In the essay “Recognizing Campus Landscapes as Learning Spaces, the authors Kathleen Scholl and Gowri Gulwadi argue that although the classroom setting is solely believed to shape student’s learning experiences, American college/university campuses require a holistic environment which includes open exterior space, attention to nature, and advanced interior classroom settings that will provide a holistic learning experience and enhance students’ learning abilities. The authors agrees that the indoor teaching area is vital to the process of learning; however, they insist that students need breaks from the high demand of cognitive skills, focus, and attention to detail that is associated with the classroom environment. Scholl and Gulwadi believe that the open space increases attention and alleviates stress, therefore provides that break students desire.


This scenic picture of Hawaii demonstrates the open, uninterrupted space

Scholl and Gulwadi use Francis L. Olmstead to emphasize that the physical landscape shapes behavior and offers an experiential learning opportunity. Olmstead says, “natural scenery employs the mind without fatigue and yet exercises it; tranquilizes it and yet enlivens it” (Gulwadi, Scholl). Olmstead, Scholl, and Gulwadi all believe that nature engages the mind, similar to the way that classwork does. However, rather than increasing stress as curricular activities tend to do, nature calms the brain and forces it to relax. The writers explore the different definitions of nature and conclude that nature pertains to an environment of physical features and living fauna; nature can also be a particular object itself such as a single butterfly, plant, or animal. Therefore, the natural environment consist of animals, plants, air, water, and landscapes (Gulwadi, Scholl). The authors’ theory of nature’s ability to tranquilize the brain is justified by the purpose of vacations. People often take vacations to places like the Jamaica or Hawaii with open outdoor sceneries in order to relax and alleviate themselves from the daily stresses of life. Going on a vacation is an example of what Scholl and Gulwadi would call an “intentional” nature interaction which is the act of purposely involving nature.


Example of indirect interaction: the view of nature from a desk inside of a typical dorm

Scholl and Gulwadi argue that along with intentional student- nature interactions, universities consist of indirect and incidental student- nature interactions which contribute to a holistic learning experience. Indirect interaction involves experiencing nature passively without actually being in it, and incidental interactions occur by chance in the midst of other activities (Gulwadi, Scholl). Indirect interactions allow the interior learning space to encompass aspects of nature. For example, a painting of flowers on a wall is indirect because it is not a physical feature of nature. However, similar to a real flower,  it has the same behavioral effects on a student because it mimics the physical object. An example of incidental interaction could be seeing an indoor plant while walking to class (Gulwadi, Scholl). Intentional interaction is most important to Scholl and Gulwadi’s argument because this type of interaction is fulfilled by having the large open exterior landscapes which enhance student’s abilities.




The quad of American University where students perform recreational activities, complete homework, and relax with their friends

Scholl and Gulwadi assert that the open exterior environment has multiple uses. It is not just where students rejuvenate themselves, but where they also expand their learning. The exterior environment can act as a classroom where professors teach their lectures outside. However, the landscape can also be an object that students study, such as going out to environments to make conclusions about material learned in the classroom. Besides from scholarly learning, recreational technique is fostered in the open landscape (Gulwadi, Scholl). Therefore, the exterior environment creates a holistic experience because it is a place where students can learn about an array of topics and reboot their minds.

Scholl and Gulwadi’s argument is relevant because it is different from the typical belief that the classroom experience is most important in fostering learning outcomes. The authors declare that the exterior environment is just as important as the interior environment. The essay factually explains why many universities have tons of open space, but also encourages universities to restructure campus and add more greenery. Scholl and Gulwadi’s conclusion indirectly encourages students to spend more time by explaining the behavioral impact of nature. Thus, their argument is relevant because it inspires change among institutions and students.

Works Cited

Scholl, Kathleen; Gulwadi, Gowri. “Recognizing Campus Landscapes as Learning Spaces.” Journal of Learning Spaces, vol. 4, no. 1, July 2015.


