Annotated Bibliography 9 & 10


“Shaw.”, 17 Feb. 2017, Accessed 25 Feb. 2017.

  1. Exhibit 

The article on the neighborhood of Shaw within the District of Columbia’s website provides a brief summary of the neighborhood’s composition and history. The page highlights restaurants within the neighborhood that are up incoming along with the neighborhood. Hyperlinks make the website easily navigable to local establishments and accessible for an individual to access and view a restaurant’s menu, hours, and specialties. Additionally, hyperlinks make the website easily navigable to local establishments and accessible for an individual to access and view a restaurant’s menu, hours, and specialties.

This image is a screen shot Shaw’s website with my rhetorical analysis

2. Argument 

This website will serve as an argument source, because the article provided a bias for gentrification due to the fact that did not incorporate establishments that were present in the neighborhood. As I begin my rhetorical analysis essay the webpage affirms the argument that D.C. is selling a narrative aimed towards young, affluent professionals, not accentuating or marketing pre-existing food establishments. I intend to use to page to discuss the bias in language that is used to describe the newly gentrified sections of D.C compared to its counterpart.

Schindler, Sarah. “Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment”. Accessed 25 Feb. 2017.

1. Exhibit 

Sarah Schilndler, writer of Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment, believes that the government can regulate the infrastructure and architecture which ultimately shapes the lives, experiences and behaviors of individuals. Infrastructure’s role and impact on society is often overlooked. Individuals must be aware of the power of placement of architecture and how its power implicitly dictates human behavior. Schindler emphasized the importance of policy and legislation, but ultimately she believes that architecture is more powerful than law in regards to urban development.

This image is illustrates a quote of the implications of barriers  

2. Method 

This article is a method source that has provided me the means of access into understanding how the development of Shaw systemically impacts those who reside in the the neighborhood. As I begin my rhetorical analysis essay this article provides an analytical framework so that city developers and researchers understand the implications that urban planning has. I intend to use Schindler’s analytical framework to emphasize how intentional the placement of specific resources and development of Shaw in regards to housing segregation and exclusion.

Annotated Bibliography 7 & 8

7 & 8 April 13, 2017  

  1. Exhibit 

Lewis, Aidan, and Bill McKenna. “Washington DC from Murder Capital to Boomtown.” BBC News, BBC, 6 Aug. 2014, Accessed 27 Feb. 2017.

British Broadcasting Corporation journalists, Lewis and McKenna discussed the history of Washington D.C.’s neighborhood Shaw’s crack abuse and gun violence by analyzing former Washington Post journalist Ruben Castaneda’s personal experience. Through Castaneda’s memoir Lewis and McKenna they provide  historical context of how Washington D.C. became the murder capital of the US, and argue the shift of demographics from a chocolate city to rising white populations is due to the opening of the GreenLine in 1991.  Background


This is a screenshot of the website’s header

2. Argument 

        In my rhetorical analysis I intend to incorporate Lewis and McKenna’s  as an argument source, because they argue the shift of demographics in Shaw occurred to the placement of the metro station Green Line.  By applying Schindler’s principle of architectural exclusion, I use this article to support my observation. The article mentions how the placement of the metro station and bus stations has impacted the revitalization of the area, which ties in with Schindler’s method of architectural exclusion, the method I intend to used for my rhetorical analysis to add to the conversation of gentrification’s complexity.


Hochschild, Adam. “Journalists and Historians Can Learn from Each Other”. 15 Mar. 2002,

  1.  Exhibit 

In his article “Journalists and Historians Can Learn from Each Other,” Adam Hochschild, author and former journalist for the New Yorker, presents the argument of how and why  historians and journalists can learn from each other, which he believes can be done through the art of storytelling. He believes it essential for a successful historian to learn the art of storytelling, because it allows the historian to frame a story so that people are going to read it, appeal to one’s audience, and if he argues that the craft of journalism is to appeal to one’s audience. 

This is screenshot of a quote encapsulating what Journalism is about. 

