 mile segment north of Gallery Pl-Chinatown. The metro-station was put into place in 1991 and ever since has served working class commuters. The Shaw’s metro-station unique in to neighboring metro stops, the Shaw’s metro stop demonstrated very little up keep. The metro-station was put into place in 1991 and ever since has served working class commuters. In comparison to neighboring stops Shaw has only one exit and entrance. In addition the corridor is covered in tarps, thinly compressed wooden walls, and an escalator that serves as a two way.

 

Before Green Line

The image above depicts the website, Greater Greater Washington, and a animated show of D.C.’s Metro evolution in the last 38 years. The image above represents the D.C. metro system before adding the green line, which places a visual representation of isolating neighborhoods like Shaw. Before 1991 Shaw residents who relied on public transportation relied heavily on the bus system.

Green Line Budget Approval

The image above depicts Ronald Reagan presenting his first state of the union in 1986, but I use this image as a representation of his administration and how it played a vital role in Washington D.C.’s metro system. In 1985, the Reagan administration endorsed  a long-debated plan to expand the Metro subway system to 89.5 miles, including a Green Line branch to Greenbelt in Prince George’s County and a Yellow Line spur to a Van Dorn Street station in Alexandria’s West End. The Reagan administration initially opposed further federal appropriations for Metro construction beyond 89.5 miles, and at the time Metro officials did not devise a plan to obtain funds to complete the proposed 102.7-mile system. Thus, there was a lack of federal funding to support the Green Line’s construction, which led to set-backs and ultimately a delay in the Green Line’s construction by an entire year. Eventually the administration fully funded the Green Line’s entire construction, but this event was an example of Washington D.C.’s  neighborhoods are contingent upon congress to provide federal funding. The metro system can be seen as veins that pump within Washington D.C., because just like the vital role veins play in the human anatomy so does its metro system. For example, the establishment of the green line allowed for working class commuters to easily access other neighborhoods including downtown.