Ndang, Shiri, “Explore University Eagle, American University, and more!” Pinterest, 2016,

“Hawaii Vacation Packages.” Expedia, 2016,


A picture which communicates love, diversity and inclusion

In Suzanne Tick’s “His and Hers: Designing for a Post Gender Society, Tick targets her essay towards designers and asserts that the gender evolving world needs to be accommodated by a gender neutral design landscape which involves gender neutral bathrooms, technological spaces, and, business environments that welcome various types of people. Tick observes the way in which gender norms are rapidly changing, hence encourages the interior design sector to adapt their designs. In this current “post gender society,” people are no longer constrained to the tiny boxes of female, male, or other; individuals can now identify as whatever they desire or chose not to identify at all (Tick). For example, Tick says that college students and middle schoolers are choosing to refrain from disclosing their gender on applications to their institutions. Today, society has broadened the gender spectrum to include everyone, and gender associations are now abbreviated by the letters LGBTQIA which stands for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, Intersex, and Asexual (Tahoe Safe Alliance). Tick’s argues that since society is adapting to new gender norms by being more accepting of people who identify outside of male and female, the design sector needs to catch up with the evolving world and change the landscape design.


An example of a modern and opened office from the movie “The Intern” which demonstrates the way in which interior design is starting to evolve.

Tick proclaims that both the interior design of the business environment and the technological design such as webpages continue to be dominated by men; thus, these virtual and spatial environments display characteristics of the male desire in design. She avows that office spaces were designed by men because men traditionally possessed the top careers in which they held the power to design the office, while women, who usually played the role of secretary outside of the main business area, were designated with very little design opportunity (Tick). However, Tick believes that office spaces will start to transcend because more women are coming into higher positions. That assertion was used as a topic sentence and is followed by a supporting sentence that reads, “People are also craving more softness in interiors, with the open plan, the influence of hospitality, and an emphasis on tactile and textural materials like carpeting and textiles” (Tick). Because these two sentences are in the same paragraph, Tick implies that the female gender is associated with an interior design landscape which encourages softness and hospitality. Their open plan is likely to create a more welcoming environment which differs from  the typical cubicles that cause people to feel very segregated. Consequently, society is craving environments that incorporate all people, so Tick urges designers to fulfill society’s needs.



On the left is the picture of Alexander Wang’s woman’s coat, and on the right is Annemiek van der Beek’s Primal Skin makeup collection for men.

Tick believes that the fashion design industry is taking great strides to adapt to the post gender society; therefore, the industry sets an example for designers to follow in their process of creating gender diverse interiors that are of such high demand. She applauses Alexander Wang’s women’s coat which incorporates designs of a male military coat, and includes a picture that shows “Annemiek van der Beek’s Primal Skin makeup collection for men” (Tick). Makeup for men is a big step in society and it demonstrates the type of actions interior planners need to take. Public places need gender neutral bathrooms and perhaps gender neutrals changing rooms in department stores that do not force people to pick the option that will make others feel most comfortable.

Tick’s argument is very important because it connects to the issue of diversity and inclusion which is a big problem in the United States. Although Tick specifically discusses how interior layout excludes people who are not considered normal, her argument about including all people relates to the problem of racial and religious exclusion. Her essay adds to a bigger picture and can be used to support other claims on inclusion and diversity. Also, her ideas  on accommodation act as a method to alleviate these social issues. There are plenty of reasons why her argument is so relevant. For example, Hillary Clinton is the first female nominee to be considered for president after 57 elections where females were overlooked due to their gender. America continues to feel the heat around racial issues because many people continue to refuse to accept all races. Suzanne Tick’s argument demonstrates the type of morals the world should have when dealing with “different” types of people. Therefore her argument leads to a bigger platform on the problem of equality.




Works Cited

Tick, Suzanne. “His & Hers: Designing for a Post-Gender Society.” Metropolis Magazine, March 2015

“What Does LGBTQIA Mean?” Tahoe Safe Alliance, 2016, Accessed 25 October 2016.


“About Us.” LGBTQ Affirmative Therapists Guild of Utah, 2016

Tick, Suzanne. “His & Hers: Designing for a Post-Gender Society.” Metropolis Magazine, March 2015

Walsh, Julia. “Take a Tour of the Gorgeous Set of The Intern.” My Domain, 25 Sept. 2015,

4. Exhibit/ Background

Washington Evening Star Newspaper Articles on French Poodle Store  

“Why You Can Buy A Luxurious Prestige.” Washington Evening Star. March 26, 1964.

There are plenty of newspapers that advertise a place called French Poodle, a fur clothing store located at 1623 Connecticut Ave. Specifically, there are two newspaper ads that were published in March 1964. The first article advertises a bunch of gently used mink pieces which are being sold “as low as $88.” The second article also advertises French Poodle which has three different storefronts, but specifically promotes the one located at the same place as the AA club. According to the ad, their other location has been robbed, so there will be a big sale at the store on Connecticut Avenue. The primary source is reliable and factual because it is a true advertisement to the high class citizens who lived and shopped in Dupont in 1964.

