Annotated Bibliography


Bracey , John H. Jr., and Sharon Harley. “Records of the Freedman’s Hospital 1872-1910.” LexisNexis       Academic & Library Solutions, 2004.

          In the article, Freedmen’s Hospital/Howard University Hospital, the author, details the historical significance of the Howard Medical Hospital. He explains that the Hospital was the “first hospital of its kind to aid in the medical treatment of former slaves” (Bracey 3). Howard University is an important landmark, especially for the African American Community. This is one of the first locations that publicly showcase black people in a professional setting. It is especially significant because this showcases black success. As a teaching college, it gives the African American community an opportunity to learn from doctors and nurses and become competitive members of the medical profession.

       This article gives background into Howard Medical Hospital and the origin of the hospital. I plan on looking at the origin of this name and how this hospital affecting the African American Community during the time of the civil war. I find it ironic that the hospital was called “Freedman” when those who were being serviced were not free and were considered ⅗ of a person. It is important to also showcase the amount of black talent in the hospital. Many of the people during this time were considered hidden figures and were unable to tell their stories. This source helps me bring to light the forgotten individuals of the former Freedman Hospital and allows me to tell their story.

  1. Background: Accessed 5 Mar. 2017.

       In the article, A Short History of Freedmen’s Hospital, W. Montague Cobb M.D, describes the built location of Freedmen’s Hospital. He notes the origins of the hospital and how it started as a nursing hospital that cared for “for freed, disabled, and aged blacks” (Cobb). The hospital was first of its kind because it provided care for blacks when most hospitals in that time only catered for white military men. This historical landmark also has always served as a teaching hospital and has given an opportunity to the African American community to learn about the medical field and assist their brethren. Once John F. Kennedy transferred Freedman’s Hospital to Howard University, the hospital was able to grow and expand and provide more health care to African American Community. This type of care was the first of its kind and gave the black community their own landmark and property that was not seen less than 50 years ago.

       For this article, I will focus on the care that African American’s received from the hospital. I find it very interesting how black people catered to other black people and showed unity in their community. I think it is important to discuss how these men are fighting for freedom for the United States but could not receive adequate care for their series. I find it interesting that the government still owned the hospital until 1961. I will raise the question of why they did this and to what degree did the government control the day to day operations of the hospital. Because the hospital was catered to black people in the DC community, wouldn’t it make sense that those in charge would be black people? They would have a better understanding of how to run the hospital and people in the community would feel more comfortable that black people are treating them and actually care about their well-being. It is great that the community came together in order to provide care for these servicemen during that time.

  1. Argument:

“Washington, DC.” Howard University Health Sciences

        According to the Health and Sciences Page of the Howard University, the teaching hospital helps to provide African Americans with the ability to learn about medicine and experience it first hand. On the website the program is said to specifically cater to a “Cancer Center, a Sickle Cell Center, a Diabetes Treatment Center, a kidney transplant program, the Perinatal Diagnostic and Ultrasound Center and neonatal care units” (Health Services). The teaching hospital trains more than 20 percent of the nation’s African-American health care professionals. This is important because it is the basis for the African American medical community. When community members train each other they offer experiences that cannot be learned from other people.

       For my research, I plan to showcase the different hospital organizations and individuals in these different fields. It gives students the ability to see themselves in lights that were not available to them 100 years ago. This builds their self-esteem and helps them gain more and more valuable experiences. It is especially significant because research like sickle cell anemia and diabetes are medical issues that are very prominent in the African American community. Having the resources to learn more about these issues gives students in the teaching program the opportunity to make a positive impact on the black community. They are able to offer a perspective and maybe suggest different approaches to this problem that primarily affects their very own community. There is something extra special about learning from people that look like ourselves and the significance and confidence it can build for our future.

  1. Method:

“Alexander Thomas Augusta.” 1825.  20 Feb. 2017.

       Data from the African American Registry shows that Alexander Thomas Augusta was a pioneering surgeon who paved the way for African Americans to work and learn from other black doctors. As the first black surgeon in the army, Augusta rose to the ranks quickly because of his skill and talent. Unfortunately, some of the white officers complained because they had to “report to black officer” (registry). Because of this blatant discrimination, Augusta was required to transfer to Freedman’s Hospital now known as Howard University Hospital. Alexander Augusta is a pioneer for Howard University Hospital. He fought hard for more pay for his medical rank.

      As for my research, I believe that it is important to start with the pioneers of the former Freedman’s Hospital. Their story usually goes untold and it is important that they are recognized. Alexander Augusta used is skills in order to benefit the African American community specifically. I find it interesting and wildly compelling that the white officers would not allow a black man to treat them in a predominately black hospital. The whole premise of the hospital was to treat African Americans who were not allowed to be treated at white hospitals. I plan on evaluating how although African American professionals were given their own built space, they were still being discriminated against. This hospital was supposed to be a safe haven in for African-Americans in order to get the care they normally would not receive but still, they are stripped away from any positions of power.

  1. Review: “Howard Medical Hospital”.2017.

       According to many of the Yelp reviews, The Howard Hospital has fallen into some hard times. Many people do not like the hospital and feel like their service is subpar. One review rated the hospital, “Two stars… but only because we survived.” The hospital was originally set up with the resources to be a state of the art hospital, but ever since the hospital was acquired by Howard University, it has been described as not up to par. It has been described as able to perform better and looks like it needs more resources in order to perform highly.

       As for my research, I plan on assessing the hospital’s reviews and why it has reached a bad reputation. Everyone has a different perspective of the hospital, some agree that it is a great teaching hospital but there is clearly work that needs to be done with the service itself. I also plan on evaluating the different methods of information and how we determine whether something is great or not based on how we receive our information. This also raises the question of the environment of the hospital and where it is primarily located. The area of Howard/ U Street has been disadvantaged and it is clearly evident at the Howard Medical Hospital. There seems to be no sort of care by the government` to support the hospital or their community and because of the historical background of the hospital, it should be of concern.


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