Annotated Bibliographies 9 and 10

Grigson, Rod. Sacred Tears – Siege of Beirut. 2013,

In “Sacred Tears-Siege of Beirut”, Rod Grigson explains the infamous Siege of Beirut in concern to history and the effect that it had on the civilians of Israel, Palestine, and Lebanon. Primarily, this civil war was not fought on a distant battlefield far from civilization, but fought right in the backyards of many civilians. Examples, according to Grigson,  included “car bombings, random shootings, planned assassinations, snipers, and unexploded shells” (Grigson 1). As a result, it can be implied that the violence took a mental toll on the civilians after only a short while, thus causing these civilians to lose hope. In relation, the Edgewood Terrace Apartments and overall Edgewood neighborhood was once seen as the “Little Beirut” area of the District of Columbia. Statistically, this area had some of the highest death rates related to drugs and the violence they brought.

Grigson’s explication on the Siege of Beirut truly electrifies the violence that plagued this area in the early 1980s and for years to come. In doing so, the historical reference of “Little Beirut” begins to make more sense, and such relations between the two areas can be drawn. While the violence in the District was not nearly what was happening in Beirut, it was not too far off of it. The area was fighting its own war with the War on Drugs, getting to the point where gunshots and screams were more often heard than birds singing or children playing. Consequently, Grigson’s article will aid in my research because of its detailed account of how a civil war drove citizens apart, and how psychologically damaging the war really was on people. The District of Columbia was fighting its own war, and this war, while not nearly what the Siege of Beirut was, it also has much relation to how people were torn apart by the plague of violence brought by drugs in Edgewood.

Sanchez, Carlos. Washington Post Staff. “Edgewood Spirit Survives Despite Area’s Changes: Sense of Community Survives Edgewood’s Changes.” The Washington Post  (1974-Current File); Washington, D.C., 4 July 1987, p. E1.

In ‘“Edgewood Spirit Survives Despite Area’s Changes: Sense of Community Survives Edgewood’s Changes,” Carlos Sanchez explicates how residents in the late 1980’s Edgewood feel that a sense of community has been retained despite many social changes. Urbanization through large housing projects and the influx of changes that have come with this concern long term residents of the formerly known High Point neighborhood. One such resident, Virginia Matthews describes a new federally subsidized housing project as “the devil,” due to the change that it has brought to her neighborhood and the influx of drugs, traffic, and trash that have come into the neighborhood. Today, the Edgewood neighborhood is composed of long term residents, a sort of “yuppie” individuals, and residents in federally subsidized housing such as the one discussed in this article. This is described in the article as well, thus showing the consistency that the area has had with its residents over the years.

Sanchez’s explication on the Edgewood neighborhood makes for an interesting perspective. This article, taken from the Washington Post historical database, was written on July 4th, 1987. This was only a few years before the main violence that crack cocaine and other drugs would bring into the neighborhood in the early 1990’s. The article describes that the drugs were already coming in with the newly subsidized housing and the people that it brought. Sanchez’s perspective will aid in my research due to the fact that it gives a viewpoint before the main eruption of violence in Edgewood. Past research has revealed to me what 1990’s and onward Edgewood was like, but never pre drug war Edgewood. This will allow for comparison between the three time periods, and thus, give an internal and external view on the Edgewood neighborhood.


Annotated Bibliographies 7 and 8

“Northeast, Washington, D.C.” Wikipedia, 1 Dec. 2016. Wikipedia,,_Washington,_D.C.&oldid=752498862.

In this authorless Wikipedia article, a background knowledge of Northeast Washington D.C. is given so that a reader who is not familiar with the area could obtain a basic understanding of the area. This Wikipedia article, in other words, gives a meaning that can make a person that may not know Washington D.C. very well a unique opportunity to learn more about it. This dialect of this article is to be informative, as are most Wikipedia articles, and in doing so, tells a person enough the be familiar with the area. For example, along with telling the transportation that is available in this area, it tells of some of the neighborhoods that are in Northeast D.C. One of them is Edgewood, and this explains that Edgewood itself is a neighborhood, but the Edgewood Terrace Apartments are such a landmark in it that these apartments are what is considered to be the Edgewood neighborhood.

This source will be beneficial to me because it gives an outside glimpse into the apartments so that the inside can be mapped out. A report that gives unbiased facts on this area is important because simply reporting facts allows for someone to understand the area in a different way. Knowing this perspective could reveal how someone could think of this neighborhood never having visited it before. Thus, mapping the commonplace and one discourse community over another is important and necessary to gathering a broader perspective on the area.