I plan to use this article to exhibit the history of the 1623 Connecticut Ave location and support the claim that Dupont was, and still is, a high class area. The most telling part of the first source is the syntax it uses. In describing the minks, the ad says, “they are the minks which we rent to exquisitely dressed woman.”  This sentence establishes a targeted audience which the store wishes to sell their minks to, and it communicates that they only sell high class minks to equally high class people. However, the minks are gently used. In order to maintain their reputation of selling expensive, high class clothing, they write in the ad, “actually they get very little wear, but we must classify them as ‘second hand use.’” This reputation of a rich area is very interesting because Dupont is such a diverse and urban area. I will also use it to contrast the these ritzy places with Dupont’s high homeless population. Concurrently, it will support other articles that I have found which claim that Dupont citizens fought hard to rid Dupont of homeless people.  


3. Exhibit/ Background

Washington Evening Star Newspaper Articles (*note: link to source in dates of newspaper articles)

Two newspaper articles from Washington Evening Star both include a funeral section.  Both articles are reliable sources from an established newspaper company that specifically states facts in the two sections used for this interior analysis. The first newspaper article is from March 9th,1926, while the second article is from June 18, 1927. The article from 1926, includes an obituary about a man named Robinson who died on March 7th, 1926. In the obituary section, it says, “remains resting at 1623 Connecticut Ave”, which is the same place the Dupont Circle Club lies today. This sentence leads to questions about whether the person was buried under their house and why the body was specifically there. The question is answered by the article from 1927 that infers that the 1623 Connecticut Ave location was inhabited by a funeral home. Written under the “funeral directors” section of the newspaper, it says, “ Almus R. Speare, succeeding the original W.R Speare Co. 1623 Connecticut Ave.” This section of the newspaper infers that the funeral home is now being ran by a new director.

I plan to use this information to exhibit the evolution of the building that currently holds the Dupont Circle Club. My original assumption was that the building that houses the club was originally an apartment building due to its structure, however, I can not conclude that the place was a funeral home. I can also use these articles as background information that tells the history of the interior environment and perhaps interpret the layout of the space from a new perspective. Lastly I can use the information as an argument that Dupont was an accepting and diverse place, for this one location houses two organizations that very clearly stand out: an alcoholics anonymous club and a funeral home.

Georgia Referendum to Amend State Constitution:

“Shall Property owned by the University System of Georgia and utilized by providers of college and university student housing and other facilities continue to be exempt from taxation to keep costs affordable?”


Root sentence: “Property owned by the University of Georgia and is free from taxation.”

Words that jump out: shall, affordable, exempt, taxation

The encoder, AKA the writer, seems to be a source outside of the university. I would infer that the referendum came from a government body and is now found in some type of information pamphlet belonging to the University of Georgia. The intended audience is the college students, for whoever releases the information can use it to attract students to apply to the university and feel better about where their money is going to. The use of the word “shall” stands out because the referendum now sounds more official; it sounds like a proclamation that has come from somebody of high standing. The encoder makes the sentence very complicated but also very specific in order to show how it applies to both the university and the students. Although the sentence is structurally complicated, it is fairly simple and easy to understand because the one “goal” of the sentence, “to continue to be exempt from taxation to keep costs affordable,” is written in simple syntax. Therefore, the sentence structure is complicated but the message is clear and easy to understand.


This is a video which focuses on the sound that one is likely to here in the evening. 6pm is a busy time for restaurants in Dupont Circle. Here is an example of the conversations and sounds you will here if you walked along the sidewalk during this time. The video also includes faint sounds of cars zooming by the outdoor restaurants.


Many buildings in Dupont resemble this model. The buildings are three to four stories tall, with lots of windows. The buildings are very rigid with unique colors and shapes, and the layout of the structures confirms that the current stores were once row homes. Also, the trees and lights in front of the stores give that peaceful and ritzy feeling.


This picture exhibits the congestion of the sidewalks and depicts how it is divided among people, stores, bikes and signs. The picture also shows the type of high end stores such as Blue Mercury and Lou Lou Boutique amongst the cheaper stores such as Smoothie King and Comfort Shoes. Lasty, the rigid, row home-like, architecture is apparent from this view.


This is one of many high class stores which a visitor is bound to see. Dupont is filled with many shopping attractions which all follow the model of open doors and big windows. The windows act as exhibits that allow people to see the best of what the store has to offer, creating incentive for people to come in and shop, thus adding to D.C’s revenue.