Monthly Archives: February 2017

Essay 1


Victor Hugo, a french writer, once said “Architecture has recorded the great ideas of the human race. Not only every religious symbol, but every human thought has its page in that vast book.”(Hugo).  Architecture speaks just as many words as pictures, books and interviews do. The world is filled with built environments that conjure conversation, political discourse and social interactions in addition to their functionality of shelter, protection the outside. Before there was language, words or even symbols, there was one form of rhetoric that was always present. There were built environments that subconsciously influenced they way that these societies interacted. Prehistoric animals built shelters for housing, and plants evolved to produce shade when it was too sunny. Yes, these structures originated from necessity rather than the stylistic medium of art that it is today, but nevertheless, these structures conveyed an element of rhetoric that evolved into the artisanal craft that surrounds us today. A perfect example of this is seen in Union Station where a mutual relationship between society and built environment takes place. I’m going to explain how the construction and design of Union not only influences the behavior of the people of the station, but how the people of the station equally influence the construction and design of the building.


Driving up to the Union Station I noticed how Grand and inviting the exterior was, with alludes to transportation, exploration, destination and location as well as an ongoing theme of the nationalism of D.C . The front of the station was all white and lined in vertical pillars. Something I noticed about exterior of the building was the the strong pronunciation of horizontal and vertical lines. When analyzing paintings, sculptures, photography or any other visual medium of art, vertical and horizontal lines have a engaging subconscious effect on the viewer. Horizontal lines evoke a sense of calmness and tranquility. Horizontal lines bring forth a similarity to landscapes and horizon. Whereas vertical lines offer stability as they are parallel to the earth. Things that are vertical often are holding something up, offering support. When combining the two, horizontal and vertical lines, 90 degree angles are formed. 90 degree angles are the president for structural security. In contrast to diagonal lines which normally evokes movement or energy. These elements of lines is most commonly used in visual art, but can be applied to architecture. As a transportation station, the theme given by the building should be movement, migration and energy. However it should be the interior that invokes such locomotive traits rather than the outside. The inside of the station is where you catch your train, ready for the next location in your life. The outside, however, is a train station. It’s a location, an origin and a destination. The city of D.C isn’t moving and isn’t going anywhere, people are departing and arriving from this immovable and stationary location. This is shown architecturally through the vertical columns that influence permanence and stability throughout the building itself. The neoclassical architectural influence of the romans is clearly depicted in this building. This is exemplified by the pillars, freezes, roof and symmetry. This style of architecture is seen throughout the White House, Capitol building and Lincoln Memorial. The geographical placement of Union stations was by no means an accident. The lead city planner Peter Charles L’Enfant meticulously designed the whole mall in during the early 1800’s with this in mind Union’s location in mind. It’s only fitting that Union Station should be placed at the top of the National Mall, acting as a cherry on top to the most historic and important buildings in D.C given that Union’s architecture is consistent with that of theses said buildings. Union station is littered with statues of Christopher columbus. He is seen in frieze’s on the exterior but more prominently displayed as the main statue at the front of the station. Placing Columbus as the centerpiece of the exterior as well as depicting him in the frieze’s was fitting given that he discovered the country in which this city lies. Columbus was also an explorer; a traveler. This sense of travel and exploration is obvious given that this is a train station. Like I mentioned before, the exterior evokes destination and permanence through the prominent vertical lines. Columbus is outside, therefore he appeals this theme of destination, this can be seen through the life of columbus himself. Though an explorer, his final destination was America, hence his dominance here in the nation’s capitol. He’s a symbol of both exploration and destination just as Union Station is. Retouching on the ideas of vertical lines, Columbus is standing upright. He could have been built sitting or doing something with movement. His strong vertical upright stature shows that himself, D.C and the Union Station is here to stay. They’re both unmoving.

