Annotated Bibliography 9 and 10

Mughee, Umarah. “Conquering Cancer: Now He Needs Your Votes.” The Hilltop, issue 14 September.  2015,

Sydney Satterwhite, a Howard University student was diagnosed with Stage IV Lymphoma, and as a result, he had to take a year off from school; now back at Howard, Sydney is applying for money via the Dr. Pepper Tuition Giveaway, to assist in paying tuition and past medical bills. Sydney could win up to $100,000. As a top student and scholar, Sydney is trying to complete his education despite huge obstacles.

I plan to use this article for my research to illustrate the ways in which Howard University rallies together to support their students. This is the “Mecca” Tanihasi Coates refers to in his book, Between the World and Me. This coming together of all students to support one of their own is seen time and time again at Howard University and it primarily stands because of the way the school was set up. It was set up as a support system for disadvantaged students who were primarily African American students.

Dunnavant, Justin. “Access Denied: African Americans and Access to End-of-Life Care in Nineteen-Century Washington, DC.”

Researchers in this article found that African American women were especially vulnerable as they were often denied end-of-life care due to a requirement of the women to be employed; since fewer women had access to employment in the 19th Century and African American women, especially, end of life care was seen as something earned, and not a right.

Much has changed since the 19th Century, and while there are still racial injustices within the U.S., end of life care is not restricted to those who work. While the Howard Hospital situation remains complicated, as do the racial issues, Howard University, much has improved socially and culturally. I plan to use this in my research to demonstrate the effects of disadvantages have had on Howard and why their mini community seems to be the only type of support they can rely on.

Annotated bibliography 7 and 8

Exhibit and Background: Howard University

Milloy, Courtland. “Howard University’s Yardfest has become an embarrassment.” The Washington Post, 29 October. 2013,

Milloy Courtland’s article in the Washington Post, “Howard University’s YardFest has become an embarrassment,” makes the arguments that Howard University is known for its homecoming events even before the quality education. This highlights the behavior of the audience at the annual Yardfest hip hop show. The article goes on to discuss the behavior of the gate crashers to the backdrop of some of the titles of the rap songs being performed, in a sarcastic manner, contrasting it with the former abolitionist Frederick Douglas. To the author of this article, the students are going to Howard to a party, get high or drunk and misbehave, rather than run to a “Mecca of higher education” (Washington Post).

I plan to use this in my research to argue that this Homecoming ceremony, YardFest, is apart of the culture. It is important to recognize the demographics of those who attend this prestigious university. For my project, I plan on dismantling Courtland’s bias views in order to showcase the importance of these programs. Yes, the school has its own flaws related to finance and the upcoming of the university, but to argue that their school has become an embarrassment because of cultural events like YardFest is somewhat contradicting. These programs are a way for this community to express themselves and portraying it as something negative only damages the image of the University.

Suggs, Ernie. “Howard University: The Mecca.”, Cox Media Group,13 July. 2015,

In this article, there is a general narrative about how Howard University is committed to helping disadvantaged persons succeed in higher education, and specifically, African Americans. The author goes on to describe some of Howard University’s history, like when it was founded in 1867, with humble beginnings, and how it has grown to serve its student body with 13 schools and colleges. This article is heavily opinionated and clearly, has a biased opinion.

This article will be used to compare/contrast Howard University related to its success, failures, socio-political structure, the educational environment of the students. This article reads more like an advertisement, and while it does highlight some facts that can be verified by outside sources. I will incorporate this into my research to illustrate methods Howard university is using to savor their image and restore the “Mecca” to its original glory. I will also anylze how this article supports the school in order to showcase it in a postive light. While conducting my reserch I noticed a tone in the way some articles approach the University and most were with a negative tone. It is interesting how these same articles discuss predominatly white Univeristies. There is a some level of unconfidence with predominatly black universities, as if to say they are incompitant to compete with white colleges. I plan on discussing these challenges and how it is clearly evident within the built enviroment of Howard University.

Annotated Bibliography 3 and 4

Hunter-Gault, Charlene. “Hard Times at Howard University.” The New York Times. 4 February 2014.

In this article, Charlene Hunter-Gault explains the challenges faced by Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick, the acting president of Howard University, who struggles to compete with elite colleges. His challenges include new restrictions on federal loans, financial mismanagement and board infighting, and the nation’s diversifying landscape. The author also f some of the economic challenges that are faced by black colleges of the region through a number of cases that include Hampton University, Fisk University, and focuses the University of Georgia.

The author also explains that the students at Howard demand “Transparency, Accountability, and Responsibility” and push for a change in the financial leadership of their school. They are concerned about the fiscal direction of the school and some public relations blunders, such as bonuses granted to high-level administrators in the amount of $1.1 million, that occurred in the past years at Howard. On the other hand, Hunter-Gault includes testimonies of students who consider Howard an outstanding educational institution. This source is going to support my point about the challenges faced by Howard University,  the efforts they make to overcome them as they move toward the future, and the reclamation of their Mecca, which has been tampered.