Reinink, Amy. “Edgewood Remains Affordable but Is Becoming Newly Desirable.” Washington Post, Accessed 13 Apr. 2017.

In Amy Reinink’s Washington Post article, Reinink explains that the Edgewood neighborhood has become very affordable in the past few years, and this being a reason why it has had much success lately. Once plagued with gunfire, violence, drugs, and prostitutes, the area was known as a terrible place to live. But the Edgewood neighborhood that used to be is no longer thanks to much social change on part of the city and the people that live in the area themselves. Affordable housing has been put into place and the neighborhood is changing to accommodate dog walkers, new faces, and restaurants. This is a form of gentrification to the area no doubt, but nonetheless, the area is showing much change.

This source is helpful because it also gives a perspective that can look into the Edgewood Terrace Apartments. This accommodates for one specific discourse community that is important for mapping out the commonplace. This discourse community involves outsiders to Northeast D.C. and how they may see the Edgewood neighborhood. Ultimately, this is important to me because I am an outsider to the neighborhood. Thus, this way is a better way to understand this neighborhood, in addition to the inside views that my other sources include. All in all, this will map the commonplace in a unique way, and accommodate for new views and perspectives.

Annotated Bibliographies 5 and 6

“DC Poverty Demographics.”, 9 Apr. 2014

In “DC Poverty Demographics,” the specific demographics concerning poverty in Washington D.C. are explained. This information was updated fairly recently, 3 years ago to be exact. This demographic data collection tells what each of the quadrants and wards of the District of Columbia is undergoing. This tells of issues that the city is undergoing and what can be done to rectify any issues of poverty. For example, this source tells that “DC has an extremely high rate of poverty among female-headed households, with a whopping  32 percent”(, 1). This high rate explains that something must be created to rectify this if the issue of poverty is going to be touched upon. This something could be to offer more social programs that are designed to aid women. Such a program could be Thrive DC. This organization helps men and women that homeless, on the poverty line, or generally struggling. 

This source is helpful to me in mapping the commonplace of my area of D.C. due to the fact that I can concentrate on the poverty rates of Northeast D.C., where the Edgewood Terrace Apartments are. In doing so, I can understand the facts that concern the area today, and I can understand how the demographics affect what I currently know about my site. In other words, I know all about my site in a sort of provincial way and do not know that mapping it out requires that I go out of the apartments. In doing so, I can see the effect of demographics in Northeast D.C. and how it affects the rest of the city.

Cooper, Rachel. “NE Washington DC Map and Neighborhood Guide.” Travel, Accessed 10 Apr. 2017.

In this website, Rachel Cooper explains the various neighborhoods in Northeast Washington D.C. and what they are like culturally, socially, and economically. In doing so, more demographics are explored about this area of D.C., as they are what make this area unique, and it is what make for a better understanding of the area. Something that caught the eye in this article is the statement of the fact that the majority of this area is African American. This gives a demographic for comprehension. In the Edgewood Terrace Apartments, the majority of the population is black, and thus, shows how that might play into the apartment’s demographics.

This site will aid my research in understanding and mapping my commonplace because it will also give an outside view into my site. Because I do not live in the Edgewood Terrace Apartments, I must understand it from an outsider’s point of view. The best way of doing this is to gather demographics on the area. This will aid me in understanding the discourse communities of this area, and the hidden rhetoric that an outsider may not know. In other words, an outside view can peer into the window of the Edgewood Terrace Apartments so that the area can be understood, explained, and mapped out.


Annotated Bibliographies 3 and 4

“Suh,Heise, Stephen, Kia. Re-Evaluating the “Culture of Poverty” – The Society Pages. Accessed 27 Mar. 2017.

In “Re-Evaluatiing the ‘Culture of Poverty'”,  Suh Heise and Stephen Kia explicate the culture of poverty in a way that is understood by the reader and an opinion becomes elicited. When reading the article, one develops an understanding of how people may be “stuck” in a situation that does not let for social and economic advancement. Heise and Stephen explain this when saying, “The “culture of poverty” prevents the poor from economic betterment despite social programs designed to assist them.” (Heise, Stephen 1). Therefore, having an understanding of what the culture of poverty is based on their article gives meaning to how people fall into the culture of poverty and how they are like prey to the predator that the culture of poverty is. This coined term has been seen as racist with good reason. Rather than the true, crippling reasons of the inequality that a black person may feel in their poverty, it is just that these poor people adapt to their lifestyles and pass it on for their survival.

