This week on twitter has been eventful. Recently, the new hashtag, #hurtbae, took twitter by storm. The premise of the video was for this young girl confronting her ex-boyfriend in order to find some sort of comfort and closure. In the video, the girl started crying because she started to recall how they met and eventually how he ends up cheating on her many times. Many people around the nation started emphasizing with #hurtbae and felt her pain. Throughout this, it was notable that everyone on twitter could relate to the former couple and because of the humor side of twitter, the tweet reached thousands of people.

Annotated Bibliography


Bracey , John H. Jr., and Sharon Harley. “Records of the Freedman’s Hospital 1872-1910.” LexisNexis       Academic & Library Solutions, 2004. http://www.lexisnexis.com/documents/academic/upa_cis/100435_freedmenshospital.pdf

          In the article, Freedmen’s Hospital/Howard University Hospital, the author, details the historical significance of the Howard Medical Hospital. He explains that the Hospital was the “first hospital of its kind to aid in the medical treatment of former slaves” (Bracey 3). Howard University is an important landmark, especially for the African American Community. This is one of the first locations that publicly showcase black people in a professional setting. It is especially significant because this showcases black success. As a teaching college, it gives the African American community an opportunity to learn from doctors and nurses and become competitive members of the medical profession.

       This article gives background into Howard Medical Hospital and the origin of the hospital. I plan on looking at the origin of this name and how this hospital affecting the African American Community during the time of the civil war. I find it ironic that the hospital was called “Freedman” when those who were being serviced were not free and were considered ⅗ of a person. It is important to also showcase the amount of black talent in the hospital. Many of the people during this time were considered hidden figures and were unable to tell their stories. This source helps me bring to light the forgotten individuals of the former Freedman Hospital and allows me to tell their story.

  1. Background:

http://www.lexisnexis.com/documents/academic/upa_cis/100435_FreedmensHospital.pdf. Accessed 5 Mar. 2017.

       In the article, A Short History of Freedmen’s Hospital, W. Montague Cobb M.D, describes the built location of Freedmen’s Hospital. He notes the origins of the hospital and how it started as a nursing hospital that cared for “for freed, disabled, and aged blacks” (Cobb). The hospital was first of its kind because it provided care for blacks when most hospitals in that time only catered for white military men. This historical landmark also has always served as a teaching hospital and has given an opportunity to the African American community to learn about the medical field and assist their brethren. Once John F. Kennedy transferred Freedman’s Hospital to Howard University, the hospital was able to grow and expand and provide more health care to African American Community. This type of care was the first of its kind and gave the black community their own landmark and property that was not seen less than 50 years ago.

       For this article, I will focus on the care that African American’s received from the hospital. I find it very interesting how black people catered to other black people and showed unity in their community. I think it is important to discuss how these men are fighting for freedom for the United States but could not receive adequate care for their series. I find it interesting that the government still owned the hospital until 1961. I will raise the question of why they did this and to what degree did the government control the day to day operations of the hospital. Because the hospital was catered to black people in the DC community, wouldn’t it make sense that those in charge would be black people? They would have a better understanding of how to run the hospital and people in the community would feel more comfortable that black people are treating them and actually care about their well-being. It is great that the community came together in order to provide care for these servicemen during that time.

  1. Argument:

“Washington, DC.” Howard University Health Sciences


        According to the Health and Sciences Page of the Howard University, the teaching hospital helps to provide African Americans with the ability to learn about medicine and experience it first hand. On the website the program is said to specifically cater to a “Cancer Center, a Sickle Cell Center, a Diabetes Treatment Center, a kidney transplant program, the Perinatal Diagnostic and Ultrasound Center and neonatal care units” (Health Services). The teaching hospital trains more than 20 percent of the nation’s African-American health care professionals. This is important because it is the basis for the African American medical community. When community members train each other they offer experiences that cannot be learned from other people.

