For my semester research on a site in Washington DC, I chose to research the Lincoln Theatre on U Street. I chose this as the built environment I was going to analyze because of a few reasons. One reason I chose the Lincoln Theatre is because I love music and I love going to concerts even more. I’ve been to way more concerts than I can even count which is how I got into my work of concert photography which is what I do now as a full time hobby. Check out some of the music’s biggest superstars that I’ve photographed here. I knew that the Lincoln Theatre had shown play performances as well as it being a venue for musical artists and I have seen concerts at all of the main DC/Maryland concert venues, with the exception of the Lincoln Theatre. I’ve seen concerts at UStreet Music Hall, The 9:30 Club, The Fillmore, and the Merriweather Pavilion. Although, I assumed I wasn’t going to have time to see a concert at the Lincoln Theatre this busy semester, I still selected it as my sight because I was so curious about it.
The second reason, I chose to the Lincoln Theatre as the Built Environment that I was going to be studying was I am a big lover of art and culture. I like visual and performance art, as a kid I played the guitar, clarinet, and the saxophone and my favorite class I took in high school was drama. My parents would take my sister and I as kids to all the art museums in Philadelphia and New York City and those are some of my favorite childhood memories. Art has always been a part of my life in a way that just seems natural and right. Culture is so important to me, its what keeps families together, give countries and people pride and support, and gives us something to protect and pass down to the coming generations. Culture has always fascinated me in a way because it seems never ending, once you think there’s nothing more you can ever possible learn about a culture, you find something new! Lincoln Theatre but also UStreet in overall is a huge part of black culture, particularly in the black culture of Washington DC. I feel that when people think about when Washington DC was truly a Chocolate City , people are thinking about the places like U Street that were so monumental in hosting, fostering and nurturing the ‘blackness” of Washington DC. Although much different than it once was, UStreet to me feels familiar; it much different than the American University environment. I can walk down the street and see some people that look like me, talk like, and act like me in a way that doesn’t always have to be explained, it just is; and that’s what I like about the culture of UStreet. My favorite soul food restaurant, in the entire world is located on UStreet and some of the most memorable times of my life happened to me while I was on UStreet. So although I wasn’t incredibly familiar with the Lincoln Theatre before I this project, I knew that it was located on UStreet and because of that it had to be of some interest to me.
There were a few rhetorical choices that lead me to truly discovering what the Lincoln Theatre was as a built environment, as a commonplace, as a structure, and as a symbol. A simple but significant mode that I choose to include in my website was the Lincoln Theatre Twitter Feed on the left sidebar. A basic addition such as this allowed me to connect a lot of my thoughts and ideas together as I was gathering more and more information about this theatre throughout the semester. I’m a frequent social media user so the addition of this widget not only functioned as a rhetorical mode that added another dimension to my website but it also proved be extremely beneficial to me in the sense that I knew that I would be checking it every single day (multiple times a day ) staying up to date with the very entity I know I would be studying extensively. Another mode that I chose to use throughout my website were pictures of the Lincoln Theatre. Not only do pictures tend to my visually appealing and spice up anyone’s writing, the addition of pictures at times allowed me to convey things even more clearly that perhaps my writing didn’t entirely cover. Pictures and video also made a good pairing with most of my posts because the post mostly were from my perspective, so with the addition of pictures and video, my audience is able to interpret and view it for themselves which allows them to come to their own conclusions rather than being solely dependent on my vision and perspective.
I chose to also use linking as one of my modes on my website because for me this project was crucial in regards to being a part of a bigger conversation. Links benefitted me in two ways which is why I used them so frequently. The first way being that, if I chose to link something or multiple things in my post, that is informing that reader of my work as to where I am gaining my knowledge for having the perspective that I do on a topic. It also provides the reader with some information if she is not as familiar with a topic that I have chosen to write about. Secondly, It brings me and the reader into a part of a conversation that is bigger than me. Linking, ties what I have to say about something and make it real, to the reader.
Finally, to consolidate and arrange all of my discoveries, I chose to make a Flippingbook. A flippingbook is an interactive publication that I chose to create my final conclusions and research findings out of. I chose this mode because I knew that I wanted to create something that is different from what many people have see on a daily basis, but at the same time its easy and accessible for anyone with internet connection.