Tressel, Ashley. “Howard Hospital Rises in the ranks.” Willits News, 22 December. 2016,

After large renovations, Howard hospital has risen in the rankings and demonstrated the quality of care after receiving millions of dollars in grants from Advent Health. The article does not indicate specifically who did the assessment for the new ranking, but only discussed some of the new equipment purchased and where the money came from. All that is mentioned is Howard Hospital is a level IV trauma center and stakeholders hope to maintain its 4-star patient rating.


While the information in this article seems credible and interviews were conducted with medical staff at Howard Hospital, more information is needed, so this article will serve as a starting point into understanding Howard Hospital’s financial situation. Howard Hospital, had until recently been strapping Howard University of much needed capital, so it remains to be seen if this situation is faring better, I will use this in my research to demonstrate the ever changing adaptations Howard Hospital has had to face, and the effects it has had on the school and community.

Annotated Bibliography 5 & 6

Coates, Ta-Nehisi. Between the World and Me. First edition, Spiegel & Grau, 2015.


In his book, Between the World and Me, Ta-Nehisi Coates, writes letters to his son describing what it is like to be black in America and details his experiences at Howard University. He perfectly illustrates and explains that it was not necessarily the school itself that shaped his character and made him into the man he is today but instead the Mecca itself. He describes the Mecca as the people surrounding him and those who benefited and were affected by the black college experience. “And still I urge you to struggle. Struggle for the memory of your ancestors. Struggle for wisdom. Struggle for the warmth of The Mecca. Struggle for your grandmother and grandfather, for your name.”Most of Coates’ family attended Howard University and helped mold his character. In this quote, Coates is encouraging his son to take advantage of the love that is passed down from his black brethren and celebrate the beautiful heritage that comes with Howard University. 


Coates makes it very clear throughout the book that it is not necessarily Howard University that is the Mecca but instead those who benefit from the school who shape their own Mecca within the school. He is very detailed in the way he describes The Mecca and recognizes that although the area around Howard/ U street is changing in ways unforeseen 15-20 years ago, The mecca remains steadfast and those beliefs and customs remain ever present. I plan on using this in my research to demonstrate the relationship between Howard University and all its professional centers, like the Howard Hospital and how they are used to shape the men and women who come out of these institutions. 


“Experiencing ‘The Mecca’ In All Its Beauty.” The Hilltop, 6 Sept. 2016,


In her article, Experiencing “The Mecca” in all its beauty, Ariela Johnson, a campus staff writer, gives her readers a basic analysis and description of Howard University and the greatness that hails from the school. She also describes the plethora of African American who hail from this school and have contributed American History. She continues by describing The mecca and welcomes the incoming freshman who will eventually “grace the campus with their style, curiosity, diverse backgrounds, and eagerness to submerge themselves in the experience affectionately known as ‘The Mecca.’ ” Those who come in and come out of Howard made up “The Mecca” not necessarily Howard University itself.


This article is mostly fact based and primarily gives a description of the school’s activities and how The Mecca affects its students, mostly incoming freshman. Johnson gives readers a first-hand account of what to expect once arriving in the school. As a campus staff writer, it is assumed that she herself is a student and she has personally been positively affected by ‘The Mecca.’” The article has a large concentration on unity that is not as present in other schools. She details programs like homecoming activities and experiences that pay homage to the black greek experience. Because the article is written in September most of the students are firstly arriving at the school and most are an incoming freshman. This article is used as a welcoming call into “The Mecca” and going into detail on all the luxuries and beauty the school has to offer. This article helps with my research because it gives a first-hand account and I will be able to contrast this with an alumni account of how they would describe the Mecca. 

Annotated Bibliography


Bracey , John H. Jr., and Sharon Harley. “Records of the Freedman’s Hospital 1872-1910.” LexisNexis       Academic & Library Solutions, 2004.

          In the article, Freedmen’s Hospital/Howard University Hospital, the author, details the historical significance of the Howard Medical Hospital. He explains that the Hospital was the “first hospital of its kind to aid in the medical treatment of former slaves” (Bracey 3). Howard University is an important landmark, especially for the African American Community. This is one of the first locations that publicly showcase black people in a professional setting. It is especially significant because this showcases black success. As a teaching college, it gives the African American community an opportunity to learn from doctors and nurses and become competitive members of the medical profession.

       This article gives background into Howard Medical Hospital and the origin of the hospital. I plan on looking at the origin of this name and how this hospital affecting the African American Community during the time of the civil war. I find it ironic that the hospital was called “Freedman” when those who were being serviced were not free and were considered ⅗ of a person. It is important to also showcase the amount of black talent in the hospital. Many of the people during this time were considered hidden figures and were unable to tell their stories. This source helps me bring to light the forgotten individuals of the former Freedman Hospital and allows me to tell their story.