2. Argument 

        I intend to use this article as  argument source to engage the argument of journalism’s rhetorical power and support using a source to engage its argument. Through  journal articles I am reading regarding gentrification. In what fashion they being told and what is the goal of journalists public articles regarding gentrification in Shaw or Washington DC. Considering journalism has dominated the conversation when discussing gentrification I wonder how that  affected people’s perception of gentrifcation, which may be happening through storytelling as Hochschild. By applying Hochschild’s theory or perspective of why history and journalism work hand in hand; I wonder if rather than exploring the historical context behind gentrification in places like Shaw has been done purposefully , or perhaps there is a reason journalists focus on the immediate ramifications which can potentially lead to the sensationalize of topic like Gentrification. 


Annotated Bibliography 5 & 6

5 & 6  April 10, 2017

Rogers, Allison. “The Real Estate Market That Defies the Trends.” Time,  5 Jan. 2012, Accessed 25 Feb. 2017.

  1. Exhibit 

Rogers, a writer under the Real Estate section of Times Magazine,  discusses how despite the poor ratings of the American housing and property market, the District defies national trend. Gentrification is a clear depiction of what Washington D.C. hopes the area to become. The District’s flourishing growth can be attributed greatly to gentrification and housing competition. Gentrification is a complex and messy process, but it narrows down to location, placement of transportation, infrastructure, and financial feasibility. Yet this messy process works within the District because tenants are able and willing to pay rising rents.

Image above is a screenshot of Rogers Time article 


2.  Arguement 

I intend to use Roger’s piece as an argument source, to explain as to why D.C’s property market is doing so well. The subsections provide insight and definitions regarding D.C’s real estate market. As I rewrite my rhetorical analysis essay the piece provides introductory information that is needed to understand how gentrification has been so successful within the District. The source is significant to my essay because it is used assist my explanation of gentrification success in D.C.


Osman, Suleiman. “Gentrification Matters.” Journal of Urban History, vol. 43, no. 1, Jan. 2017, pp. 172–179.

  1. Exhibit 

George Washington University associate professor, Suleiman Osman, discusses why urban historians have not produced enough work on gentrification in his essay “Gentrification Matters.” In his essay, Suleiman focuses on reasoning the reservations urban historical scholars have had writing about gentrification. However he argues urban historians have the power illuminate the public’s understanding of gentrification by showing how the phenomenon and the rhetoric surrounding it has changed over time.

Image above is an image defining Gentrification 

2. Background 

I intend to use Osman’s article as an background  source which will serve as an essay calls for urban scholars to produce scholarly work surrounding the topic of gentrification. I acknowledge I am no urban scholar or historian, but through my rhetorical analysis of Shaw’s official travel website I plan to add to  the conversation of why gentrification matters. In addition, I plan to use his essay as evidence explaining the significance of my rhetorical analysis.  


Annotated Bibliography 3&4

3 & 4 March 27, 2017

Gallaher, Carolyn. “Do Efforts to Mitigate Gentrification Work? Evidence from Washington DC.” Alternate Routes: A Journal of Critical Social Research 28 (2017).

  1. Exhibit 

In her Journal article,  “Do Efforts to Mitigate Gentrification Work? Evidence from Washington DC,” American University professor, Carolyn Gallaher discusses economic austerity in the nation’s capital, and she does so through DC’s housing market. In addressing DC’s economic austerity other scholars who have recommended ways of mitigating gentrification through organized squatting community land trusts. However, Gallaher looks at  market-oriented solution to displacement, a one of a kind statute in Washington D.C., called the Tenant Opportunity to Purchase Act (TOPA), is a better form of addressing one of the many ramifications of gentrification, which the displacement of DC natives. TOPA stipulates that if a landlord signs a contract to sell a residential apartment building, tenants have the right to refuse the sale and to purchase the building instead for the contracted sale price. The goal of the statute is to mitigate displacement by giving tenants economic leverage during periods of gentrification.  Gallaher argues programs like TOPA are usually associated with neoliberals, but she believe’s TOPA is better seen as social justice and neoliberal imperatives.

Screen Shot of Tenant Opportunity to Purchase Act

2. Background 

This journal article provided me the background in understanding DC’s awareness in regards to housing displacement for D.C natives. The article also provided understanding in regards to the statutes protecting DC tenants from being displaced. Her article provided additional insight as to how the population being affected. I only knew native DC homeowner’s were being affected by housing displacement. After reading this source I know know both native homeowners and tenants are being adversely affected; I plan to use Gallaher’s journal article in my rhetorical analysis essay in understanding and exploring DC’s efforts.


Green, Rodney D., et al. “The Indirect Displacement Hypothesis: a Case Study in Washington, DC.” The Review of Black Political Economy (2017): 1-22.