       For my research, I plan to showcase the different hospital organizations and individuals in these different fields. It gives students the ability to see themselves in lights that were not available to them 100 years ago. This builds their self-esteem and helps them gain more and more valuable experiences. It is especially significant because research like sickle cell anemia and diabetes are medical issues that are very prominent in the African American community. Having the resources to learn more about these issues gives students in the teaching program the opportunity to make a positive impact on the black community. They are able to offer a perspective and maybe suggest different approaches to this problem that primarily affects their very own community. There is something extra special about learning from people that look like ourselves and the significance and confidence it can build for our future.

  1. Method:

“Alexander Thomas Augusta.” 1825.  20 Feb. 2017.


       Data from the African American Registry shows that Alexander Thomas Augusta was a pioneering surgeon who paved the way for African Americans to work and learn from other black doctors. As the first black surgeon in the army, Augusta rose to the ranks quickly because of his skill and talent. Unfortunately, some of the white officers complained because they had to “report to black officer” (registry). Because of this blatant discrimination, Augusta was required to transfer to Freedman’s Hospital now known as Howard University Hospital. Alexander Augusta is a pioneer for Howard University Hospital. He fought hard for more pay for his medical rank.

      As for my research, I believe that it is important to start with the pioneers of the former Freedman’s Hospital. Their story usually goes untold and it is important that they are recognized. Alexander Augusta used is skills in order to benefit the African American community specifically. I find it interesting and wildly compelling that the white officers would not allow a black man to treat them in a predominately black hospital. The whole premise of the hospital was to treat African Americans who were not allowed to be treated at white hospitals. I plan on evaluating how although African American professionals were given their own built space, they were still being discriminated against. This hospital was supposed to be a safe haven in for African-Americans in order to get the care they normally would not receive but still, they are stripped away from any positions of power.

  1. Review:

Yelp.com. “Howard Medical Hospital”.2017.


       According to many of the Yelp reviews, The Howard Hospital has fallen into some hard times. Many people do not like the hospital and feel like their service is subpar. One review rated the hospital, “Two stars… but only because we survived.” The hospital was originally set up with the resources to be a state of the art hospital, but ever since the hospital was acquired by Howard University, it has been described as not up to par. It has been described as able to perform better and looks like it needs more resources in order to perform highly.

       As for my research, I plan on assessing the hospital’s reviews and why it has reached a bad reputation. Everyone has a different perspective of the hospital, some agree that it is a great teaching hospital but there is clearly work that needs to be done with the service itself. I also plan on evaluating the different methods of information and how we determine whether something is great or not based on how we receive our information. This also raises the question of the environment of the hospital and where it is primarily located. The area of Howard/ U Street has been disadvantaged and it is clearly evident at the Howard Medical Hospital. There seems to be no sort of care by the government` to support the hospital or their community and because of the historical background of the hospital, it should be of concern.


Exterior of Howard hospital

This is an another picture of Howard University Hosptial. I chose this picture because it shows the multiple levels of the airport. Because it was so dark I was unable to have a clear representation of the entrance to the hospital, but I can concur that the Hospital sits on grass that seems to not be kept up with daily maintenance. I think this is an attribution to the area of the hospital and the funds that are designated to the upkeeping of the hospital. since the hospital has fallen on hard times according to multiple news sources, it is understandable.

Interior of Howard Hospital

This is a picture of the front desk at Howard University Hospital. The Hospital has won multiple awards based on the plaques that hang on the walls, but I did not see any recent achievements.. The upkeeping of the hospital was mildly disappointing. There was rust on the walls but the shaping of the glass walls was nice. It can be inferred that the building has not been updated in a long time. I chose this picture because it showed the new and old the hospital. It does not show a lot of differences but it it is arguable that the hospital adapts to the times and needs of its patients.

Inside Howard University Hospital

This is an inside picture of Howard University. I chose this picture because it gives directions to patients on where to go for treatment. It shows the structure of the hospital and how sterile everything must be in order for it to be classified as a Hospital. Unlike most hospitals, this one does not necessarily have the resources to be an elite hospital. As soon as I walked into the hospital I could already feel that presence. The demographics of the patients were mostly black and it had funding but not enough to fix up some of the minor errors in the hospital.