  1. Background: Accessed 5 Mar. 2017.

       In the article, A Short History of Freedmen’s Hospital, W. Montague Cobb M.D, describes the built location of Freedmen’s Hospital. He notes the origins of the hospital and how it started as a nursing hospital that cared for “for freed, disabled, and aged blacks” (Cobb). The hospital was first of its kind because it provided care for blacks when most hospitals in that time only catered for white military men. This historical landmark also has always served as a teaching hospital and has given an opportunity to the African American community to learn about the medical field and assist their brethren. Once John F. Kennedy transferred Freedman’s Hospital to Howard University, the hospital was able to grow and expand and provide more health care to African American Community. This type of care was the first of its kind and gave the black community their own landmark and property that was not seen less than 50 years ago.

       For this article, I will focus on the care that African American’s received from the hospital. I find it very interesting how black people catered to other black people and showed unity in their community. I think it is important to discuss how these men are fighting for freedom for the United States but could not receive adequate care for their series. I find it interesting that the government still owned the hospital until 1961. I will raise the question of why they did this and to what degree did the government control the day to day operations of the hospital. Because the hospital was catered to black people in the DC community, wouldn’t it make sense that those in charge would be black people? They would have a better understanding of how to run the hospital and people in the community would feel more comfortable that black people are treating them and actually care about their well-being. It is great that the community came together in order to provide care for these servicemen during that time.

  1. Argument:

“Washington, DC.” Howard University Health Sciences

        According to the Health and Sciences Page of the Howard University, the teaching hospital helps to provide African Americans with the ability to learn about medicine and experience it first hand. On the website the program is said to specifically cater to a “Cancer Center, a Sickle Cell Center, a Diabetes Treatment Center, a kidney transplant program, the Perinatal Diagnostic and Ultrasound Center and neonatal care units” (Health Services). The teaching hospital trains more than 20 percent of the nation’s African-American health care professionals. This is important because it is the basis for the African American medical community. When community members train each other they offer experiences that cannot be learned from other people.

       For my research, I plan to showcase the different hospital organizations and individuals in these different fields. It gives students the ability to see themselves in lights that were not available to them 100 years ago. This builds their self-esteem and helps them gain more and more valuable experiences. It is especially significant because research like sickle cell anemia and diabetes are medical issues that are very prominent in the African American community. Having the resources to learn more about these issues gives students in the teaching program the opportunity to make a positive impact on the black community. They are able to offer a perspective and maybe suggest different approaches to this problem that primarily affects their very own community. There is something extra special about learning from people that look like ourselves and the significance and confidence it can build for our future.

  1. Method:

“Alexander Thomas Augusta.” 1825.  20 Feb. 2017.

       Data from the African American Registry shows that Alexander Thomas Augusta was a pioneering surgeon who paved the way for African Americans to work and learn from other black doctors. As the first black surgeon in the army, Augusta rose to the ranks quickly because of his skill and talent. Unfortunately, some of the white officers complained because they had to “report to black officer” (registry). Because of this blatant discrimination, Augusta was required to transfer to Freedman’s Hospital now known as Howard University Hospital. Alexander Augusta is a pioneer for Howard University Hospital. He fought hard for more pay for his medical rank.

      As for my research, I believe that it is important to start with the pioneers of the former Freedman’s Hospital. Their story usually goes untold and it is important that they are recognized. Alexander Augusta used is skills in order to benefit the African American community specifically. I find it interesting and wildly compelling that the white officers would not allow a black man to treat them in a predominately black hospital. The whole premise of the hospital was to treat African Americans who were not allowed to be treated at white hospitals. I plan on evaluating how although African American professionals were given their own built space, they were still being discriminated against. This hospital was supposed to be a safe haven in for African-Americans in order to get the care they normally would not receive but still, they are stripped away from any positions of power.

  1. Review: “Howard Medical Hospital”.2017.

       According to many of the Yelp reviews, The Howard Hospital has fallen into some hard times. Many people do not like the hospital and feel like their service is subpar. One review rated the hospital, “Two stars… but only because we survived.” The hospital was originally set up with the resources to be a state of the art hospital, but ever since the hospital was acquired by Howard University, it has been described as not up to par. It has been described as able to perform better and looks like it needs more resources in order to perform highly.

       As for my research, I plan on assessing the hospital’s reviews and why it has reached a bad reputation. Everyone has a different perspective of the hospital, some agree that it is a great teaching hospital but there is clearly work that needs to be done with the service itself. I also plan on evaluating the different methods of information and how we determine whether something is great or not based on how we receive our information. This also raises the question of the environment of the hospital and where it is primarily located. The area of Howard/ U Street has been disadvantaged and it is clearly evident at the Howard Medical Hospital. There seems to be no sort of care by the government` to support the hospital or their community and because of the historical background of the hospital, it should be of concern.