Reading Analysis 6 – Fleming’s Reason

In David Fleming’s book City of Rhetoric, Fleming discusses the purpose for his writing, and illustrates how we have neglected the key issues in this country such as homelessness and poverty. Fleming states how we have forgotten these issues. This is not the first time Fleming has said this. In some of my previous work, I have outlined a previous time when Fleming described our problem (as a society) as mere distraction on other issues.

In Fleming’s book, in his section titled Afterwood, he states in further detail why he decided to write City of Rhetoric. “my point in this book has not been that we should not think globally, that we should not be always intensely aware of the rest of the world and our place in it, both as individuals and as communities” (Fleming). This quote is powerful, because after one reads the book, we can trace back to the examples Fleming has given us in support of his claim. Fleming believes we must look more closely at how our cities are designed and landscaped. We have a responsibility to one another that all of us will have the same opportunities. Issues like the ones Fleming has illustrated to us should never be why people can not prosper and have impacts in their respective communities.

That being said, it will not be an easy task. There are many variables involved when trying to accomplish change such as this. For example, the cost of our international duties has made fixing these problems even more difficult than ever before. As Fleming states, “more and more of an increasingly tight budget must now now be devoted to military spending, foreign aid, and the national defense” (Fleming.) As we can see, everyone including our government must be on board in order to create real change to the issues Fleming describes throughout his work. The simplest way to start is to create awareness and concern throughout the general public. This is why Fleming wrote City of Rhetoric, to start to create that type of change.


Work Cited

Fleming, David. City of rhetoric: revitalizing the public sphere in metropolitan America. Albany, NY, SUNY Press, 2009.

Reading Analysis 3 – Fleming and the Separation of Suburbs

In David Fleming’s book City of Rhetoric, Fleming talks about how the suburbs are designed in ways to stay apolitical. They are designed differently than a typical neighborhood or city. This “design” Fleming talks about is the simple fact that they are more privatized than that of a city landscape. Due to this fact, people who live in these suburbs are able to stay out of any political doings.

In Fleming’s work he describes this topic by talking about a suburb in Chicago called Schaumburg. He states that Schaumburg is considered “apolitical” because it is so separated from the politics of Chicago. Places like cities are considered so political, because anyone who lives in a city environment are surrounded by public land and buildings that can be used by everyone. These public spaces help encourage politics, because those who take advantage of these services want to elect politicians who will support them as well. That being said suburban towns have privately owned programs and Institutions (Fleming 106).

Fleming talks about how at one point, inhabitants of the city of Chicago wanted to escape this political cloud and developed this privatized suburb we now know as Schaumburg. The entire reason the suburb was created as so people do not have to associate themselves with politics whatsoever. On top of that, Schaumburg’s schools were nicer than those in the city as they had been built more recently. People saw this new, calmer style of living much more appealing. Fleming ends this section telling us in order to live in a better society we must be able to see this segregation of suburbs as a problem worth taking care of.

Work Cited

Fleming, David. City of rhetoric: revitalizing the public sphere in metropolitan America. Albany, NY, SUNY Press, 2009.

Reading Analysis 5 – Fleming’s Final Thoughts

In David Fleming’s last section of City of Rhetoric, Fleming discusses how we, the reader, can help the development of our cities as well as how residents interact and socialize with one another. Fleming discusses how in recent years the efforts to create more affordable housing in urban areas and suburbs has decreased. He lists many reasons, but it all stems from our fears of our diversity. “We continue, that is, to be afraid of our diversity” (Fleming 213). This fear is due to the more fortunate in a community not wanting to “mix” with others who are less fortunate. 

Another reason Fleming believes these problems have been left for dead was due to the 9/11 terrorist attacks that took place in 2001. “Since after September 11, 2001, problems like urban poverty, suburban sprawl, residential racial segregation, and geographically based income inequality have been pushed almost completely off of the national radar screen” (211). From this quote we can see that Fleming is not connecting the physical act of terrorism to his argument, but he states that due to what happened, many of us forgot about this problem and had pushed it aside for what we all believed to be more a more important issue at the time. On top of that, politicians did not want to spend money on discrimination within societies when problems like the 9/11 attacks were so prevalent. That would not look good on them in the eyes of the public, and when dealing with politicians, they just do whatever they need to in order to get re-elected.