I wanted to create a similar look to an electronic magazine and using this mode made that task achievable. Another reason, why I chose to use Flippingbook as the foundation of displaying my findings of my research on the Lincoln Theatre was because the platform is easy to transform into something that is multimodal. I was able to implement links, photos and videos all on such a cool platform. Have a look at how I discovered the topos of Ustreet and explored the built environment of the Lincoln Theatre in my Flippingbook, as my final project for mapping commonplaces.
**All photos in my Flippingbook are from Google or myself**
Still curious about topos and uStreet and Lincoln Theatre as a Built Environment? Check out the Tumblr Page , I made just for fun! Enjoy!
“The Lincoln Theatre.” Facebook, www.facebook.com/pg/TheLincolnDC/reviews/. Accessed 30 Mar. 2017.
The Lincoln Theatre has an average of 4.4 out of 5 stars on its Facebook page out of a total of 165 reviews. The majority of people (105 out of 165 people) gave the theatre 5 stars and described their experience at the Lincoln Theatre as “scary good” , “nothing short of amazing” and “excellent acoustics”. Some of the less favorable reviews were directed towards the environment or the staff working at the theatre, such as, “Neighborhood seemed a bit sketchy”, and “unfortunately, its poorly run”. Additionally, there is an “About” portion on the Facebook page that displays the theatre’s address and telephone number as well as a brief history of the theatre’s ties to Cab Calloway and Duke Ellington from 1922. The about page also includes, information about I.M.P, the company that has own the Lincoln Theatre since June of 2013.
The Lincoln Theatre’s Facebook page will be useful for my research in a way that allows me to see what the general public is having to say about the venue. The reviews are unfiltered and honest which give me a better understanding how guests of the venue genuinely feel and from what demographic of people the critiques are coming from. The Lincoln Theatre’s Facebook page also allows me to view how it is marketed to the public through a social media platform such as Facebook.
Account, The Lincoln Theatre Verified. “The Lincoln Theatre (@TheLincolnDC).” Twitter, 29 Apr. 2017, twitter.com/TheLincolnDC. Accessed 30 Mar. 2017.
The Lincoln Theatre has a mere 3,433 followers on Twitter in comparison to the 9:30 Club’s 88.4k twitter following despite the fact that they are under the same management and just a few minutes in commute away from each other. The Lincoln Theatre is tries to display its classical elegance even on such a contemporary social media platform such as Twitter. The account bio reads, “The Jewel on U” referring to the theatre’s regal nickname, followed by the words, “Restored” and “revived” “ready to shine brighter than ever before”. Unlike the Facebook account for the theatre, the twitter page is very “fresh” and plays on the theatre’s evolved aspect and is branded at something “better” than what it once was, everything regarding the account is about the latest and the happenings of now. On the Twitter page of the Lincoln Theatre are various tours being promoted, multiple shows and artist that will be performing or recently have performed at the venue. Events at the Merriweather Post Pavilion can also be found on the Lincoln’s Twitter page.
I found the Lincoln Theatre’s Twitter Account to be very helpful to my research. Twitter is probably one of the most, if not the most used social media platform in the world right now, it is also newer than that of Facebook. I was able to analyze how The Lincoln Theatre is staying true to it classical, historical vibe all while keeping up with the current times and staying relevant in the world through a site such as Twitter. There is a clear marketing difference from the the way the Lincoln Theatre is branded on Twitter vs the way it is branded on Facebook or even on its own website. Everything from he tweets, to the pictures and even the bio, has a tone of something better than what once was and I found this to be very useful to my research in who the venue is looking to attract and the type of presence it has on social media as a whole.
Watch a Video of the Inside of the Lincoln Theatre Lobby Here.
The inside of the Lincoln Theatre was grandeur. The Lobby of the theatre was clean and polished just like what one would expect from the outside. There was a red carpet outside of the theatre, with “Lincoln Theatre” printed on it that lead to the entrance of the lobby. The architecture was a very classic baroque detail that makes one feel like they are about to see one of the most magnificent shows of the year. The colors of the lobby are a baby blue with Gold painted crown molding and trimming. There are bright red carpeted stairs on both sides of the lobby that lead the guest to their seats for the show. The ceiling is very high, painted in a gold color with details and large Chandelier hanging over the entire lobby. The design of the inside of the lobby alone gives such a grandiose feeling that adds to the whole experience of what the Lincoln Theatre is and whom gets to perform as sed venue. The design and architecture of the inside of the theatre, especially the lobby fit the culture and the classical history of what the venue is about perfectly.