This will aid in my research because it gives an inside view as to what a person in a poorer area of D.C. for example may or may not be experiencing, especially in the Edgewood neighborhood. Edgewood is home to several low income families in either apartments or federally subsidized housing. The culture of poverty is a deep seeded plant in the garden of reasons as to a poor community and why it is poor. Being poor can have mental tolls on a person that can only be understood if that person is in that experience. This article keeps the situation one its toes and very apparent to a reader. Hence, this source brings this barrier to the forefront to be analyzed and understood beyond its discourse community of the poor area that the culture of poverty may be in. 

Arnold, Tiffany. “The ‘Beacon House Effect’: D.C. Nonprofit Uses Sports to Put Youths on Path to Empowerment.” WTOP, 11 Apr. 2016,

In ““The ‘Beacon House Effect’: D.C. Nonprofit Uses Sports to Put Youths on Path to Empowerment,” Tiffany Arnold reflects on the Beacon House Community Ministries athletic program and what it does for children in Washington D.C. Instead of the typical social program that gives food and shelter, the Beacon House Community Ministry  gives a unique effect that unites and inspires its participants. Monica Ruiz, an assistant research professor at George Washington University’s Department of Prevention and Community Health, explains this unique effect as the “Beacon House effect”. Ruiz also explains, “The kids know that this community has their back” (Tiffany 1). This program is sponsored out of the Edgewood Terrace Apartments, and so, knowing that their community is behind them is a special sentiment that is all thanks to this program. The “Beacon House effect” goes beyond just a simple social program, but it creates the effect to realize one’s true potential, and in doing so, a new and improved way to combat poverty is born.

This article will be helpful for my research because it gives an example. The “Beacon House effect” is an example of a social program that inspires change rather than just giving it. Poverty can psychologically be embedded in someone’s mind based on their surroundings, but can be combated. An inside view is obtained as to how people that live in the Edgewood Terrace Apartments live their day to day lives being in this program as well when one reads this article. This is important in my research, as learning how the residents of Edgewood see life is important in understanding why the “Beacon House effect” is what it is to these residents.

Annotated Bibliographies 1 and 2

“Our Communities.” CPDC, Edgewater Terrace Apartments, Accessed 19 Feb. 2017.

In the website for the Edgewood Terrace Apartments, it is discussed how the apartments are an exquisite area of living in the District of Columbia due to its location and affordability. Composed of 292 apartments, it is a place with lots surrounding it physically and culturally in addition to multiple things to see and do. The rent is explained, and the surrounding environments explicate furthermore what the living situation is like at the Edgewood Terrace Apartments. The webpage gives a description of the several small townhouses that surround the apartments giving the apartments a unique edge in how they are integrated to the community in a further depth analysis. A suite option is also available, meaning that several people can live in one apartment, which also brings life to these apartments and the community it has in itself and the surrounding communities as well.  

I think this source will be especially helpful in finding out what the apartments are like. It can give me a current perspective as to what the apartments are like now. Currently, the Edgewood Terrace Apartments were the first wired affordable housing community and the first Neighborhood Network Center in the U.S. These statistics give pride to the community, and also show how they have changed from what they used to be to what they are now. The website delves into some past statistics on the housing, and these statistics reflect on the times of S Street Rising and that specific story of Little Beirut. Based on the recent visit I took to the apartments, I could see some similarity between the old and new Edgewood Terrace Apartments. This proved progress for the area, which is important.

“Lebanon – The Siege of Beirut.” Lebanon – The Siege of Beirut, Accessed 19 Feb. 2017.

The exploration of the facts behind the Siege of Beirut as explained by this article portrays much violence that plagued Lebanon, Syria, and even Israel in the 1980’s. Hundreds of soldiers and civilians perished in this siege and the Lebanese War. Violence became the everyday thing, so much that Beirut was threatened to becoming a “second Stalingrad.”  Stalingrad, Russia was essentially destroyed during Operation Barbarossa by the Fascist Nazi Reich. The city that was once prospering and filled with joy and laughter was reduced to rubble and ridiculed with gunfire and explosions. The scene this article describes puts into perspective why Beirut was so violent, and that it was not the area to be in during that time.

This site indirectly explains the allusion that Castaneda makes in his book. He explains that the drug war and turfs between gangs got so violent in this area that it was infamously known as “Little Beirut.” Gunfire was as common to hear as cars honking or birds singing. Appropriately, the Edgewood Terrace Apartments was nicknamed this. This source can help me in understanding the conflict that Castaneda was explaining as a result. In knowing information about the allusion that he makes, it can be understood why these apartments were so infamous in the drug problem.