Entrance sign to Howard University Hospital

This is the entrance sign for the Howard University Hospital. The sign directs people toward the main entrance, visitor parking, and the emergency section. Currently, the locations all lead to one place but upon arrival, it is easy to navigate where each entrance is. I chose this sign because it gives clear instructions on where to go and it shows those who are in an emergency a clear location.

Entrance sign

The Exterior Of Howard Medical Hospital

This is an outside picture of Howard Medical Hospital. It is placed at 2041 Georgia Ave NW #1, Washington, DC 20060. It is very close to Howard university and it is used as a teaching hospital for students in the medical school at Howard. I chose this image because it shows the outside of the hospital and the location that it was in. Because it was gated I was unable to get a clearer look at the inside of the Hospital. It signifies the location of the hospital and also gives a clear view for those who need to look at the physical aspects of the hospital.

Exterior of Howard Medical Hospital


The Grammy’s… smh

This Sunday, I watched the Grammy awards with a group of friends, and as the true Beyonce fan I am I was rooting for her to snatch the most prestigious award of the night,  Album of the Year, for her critically acclaimed album, Lemonade. This year I had high hopes for Queen B because of the cultural significance of the album. I remember when it first came out and how every song made me cry because of how much detail she put into the music and how precise every music video was. She made this album to empower black women and give us the voice we never had. As a lover of music and Beyonce, It shocked me to see her not win album of the Year, let alone any of the non-genre categorizes. This is not to shade Adele. I thought that the album 25 was well written, but it did not have as much of an impact as Lemonade. This was very evident throughout 2016. First with her controversial Superbowl performance, the announcement and selling out of the Formation World Tour without an official release of the album for several months, and the extravagant release of her magnum opus, Lemonade. Till this day Beyonce has refused to release that album for streaming. She wants people to buy the entire album, and not just listen to singles. She takes her listeners on a journey of self discovery and makes it clear to the world that she is a black woman and deserves respect because she has worked for it. She channels the African Goddess, Oshun to connect black women to their African roots and helps us embrace our blackness. The biggest blow was that everyone knew that Beyonce was snubbed. She has been nominated 3 times for album of the year and each time it impacts people in ways unimaginable. With I Am… Sasha Fierce she went the rout of pop…. still no Grammy, BEYONCE self titled she broke records within minutes with no advertising or prior notice…. still no Grammy, and with Lemonade she showed her versatility and became critically acclaimed….. and still no album of the year. Their is a systematic problem with the Grammy’s. Only 3 black women have won album of the year and the most recent recipient, Lauren Hill won the award over 20 years ago. The Grammy’s have no problem asking black artists to preform for these awards shows but have a hard time with giving these awards to Black Artists. Clearly there is a bigger problem and the question is what does it take for black people to gain the recognition that deserve?

Image result for beyonce grammys

Reading Analysis on David Fleming’s City of Rhetoric- Revised

In his book, City of Rhetoric, David Fleming argues that African Americans have been purposefully segregated by giving them the worst housing in the worst neighborhoods. Specifically, Fleming uses Chicago to illustrate the segregation that occurred after an influx of African Americans moved from the south to the north, also known as the Great Migration. The white people in these areas were nervous of blacks people infiltrating the city of Chicago and making a home for themselves. In order to prevent this from occurring white people made local legislation that limited black people. They played into their fears of people being different from them. Unfortunately, during this time black people are still at a disadvantage because they are unable to equally compete with the white people. This all stems back to slavery because the whites had all the power, black people were left to feel inferior to the white people. By providing the necessary means of helping them navigate through society after reconstruction, black people are continuously left in the dust and are told to fend for themselves with the little resources they have. Fleming notes this by describing how people social spheres, “is both a cause and effect pf our increasingly impoverished political relations with one another” (Fleming 3). The relationships that people in these areas affect the way they communicate with one another and tend to cause discourse. 