This website has page for all of Washington DC’s neighborhoods and the entities and attractions of the particular area. The page for U Street is has a big picture of the front of Ben’s Chili Bowl when a reader is to click on more information about U Street. The first line of the description for U Street says, “U Street was once truly the heart of black culture in America, attracting locals and visitors for an unparalleled music and nightlife scene”. The description commences to explain the significance of black culture pertaining to U Street and how Duke Ellington is celebrated here being that DC is his birthplace. The further in the description are food places that are popular visits for tourists as well as locals such as Ben’s Chili Bowl and various ethiopian and soul food eateries.
I plan to use this article in a way that helps me better understand exactly how not only Lincoln theatre is marketed towards people but also how Street itself is marketed towards visitors and people unfamiliar with the area. Noticeably, like art of the other sources I’ve found so far mention the cultural history of U Street as the main attraction, just as this article does in the first sentence of the description.
EllingtonApts Apr. “The Ellington.” The Ellington Apartments Washington, DC: The Bozzuto Group N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Apr. 2017.
This is the official website of The Ellington Apartments, located on UStreet. The website shares an about page regarding he ownership and location of the new luxury apartments. The drop down menu feature the amenities, a short description about the neighborhood, floor plans, a gallery of the inside, and a tab for service information. At the very top of the website is a link to schedule an appointment for a walk through for perspective residents.
I plan to use this website as a source of the changes happening on UStreet and around the Lincoln Theatre given the fact that these apartments are located directly behind Lincoln Theatre and named after one of the greatest musicians to ever, Duke Ellington. Ironically, despite the namesake, Duke Ellington is not mentioned once one the website, not even on the about page; the description simply mentions the area is a popular one for live music and musical entertainment. Im not sure that the residence moving into “The Ellington” are even aware of why the apartments are named that. To market these grand apartments the way they are and not mention Duke Ellington’s significance to the area is something I would like to investigate more and definitely address in my Essay.
Ramanathan, Lavanya. “The Latest Trick to Making New Developments Cool: Just Add Rock-and-roll.” The Washington Post [Washington DC] 23 Mar. 2016: n. pag. Print.
This article featured in the Washington Post last month explain’s Seth Hurwitz’s plans for The Anthem, a brand new concert venue and the highlight of the highly anticipated new attraction to Southwest DC called The Wharf. Seth Hurwitz is the co-founder of IMP Productions and also the owner of 9:30 Club as well as the Lincoln Theatre. Hurwitz’s vision for his newest concert venue, The Anthem is a grand one, it is suppose to open October of this year and seat 6,000 people per concert. The concert venue is going to be below a pool club that he plans to open in the roof of the venue and concert go-ers will be able to look up at the glass floor of the swimming pool. The 60 million dollar venue is highly anticipated and a project, Hurwitz himself has state he thinks will be an “excellent attraction to the area”. The Anthem is sure to be heard about again in the fall of this year for the grand opening.
This article is helpful more me in a way that allows me to learn more about the owner of the Lincoln Theatre, Seth Hurwitz. This article goes into fair detail the business side of what Hurwitz is like and why he chooses to invest in the projects and partnerships that he does. This article is a helpful source from learning about Hurwitz in a business perspective.
Phillips, Hayley G. “San Francisco-born Pop-Up Magazine Lands at the Lincoln Theatre Tuesday.” Washingtonian [Washington DC] 28 Feb. 2017: n. pag. Print.
This article covers, a performance of Pop-Up Magazine at the Lincoln Theatre two month ago. A pop-up magazine is also known as a live magazine that performs all of its contents therefore its producers, writers, filmmakers, actors, and photographer as well as radio host take the stage and perform the content that would otherwise be found in a magazine. The performance is about 90 minutes and is made up of about 10 people. The founder of Pop-Up Magazine, Douglas McGray, thought the Lincoln theatre would be a great venue for the show because he grew up in Washington DC well into his 20s and felt like it would be received well in this area, he said “DC is such a smart crowd, full of curious people”. McGray has brought the Pop-Up Magazine to venues in DC as well as San Francisco and he thinks the Lincoln Theatre is a “nice fit” for his show.
