Annotated Bibliography 3 and 4

Hunter-Gault, Charlene. “Hard Times at Howard University.” The New York Times. 4 February 2014.

In this article, Charlene Hunter-Gault explains the challenges faced by Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick, the acting president of Howard University, who struggles to compete with elite colleges. His challenges include new restrictions on federal loans, financial mismanagement and board infighting, and the nation’s diversifying landscape. The author also f some of the economic challenges that are faced by black colleges of the region through a number of cases that include Hampton University, Fisk University, and focuses the University of Georgia.

The author also explains that the students at Howard demand “Transparency, Accountability, and Responsibility” and push for a change in the financial leadership of their school. They are concerned about the fiscal direction of the school and some public relations blunders, such as bonuses granted to high-level administrators in the amount of $1.1 million, that occurred in the past years at Howard. On the other hand, Hunter-Gault includes testimonies of students who consider Howard an outstanding educational institution. This source is going to support my point about the challenges faced by Howard University,  the efforts they make to overcome them as they move toward the future, and the reclamation of their Mecca, which has been tampered.


Tressel, Ashley. “Howard Hospital Rises in the ranks.” Willits News, 22 December. 2016,

After large renovations, Howard hospital has risen in the rankings and demonstrated the quality of care after receiving millions of dollars in grants from Advent Health. The article does not indicate specifically who did the assessment for the new ranking, but only discussed some of the new equipment purchased and where the money came from. All that is mentioned is Howard Hospital is a level IV trauma center and stakeholders hope to maintain its 4-star patient rating.


While the information in this article seems credible and interviews were conducted with medical staff at Howard Hospital, more information is needed, so this article will serve as a starting point into understanding Howard Hospital’s financial situation. Howard Hospital, had until recently been strapping Howard University of much needed capital, so it remains to be seen if this situation is faring better, I will use this in my research to demonstrate the ever changing adaptations Howard Hospital has had to face, and the effects it has had on the school and community.

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