Fleming left us with encouraging words. Even though he believes these issues currently need action they are not receiving, he has hope for the future. “be always mindful of the power of intervention, creation, and change in human life, the opportunity always before us for a better tomorrow” (214). What he is saying is that he believes the generation coming into the workforce now can change these issues. He tells us to never underestimate what we can accomplish as people.

Work Cited

Fleming, David. City of rhetoric: revitalizing the public sphere in metropolitan America. Albany, NY, SUNY Press, 2009.

Final Project: Success is Perception

While researching the George Washington University Hospital and University itself, it’s evident that, although they both strive to become more prevalent and successful, they go about their work it two distinctive ways. The George Washington University Hospital wants to become one of the most successful in the region and to do so they believe they need to show the public how trusted, advanced, and resourceful they are. In regards to the University, they have been trying to become a Top 50 school in the country for years now. They believe that in order to do so, they need to prove to the community that they are prestigious and that message is communicated to the community through a variety of ways. The University’s hospital is seen as an inviting and welcoming place; however, the University gives a message to the general public that they are exclusive and only allow in the top tier students. Both the hospital and the university share a common place, and by analyzing the built environment and researching the messages that these organizations try to display, we see that success is mere perception.

I spent two years of my educational career at George Washington University and have had a lot of first hand experience with both the University and the hospital staff.

Every building rests in the area of Washington D.C. known as Foggy Bottom. This area is busy almost the entire day and night. Since this area is near a lot of government and office buildings, the foot traffic around the hospital can get extremely hectic due to the people traveling to and from work. In addition to all of the foot traffic, the metro station directly adjacent to the University’s hospital adds only more people to, what some believe, is troubling situation. Below we see a picture of the hospital’s main entrance and the entrance of the metro station.

As a former student I can say that going to school in a city environment can be an advantage in some situations, but the overwhelming foot traffic caused a lot of annoying problems. That being said, for the George Washington University Hospital, this is not seen as a problem at all. One of the messages the hospital wants to send to the public is that they are easily accessible and accommodating to anyone. This begs the question if the hospital wanted the metro stop next to them on purpose. I talked about this topic in some of my previous work where I dove more in depth about the built environment of the hospital.

In my past work I have sited Sarah Schindler’s article Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment. She argues that architects will choose how the built environments are made due to specific reasons of exclusion. “some choice architects alter not only conceptual decision making structures but the built environment itself, suggesting that they are in fact quite similar to traditional architec” (Schindler 9). This quote helps answer the question above – no decision is made without knowledge of the ramifications. The hospital wants the station in that location in order to invite people inside. They want to treat as many people as possible so they can be seen as one of the most trusted and in-demand hospitals in the metropolitan area.

The message the the hospital is sending to the community is simple – they want to be trusted. The more people that experience the George Washington University Hospital, the more trust is attributed to the institution. They also want to show that they are cutting-edge and have top of the line resources. This video produced by the University’s administration shows a visual outlook of what the University’s executives believe the message should be.

The visuals in the video are important in what they are trying to sell. Right away they show the history of the hospital by introducing former President Ronald Reagan. They want to remind the public that they were the ones who had to perform emergency surgery on him after an assassination attempt. After that, they tell us about how their doctors use the best and most cutting edge equipment available. All of these aspects are used to gain trust from the community so that they decide to visit the hospital if anything unfortunate happens. Treating more people equals more recognition, and eventually, more success. We see that creating success is done by creating a certain perception to the greater community.

When focusing on George Washington University, they seek similar success and prowess but in a completely different way. The University has a low acceptance rate, and in fact has raised their tuition over the recent years in order to gain prestige in the eyes of the public.

In Kevin Carey’s New York Times article published in 2015, titled How to Raise a University’s Profile: Pricing and Packaging, he speaks to the fact that the University’s plan was to raise tuition to give off the perception it was worth it. Students would be getting a degree unlike many others, which actually turned out to be false. An administrator at the school was quoted saying that the University “convinced people that George Washington was worth a lot more money by charging a lot more money” (New York Times). He then went on to even further explain his comment by saying “College is like vodka, he liked to explain. Vodka is by definition a flavorless beverage. It all tastes the same. But people will spend $30 for a bottle of Absolut because of the brand. A Timex watch costs $20, a Rolex $10,000. They both tell the same time” (New York Times). These quotes illustrate that an education at the University is not actually worth the money that they are charging and that they only charge this much to create a perception they are a prestigious university where students will earn  a prestigious degree. They are trying to generate success for themselves by creating perception, not actual substance.