This article is useful to my research because I able to learn more in detail about the current acts and talent being booked at the Lincoln Theatre a bit more in detail rather than just looking at the show schedule on the theatre’s website. From this article I am able to learn about what type of talent the Lincoln Theatre is presently booking, what type of shows are being hosted and whom are in the Theatre looking to attract the most.
The environment in which surrounds the Lincoln Theatre is incredibly historic, the exterior is of the Lincoln Theatre and its surrounding is probably just as significant as the theatre itself. Since being re-done the outside of thee theatre is regal and polished making he theatre inviting and presentable all while keeping that old school, classic looks that the Lincoln Theatre is known for. The theatre itself is surrounded by history, right next to it is the famous Ben’s Chili Bowl, that was founded in 1958! A few doors down from the theatre is the a grand new living space called The Ellington Apartments. Ironically, enough one of the most famous people to play at the Lincoln Theatre when it first opened as Duke Ellington. The namesake of the new luxury apartments I’m sure is a nod to the historical significance of not only Lincoln Theatre but of U Street’s connection to the great musician. Although one could say that the theatre is located right in the middle of the hustle and bustle of U Street right next to one of DC’s Most famous eateries, luxury apartments, U Street Music Hall, and across the street from a metro station, the theatre does not have a hard time of standing it from its surroundings, it sits on the corner, bold and regal.
A much as the Lincoln Theatre is effected by the history of its exterior and its surroundings, its just as heavily effected by politics. First, U Street much like the majority of Washington DC is being gentrified, not shockingly so. The politics of money is what really is connected the Lincoln Theatre, The renovations, the new ownership, who owns the theatre, where its located all have to do with politics of money, with the hopes that these factors will attract the people with money. The people whom live in the Ellington, next door to the theatre are going to be only people whom are culture connoisseurs with money.
Washington DC is full of many attractions, historical landmarks and fun site of entertainment. In fact, the nation’s capital is home to one of the most well known sites of entertainment, affectionately referred to as “The Jewel on U” or The Lincoln Theatre. Anyone not familiar with the Washington DC area such as a tourist is going to want to take to the internet to look up fun and entertaining things to do while they are in the nation’s capital. The Lincoln Theatre’s website uncovers the the type of entertainment that would attract a tourist or a newer resident of Washington DC. The Lincoln Theatre’s website displays all of the upcoming events and performances booked at the venue for the remainder of the year. This essay aims to analyze and consolidate what the website is displaying in comparison to what the Lincoln Theatre is and once was, whom the website is trying to attract, and lastly what this means for a person viewing the website.
The Lincoln Theatre is not only a long standing staple of U Street it is a long standing staple of Washington DC; because of this, the changes that this theatre undergoes have been reflective of the changes going on in Washington DC as a whole. When one goes on Lincoln Theatre’s website, the viewer is met with a warm inviting color tone of a background. The navigation menu displays contact information and information about how to get to the venue and then a scheduled list of plays, acts, and performances taking place in the upcoming weeks. “Lincoln Theatre” is posted at the very top of the webpage in a white, classic style font that matches the regality of the physical structure itself. Immediately under the navigation bar is the running list of acts coming up in the next days, weeks and months.
In my observations, I noticed every single one of the acts that are posted on the face of the Lincoln Theatre website up until December 5th of this year are white people. There are actors, comedians, musicians and other artists scheduled to perform, yet, every single of them are white. This pattern quickly stuck out to me because the Lincoln Theatre, a huge part of history of a jazz music and black culture has been standing on the corner of 1215 U Street Northwest, Washington DC since 1922. The greatest of musicians and artists such as Duke Ellington, Ella Fitzgerald, Nat King Cole, Cab Calloway and Billie Holiday performed at this every location. This theatre historically, was home of performance to many black artists and invited people to celebrate black art. Looking at the Lincoln Theatre website site homepage today, this rich history of African American artists and musicians, is not only not reflected, but it is nowhere to be found.