In Chicago, this was explicitly the case. Many of the black people in these communities were required to apply for public housing because of the limited housing available for them at that time. Instead of white people allowing blacks to buy houses in these areas, they regulated them by setting up a more “legal” version of Jim Crow Laws, which prohibited black people from owning homes in the shared built environment and living space as the white people. Allowing this level of injustice to occur limits black people from succeeding and it places them in environments that prohibit any type of success. “Blacks living in the heart of the ghetto are among the most isolated people on earth” (Fleming 88).

Fleming gives specific examples explaining the importance of building relationships with one another, but he does realize that as a society there are certain elements that prevent us from achieving understanding. “But over and above these individual obstacles to civic life, I believe, there are ecological attributes of these neighborhoods that prevent the individuals who live in them from building strong publics together” (89). Fleming’s analysis of the city of Chicago is very similar to what is happening with President Trump’s immigration ban. Throughout history, we have seen the implications of excluding groups from our built society. It never ends well and usually results in the oppression of the minority. In order to prevent this from reoccurring, it is important that we analyze what makes us different and work to build a relationship of understanding for one another.

A photo of Chicago residents during the Great Migration


  • This is a link to a first-hand account of people who migrated to Chicago during the great migration.

Work Cited

Fleming, David. City of Rhetoric: Revitalizing the Public Sphere in Metropolitan America. SUNY Press, 2008.

Schindler’s description of Architectural Exclusion in our Joint Built Environment- revised

In her piece, Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment: architectural exclusion: theory, Sarah Schindler argues that architect is being used by majority population to exclude groups of people, like minorities, who they do not want in their built environment. Specifically, Schindler brings to light others arguments that “People used the law by passing ordinances saying that certain individuals could not access certain locations” (Schindler 1942).  These individuals in this environment are aware that the law is what governs the people. Once they have the law on their side they are able to manipulate it to work in their favor. This leaves poor people and the minority out of the equation, causing them to suffer and become victims from these ordinances. Placing restrictions also prevents the majority from coming into any close contact with the minority, which leaves the minority fending for themselves.

Schindler also gives specific examples on how our physical environment regulates people daily lives. “One might think it a simple aesthetic design decision to create a park bench that is divided into three individual seats with armrests separating those seats. Yet the bench may have been created this way to prevent people—often homeless people—from lying down and taking naps” (Schindler 1942). Objects that were created to provide comfort for all people, also creates discomfort. Structuring objects create a limitation on society as a whole. This allows for a superiority complex. If one thinks they are better than the other and prevents the one group of people from participating in their built environment it will ultimately cause those individuals to go away and find another physical space they might feel welcomed in. This leaves the original group benefiting from these objects, alone. In the instance, with the chairs, these were most likely created to prevent homeless people from sleeping in them. Once these homeless people notice the regulation on the chair they eventually find someplace else to sleep, most likely among people who are homeless themselves and can identify with their struggle.

In conclusion, Sarah Schindler explains how our built environment affects our everyday lives, even though we may not realize it. Every modern architectural design is thought out with careful consideration of who is around there and the type of individuals they would like to have in their environment or who they would like to exclude. As a society, we unconsciously regulate people’s day to day movements, through walls and borders that enclose us and prevents us from exploring different people or trying new things. Schindler recognizes that we tend to build regulations in order to contain and protect what we already have instead of sharing our built space as a society. Failing to do this, leaves some individuals in a society feeling left out and creates separation and defensiveness one another.

This ted talk is interesting because it challenges how we perceive architect and makes us question our rhetorical space.

I compared this picture with the one below because It demonstrates how our space differs per person but we are all jointly in on earth consuming these spaces.

Work Cited:

Schindler, Sarah. “Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment.” 1. Architectural Exclusion: Theory.  2015. Web. 9 Feb. 2017.