Not only does the university raise tuition to create a message to the community, they also do it through commercials.

These commercials, like the one above, state the types of students the George Washington University administrators are looking for, and the goals these students should set out for themselves. These commercials are used to attract potential students and also try to attract a certain type of student with high aspirations for themselves. The commercial shows monumental areas of the city, nice areas of campus, and various athletes competing in certain events. Potential students get a variety of images on what the university is trying to sell. In the commercial above, they state they have students who are set out to change the world. Now that may be true, but we can see that these statements and visuals are being used to make the university as prominent as possible.

After researching both George Washington University Hospital, as well as the University itself, it is evident they are both striving to climb the ranks of their respective fields but going about it in two different ways. The hospital has goals of becoming trusted, advanced, and resourceful. We see this from their built environment as well as the messages they send out to the greater community. They know they can acclaim success by becoming an inclusive hospital that people depend on for any unfortunate occurrence that happens to them. The University’s plan is to create more of a secluded environment where they only accept certain people into the school. They create a false perception that they their education is worth thousands of more dollars than it really is. Although the University and hospital follow different paths to success, they both lean on the perception of the public to decide how much success both of them eventually gain. We can see that success is merely just a perception.


Works Cited

Carey, Kevin. “How to Raise a University’s Profile: Pricing and

Packaging.” The New York Times, The New York Times,

6 Feb. 2015,

universitys-profile-pricing-and-packaging.html?_r=0. Accessed 4

May 2017.

Cimino, Matt C. “Category: Essays.” Powered by EdSpace, 9 Mar. 2017, Accessed 4

May 2017..


GWtweets. “The George Washington University.” Vimeo, 4 May 2017, Accessed 4 May 2017.


GWUHospital. “George Washington University Hospital – Quality

Hospital Care.” YouTube, YouTube, 16 July 2013,

Accessed 4 May 2017.


Schindler, Sarah. “Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and

Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment.”

The Yale Law Journal – Home, The Yale Journal , Apr. 2015,

Accessed 4 May 2017

Annotated Bibliography 9 & 10

Reel, Monte. “Old GWU Hospital Will Soon Be History.” The

Washington Post, WP Company,14 Sept. 2003,


utm_term=.b956bcd0513f. Accessed 26 Mar. 2017.

In Monte Reel’s article titled Old GWU Hospital Will Soon Be History, he talks how, at the time, the old GW hospital would not continue to operate and a new one would take its place. This article dates back to 2003, so we can see how far back the hospital’s executives have been trying to stay advanced and have top of the line facilities. From this article we can see that the message they’re trying to sell has stayed the same throughout time. Through the years they have always tried to stay ahead of their competition.

I will be using this article to further show the messaging they hospital has tried to show. This article allows me to show that they have been selling this message to the public for countless years. If I can show that to the audience, they will make my argument that much stronger.


Cimino, Matt C. “Category: Essays.” Powered by EdSpace, 9 Mar. 2017, Accessed 4

May 2017.

In this essay created by myself, I have outlined the built environment of the George Washington University Hospital in great detail. I talk about how how the hospital’s structured, and the structures surrounding the physical building. These structures show what messages the hospital wants to send to the public. They allow the hospital to accomplish their own goals, all the while making life easy for the people around them.

I will be using some of my past work in my final project when talking about the hospital’s built environment. It will be important to show the reader what this environment signals to the public. Since I am comparing the the goals of both the hospital and the university and the discrepancies in how they go about them, this past essay will be helpful in relaying my message.

Annotated Bibliography 7 & 8

GWUHospital. “George Washington University Hospital – Quality

Hospital Care.”YouTube, YouTube, 16 July 2013, Accessed 4 May


This video created by George Washington University executives shows the public how they want the hospital to be viewed. At first, they put show the hospital in a historical context showing former President Ronald Reagan and how they were the ones trusted to perform emergency surgery on him after an assassination attempt. Next they show doctors working with high tech equipment and state they are as advanced as any hospital around. From this video we can tell they want to gain the public’s trust and be relied up across the entire metropolitan area.