In the past years, the Lincoln Theatre reflected what Harlem looked like many years ago for black artists: it was lively and proud. Although U Street as a whole hasn’t been gentrified much like the majority of Washington DC, one of the biggest staples of this street, The Lincoln Theatre, has been gentrified immensely. I wonder how is it that one of the blackest areas of Washington DC that host right in the very center of it an iconic building that is now everything but a celebration of blackness? Anyone that is new or unfamiliar with the Washington DC area that went to the Lincoln Theatre website to get an idea about exactly what this historic place was about would have no idea of the beautiful, rich and important significance this theatre had to black culture and black people as a whole. Overtime, a space for black art and the support of black young and thriving artist had now changed into a place for young up and coming white artists and that in itself to me is disappointing given that fact that U street is a staple of black culture and this theatre means so much to the black community.
Ironically enough, after going through The Lincoln Theatre’s website today there’s a tab under the “Venue”option about the history of the venue and they insert a short statement about the history of the theatre and they name the famous black musicians that used to perform there when the theatre was first opened. In the history of the venue description of the website is the only part of the website where I saw not just black people but people of color at all. The theatre’s website barely featuring any people of color is beyond bothersome because a venue that was initially built as a haven and space for black artists has now turned into a place that is a common space for white people much like the rest of Washington DC. Looking through the Lincoln Theatre website reminds that people love black culture, but not black people. It’s easy to love something that seems fun and entertaining but this country never truly loved black people, simply only what black people produce; this is exactly what happened with the Lincoln Theatre on U Street . U Street is one of the blackest places in Washington DC, but I’ve also noticed that its “trendy” its the new place for people to go hang out, eat, and observe “culture” and be entertained but of course the biggest entertainment draw on U Street, that been turn into a theatre that is primarily white and only host white artist because its about the culture, the draw and the trend of being on U Street that is “cool” it was never about the people because if it was, the Lincoln Theatre would have black people still performing and doing shows there.
One of the possible reasons for this drastic change in culture of the Lincoln Theatre could be due to the change in management. A company called I.M.P Production is the parent company of the Lincoln Theatre and has been the parent company since June of 2013. I.M. P Productions is owned by Seth Hurwtiz and Richard Heinecke, they started the private entertainment company years ago. When interviewed by Billboard Music Magazine, Seth Hurwtiz was asked about the appeal of the various venues that he and Heinecke owns and he gave the following response, “Our strategy with all our venues is make them so good that artists feel that’s where they have to play. That’s our strength.” (Billboard Magazine).
The term “good” is relative to Hurwtiz’s perspective and I have to wonder in his eyes what exactly does he mean by “good,”. Perhaps Hurwitz means “good” in a sense of making it appealing to the exact audience he wants to attract to the area, but I question if it has to be at the unfortunate cost of the historical prominence artists of color fading away? In this analysis its important to also ask whom sees it as “good” the local people living on Ustreet or people from out of town looking to perform there or see a show at Lincoln theatre.
In terms of how ownership of The Lincoln Theatre came about, Seth Hurtwitz was granted ownership of the theatre in 2013, through a bidding process governed by the then -mayor, Vincent C Gray and the Department of General Services.
The DC Commission on the Arts and Humanities (DCCAH) saw the need to develop a plan that invested in the longevity of the theater, “The DCCAH’s primary role was to continue operating the theatre while developing a sustainable long-term business strategy for the theatre” (dgs.dc.gov). The Commission received a few Letters of Intent to include Hurwitz’s; the decision of ownership was based upon “economic terms”, “vision” and “business model”. After a secondary deliberation between the Commission, Mayor Gray, and The Department of General Services, Hurtwitz of I.M.P Productions, was selected as the new operator of The Lincoln Theatre. In the announcement of the theater’s new operator Mayor Gray stated, “I’m delighted that we can now move forward with I.M.P and being revitalizing this immense cultural asset”.The Mayor and the DC Commission saw as a need for “revitalization” of the theatre in the same way other political officials saw a need for “revitalization” of many other parts of DC as well. The changes in operator and changes of the theatre as a whole is just a reflection of the same change going on around the entire District.
I won’t say that I am surprised that this has happened but I am without a doubt disappointed because this country has a habit of taking things away from black people, whether it is music, culture, fashion styles, space, or simple freedom. The taking, stealing and reclaiming of black culture and turning it into something other than that is nothing new but still hurts the community time and time again. Then we get places like the Lincoln Theatre website that barely have a trace of the true history of the theatre displayed.