  1. Exhibit 

Howard University  Professor Rodney Green, Chair and Executive Director for Urban Progress Department of Economic at Howard University, explores the consequences of preconceived stereotypes through an empirical analysis in “The Indirect Displacement Hypothesis: a Case Study in Washington, DC”. He uses Columbia Heights in the District of Columbia as a case study where he compares  preferences of newcomers and longstanding residents. His experiment provides empirical support on whether indirect factors could heighten pressures for displacement for longstanding residents. Green’s research paper entertains the theory  of whether the focus of gentrification is  directly associated to economic factors affecting long standing residents during neighborhood revitalization.  This paper provides an alternative course of thinking for Gentrification in Washington D.C., supported by empirical data.

Courtesy of Trulia this screen shot illustrates the real estate data for Logan Circle/ Shaw

2. Background 

This article is a background has provided me the means of access into understanding why and how people come to make their housing decisions. I also am able to use this article to discuss what factors are greatly impacting the real estate market. As I begin my rhetorical analysis essay this source has provided valuable data regarding housing in D.C.  I plan to use Green’s research to discuss what is influencing D.C residents to move from their neighborhoods and into others.  

Annotated Bibliography 1& 2 February 20, 2017

Annotated Bibliography 1& 2  February 20, 2017

  1. Exhibit 

Duggan, Paul“In Gentrified Shaw, Old-Timers Offer Advice to Young — and Sometimes Naive — Newcomers.” Washington Post,–and-sometimes-naive–newcomers/2016/11/20/a1247940-ada4-11e6-a31b-4b6397e625d0_story.html?utm_term=.a9b04347bf9bAccessed 17 Feb. 2017.

Washington Post journalist, Paul Duggan, in his article  “In gentrified Shaw, old-timers offer advice to young — and sometimes naive — newcomers,” interviews two Washington DC locals, Richard Williams and  Khaleedah Harris, who have lived in Shaw for over four decades. Duggan documents the sentiments and response locals have toward their new neighbors, which according to the article tend to be  young, white, college-educated professionals. The article provides a unique  first hand accounts of long time locals who lived in Shaw when it was once referred to as a chocolate city, but since has changed in demographics, which has led to changes local businesses in the area, which has adversely affected locals who can no longer afford to live in their homes, because of unaffordable annual property tax along with local businesses addressing their issues.

This is a screenshot of the website’s header.

2. Background 

This article has provided me the backgrounds of access into understanding Shaw as a neighborhood, but more significantly current dynamic long time locals are facing because of the rapid economic and social change happening in there very own homes. As I begin my rhetorical analysis essay this article has provided valuable first account insight.  I plan to use Duggan’s method of asking both new and old locals how they feel about their environment as a gateway to understanding Shaw’s neighborhood in my rhetorical analysis.


Gringlas, Sam.“Old Confronts New In A Gentrifying DC Neighborhood.”, Accessed 17 Feb. 2017.

  1. Exhibit 

National Public Radio journalist, Sam Gringlas, author of “Old Confronts New In A Gentrifying D.C. Neighborhood”, interviews Shaw native, Ernest Peterson, who discusses the concerns Shaw natives have for their new neighbors. For the past decade Shaw has experienced a shift in demographics and an economic nourishment, but as many natives like Peterson state they feel estranged to their very own communities. This article presents gentrification as a clash of two culture where white educated professionals are moving into historically black communities. Peterson describes this clash as a tension between new and old residents, which seems to come from a sense of “entitlement” from new residents, and embodies resentment older locals have about their new neighbors being the source to their economic and social woes. For example, Peterson has seen many of his former neighbors move out of the district because they could not longer financially sustain themselves. Over the course of three decades the Shaw has seen a shift in demographics from a predominant African community of nearly 80% during the 1980’s to a whopping 44% in 2010.


This is a screenshot of the website’s header.

2. Argument 

I plan to use this article as an argument source provided me further understanding of Shaw’s neighborhood. through first hand accounts with longtime locals from Shaw who now make up the minority of Shaw’s population. Before visiting Shaw I read Gringlas’ article, which enabled me to notice small nuances that would have gone overlooked otherwise. I plan to use excerpt’s from Gringlas’ article to support my first hand encounter in witnessing tensions between young newcomers and old time locals.