I will use this video in my final project. It will should the audience in more depth how the GW Hospital operates. They want to create a certain perception of themselves, and this video helps dramatically. This video was on television as a commercial, so countless people have seen it and digested their message. It will be good to include this video in my project so the reader will have something tangible to look at. It will only enhance the experience of the audience.

Overly, Steven. “American, George Washington, GWU Hospital form

pact to buy solar power for next 20 years.” The Washington Post,

WP Company, 23 June 2014,



utm_term=.0b8538be3e1f. Accessed 26 Mar. 2017.

In this Washington Post article by Steven Overly titled, American, George Washington, GWU Hospital form pact to buy solar power for next 20 years, he lets us know how the George Washington University Hospital has decided to use solar power for years to come. They have planned this operation out so they know they can afford the costs. This illustrates how advanced and cutting-edge the hospital is trying to become. They want the community to know they are as advanced as any other hospital around, so people are inclined to use their services.

I am considering using this article in my final project. I think could add some great information in how the hospital is trying to get ahead of their competition. I believe the hospital had a hand in generating this article, because they want the public to know why it would be a good decision to choose them instead of their competitors. If I can show this to the reader, I think it can only make my work that much better.

Annotated Bibliography 5 & 6

Carey, Kevin. “How to Raise a University’s Profile: Pricing and

Packaging.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 6 Feb.



In Kevin Carey’s article in the New York Times titled, How to Raise a University’s Profile: Pricing and Packaging, he illustrates to us how a school like George Washington University has increased its prestige in the eyes of the public by simply raising their tuition. This article gives great insight into how the university goes about their work, and how they try to climb the national ranks. They try to recruit a certain type of student, ones who come from wealth but were not able to get into ivy league schools. This way they can afford the high tuition rates, and they can give the perception their education is worth a lot of money.

I will be using this source for my final project. I am comparing George Washington University and the university’s hospital in that they both want to achieve success, but they go about it in two completely different ways. The hospital is a more accepting experience in that they want to be relied upon in the metropolitan area. They want to treat everyone in order to be considered a go-to place for anyone needing their services. The school however wants to be less inviting. They only want to let in top tier students who can afford the large tuition required.


GWtweets. “The George Washington University.” Vimeo, 4 May 2017, Accessed 4 May 2017.

This source is a video created by George Washington University executives. It serves to recruit potential students as they are trying to decide their future university. This video was aired on television as a commercial and it puts the school in a great light. It shows great images of the city, the school, and their athletes competing in various events. The commercial states that their students are out to change the world, implying that they only want future student who have that same mindset. I have to say it is a pretty great video, and undoubtedly helps the university with their goal of climbing the national ranks.

I will use this video in my final project. I think that it will be good to the viewer to have a visual experience. It is one thing to explain a concept to someone, but it is entirely different to show them with something tangible and real. This video will further my points about the university and how the types of students they try to recruit. They only want students focused on trying to revolutionize the world.

Digital Archives: Interior and Cultural – GW Hospital Starbucks

This picture is of the Starbucks located in the GW University Hospital Cafeteria. It illustrates the type of environment the hospital tries to give its customers. Starbucks is known as one of the most universally consumed products around. It is extremely common for people to go there and get a variety of different products. To have one of these front and center in their cafeteria shows they are prepared for anyone to come in and use their services. People from all different cultures and backgrounds go to the GW University Hospital, and the in turn that is why they are so successful.

Digital Archives: Exterior and Political – George Washington University Hospital Video

This YouTube Video about the George Washington University Hospital advertises how “elite” the Hospital, their staff, and their resources are. The video puts the Hospital in a historical context by showing Ronald Reagan, and trying to plant a reminder in the audience’s mind that they performed emergency surgery on the President. They then show the audience doctors using special equipment to show people how advanced the hospital is, and how they are on the cutting edge with all of their resources. Overall, they want to show the general public how trusted and advanced they are.

Failure is Not an Option

“If you are afraid of failure you don’t deserve to be successful.” – Charles Barkley

I like this quote by Charles Barkley because, like many others say, it is important to get out of our comfort zones and strive to be unique and great. If one is afraid to fail, they do not deserve to claim the successes of those who go all out for their dreams. Charles is considered one of the greatest players to ever play basketball. He did not get there by being afraid to fail. When looking at almost anyone who has had a great impact on this world, they never once stopped their work because of the fear they were going to fail. They went for it.