This website is evidently trying to draw to a very specific crowd of people and entertainment. There are no superstars such as Taylor Swift and the Zac Brown band scheduled to perform but more specifically, young, and up and coming and white artists that make alternative music such as Stephin Merritt, performing later next week or Yann Tiersen scheduled to perform at the theatre in December. After being under new management it is evident that the Lincoln Theatre is also trying to appeal to a specific group of people, that do not necessarily reflect those people that live on U Street, which has gone from 52% black, 35% white, and 13% other races to present day, 60% white, 24% black and and 16% other races (Statistical Atlas). Despite the location; the target audience is apparent based upon the website in comparison to what the theatre was initially constructed for.
Another noticeable part of the website is the social media insertions, on the face of the website to the right it says “Join our emailing list” , “Like us on Facebook” and “Follow us on Twitter” with the respective icons for each social media platform. This social media segment of the website is in an even bigger font than the theatre’s phone number and address; this displays the urgency to keep up with the times and heighten their social media presents on the interwebs to attract a younger, more tech friendly audience that is constantly on social media. Additionally, being the powerhouse company that I.M.P. Productions is, it owns more than one venue in the area, not just the Lincoln Theatre; so I can can understand one’s initial confusion logging on the the Lincoln Theatre website and seeing on the left side of the screen, ads and promotion for two completely different venues. On the Lincoln Theatre’s website there are ads posted of shows at the Merriweather Post Pavilion and the 9:30 Club, two other concert and live performance venues. I.M.P owns all three venues. The Merriweather Post Pavilion in Maryland is a giant concert venue that has indoor and outdoor seating and host large festivals such as DC’s Trillectro, every year. The 9:30 Club formally known as Nightclub 9:30 was opened in 1980 and then relocated in 1996 to its present location, on U Street about two blocks from the Lincoln Theatre.
On the Lincoln Theatre’s website a viewer can see that the website is designed to grab the attention of a younger, whiter audience than the theatre’s historical talent and audience has once reflected. The website is designed in a way that appears to be holding onto the the classic look of the theatre’s ambience but still trying to remain relevant through various social media platforms and promotion of other concert venues in the area. The website as a whole is reflective of the acts that perform at the Lincoln Theatre today as well as the ownership of the theatre. A person discovering the Lincoln Theatre for the first time and looking at the website, will see a new, modern, less diverse, and classy place to enjoy entertainment rather than the culture filled, fun, celebration of black culture and talent that the Lincoln Theatre once was. It must be acknowledged and addressed when there begins to be a recurring habit of erasing a certain history and at what point does that mean the certain person or people that created that history are erased too? This is the Lincoln Theatre’s website of today, an eraser of what the theatre once was and a display of what it is becoming, a mirror of a “revitalized” Washington DC.
This is another image capture outside of the Lincoln Theatre, I wanted to capture another view of the theatre but the surrounding area as well and I noticed the older building across the street that had a faded Coca-Cola logo on the side of the building that was slowly disappearing. It makes be wonder what this area of U Street and around the Lincoln Theatre was like many years ago, to have a famous theatre across from what was probably a factory probably made this one of the busiest sections of U Street but also was probably where most people went to work, either at the Coca-Cola Factory or having a job at the theatre. In this area I didn’t see much of any housing or living quarters, but around the theatre in general are a lot of eateries and stores, the famous Ben’s Chili Bowl right next door to the theatre is sure to bring some traffic to the theatre as well.
This image was taken down the street on the right side of the Lincoln Theatre. In the center of the frame we can see the awning as well as the Lincoln Theatre sign, I found this photo particularly interesting because of the bus that was stopped just feet away from the theatre doors. This is best for economic purposes of the the metro as well as the theatre; people will pay for the metro bus because it nearly stops right in front of the theatre doors and people are more willing and likely to go see a show that the theatre because it’s easily accessible, making it economically fulfilling for both entities.
These are the doors of the Lincoln Theatre, a dark burgundy red painted wood with a shapely glass window booth painted gold. Although it’s hard to see from the image captured, the floors in front of the theatre are a polished gray stone. The transparency of the doors on both sides of the theatre ticket booth are well fitted for the theatre decor but don’t necessarily allow one to see inside the lobby of the actual theatre because there is another set of doors past these outside doors which gives an appearance of inclusiveness but if one were to directly walk up to the windows to peer inside for a look, they wouldn’t be able to actually see in the lobby and evidently so realizing that its more exclusive than appears.