Authorities of municipalities have used a number of exclusionary techniques that have a purpose to keep certain people out of areas. In her “Architectural Exclusion”, Sarah Schindler touches on the specific technique of physical barriers, which several different groups of legal authority use to exclude people. Schindler begins with the fact that several law officials and authorities collaborate with architects and engineers to loop around the law to make it physically difficult for people to access certain locations. For example, architect Robert Moses was quoted on his idea to restrict buses 12 feet and higher from accessing certain bridges from Long Island to Jones beach. Moreover, Schindler explains that this way the architect used physical barriers to restrict people who use public transportation to access Jones beach. Furthermore, Schindler goes on to provide examples of transit stops, highway placements, and street designs to explain how these authorities barricade places from certain people. Ultimately, Schindler shows us how architects and law officials collaborate in order to create subtle barriers which separate people.
This kind of exclusion is not only present in modern times, but also in the history of built environments. According to Professor Monika Richarz, she writes in her article about jews living in Europe in the 19th century and being utterly segregated. She tells us that not only were the jews not allowed to trade and lend money, but also they were prohibited by leaving their community during certain times of the day. For example, she writes that in Tsarist Russia jews were sentenced to live in certain barricaded areas which were like present day ghettos. Looking closely at the issue of exclusion through architecture it becomes more and more evident in the context of undesired individuals.
Schindler, Sarah. Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment. http://www.yalelawjournal.org/article/architectural-exclusion. Accessed 30 Apr. 2017.
Richarz, Monika. History of Jews in the 19th Century and Early 20th Century. http://www.un.org/en/holocaustremembrance/docs/pdf/Volume%20I/The_History_of_the_Jews_in_Europe.pdf. Accessed 1 May 2017.