After admiring the outside of Union Station, I walked inside. I was immediately bombarded by how aesthetically different the environment was. Where the outside of the building conveyed destination, the inside of the building conveyed travel, exploration and movement. The white outside of the building reflected the light in a manner that lit up the building like a highlighter providing immense contrast with the green grass of the mall and the blue of the sky. My eyes automatically felt a cool blue when looking at the exterior. The inside of the building was dark, it lacked windows other than the few by the entrance. The gold leafing and off white marble tiles let off a warmer yellow look, much different from the blue cool look on the outside.  In photography, the words cool and warm are technical terms, referring to the white balance of the image. The purity of white is adjusted by making the picture cooler by adding blue, or warmer by adding yellow. The contrast between the tonal temperatures inside and outside the buildings highlighted the difference between the two. The inside of the terminal was by no means dull. There is beautiful marbled flooring, high arching ceilings with a tessellated circular pattern and enough Columbus statues to go around. This was reminiscent of Rome’s Arch of Constantin and the Baths of Diocletian, both examples of neoclassical architecture. As the outside of this station represented, destination and permanence, the inside of the building was very different. As vertical lines ment stability and horizontal lines ment tranquility, curved and diagonal lines symbolizes energy and movement. The arched ceiling was the biggest most obvious example of these curved lines. These themes of locomotion are appropriate given the inside of this building was meant to show exploration. The tessellated circles plastered over the arches are another example of the on going theme of curvature and flow that the rest of the interior exemplifies. Circles are one ofthe most prominent shapes in nature, the sun, moon and earth in and of itself. Circles give off a sense of infinity, they have no beginning or end, perhaps this parallels the theme of motion and everlasting exploration, leaving one origin to arrive at a new destination, only for that destination to become a new origin. This idea of travel only makes sense inside of this station. The interior of a station is where people get on their buses and board their trains. Movement is depicted through the built environment just as it’s depicted through the people.

“Architecture has recorded the great ideas of the human race. Not only every religious symbol, but every human thought has its page in that vast book.”(Hugo). This quote is shown through Union Station. Or is Union Station shown through this quote? I believe that the built environments can influence the people just as much as the people influence the built environment. The still and permanent aura of Union’s exterior is demonstrated by the people outside, they’re still for the most part. Weather they’re is on the corner smoking a cigarette, on their phone waiting for an uber or chatting outside. All these people are immovable and stationary, just as the exterior architecture is designed. Whereas inside, people are bustling around to make their train, they’re caught in the frenzy of travel that you and I all know too well. Even their mind is in motion, only thinking about their destination, only thinking about the next step in their adventures. These people are in motion and energetic just as the interior architecture suggests. The question arises whether the station is designed in reaction to the travelers, or the travelers are acting in reaction to the building. If the bricks, paint and furniture that make up these structures are words in a book, as hugo puts it, are these words recordings for how people are acting in said environment? Or are these words instructions for how people should act in said environment. Architecture is developed through human thought; humans are going to act a certain way when traveling, therefore buildings will be built to accommodate those actions. However, human thought is developed through architecture as well; humans are going to act a certain way when in an environment that fosters these actions. The line between us influencing the buildings and buildings influencing us blurs because we are surrounded by these built environments just as these built environments are surrounded by us. Not only do the context of our lives disappear into the built environments but the context of our lives become the built environments. The purpose of these built environments blends in with the purpose of our individual lives and becomes one. Aside from the fact that it’s a little flashy, Union Station doesn’t necessarily stand out because it’s designed to fit seamlessly into our everyday lives. The reasoning behind our trip to union station, weather that’s franticly traveling or patiently waiting for an uber, is complimented by the designs of the building. I feel this is where buildings shine, when our lives and the building’s function seamlessly blend into one, and all we’re left with is not missing our next train.

Works Cited

“Washington, DC :: History of the Station.” Union Station, Union Station, 2016, Accessed 15 Feb. 2017.

“Washington – Union Station, DC (WAS).” Great American Stations, America’s Great Stations, Accessed 25 Feb. 2017.

The Allegory of the Cave

For this commonplace I am going to be taking a look at Plato’s The Republic, more specifically the section regarding the allegory of the cave.

How could they see anything but the shadows if they were never allowed to move their heads”

To give context to this quote, the way the allegory of the cave goes is that there are three prisoners chained up in a cave with a fire burning in front of them. The shadows casted on the wall in front of them was the only sense of reality that they ever have known. Sooner or later of of the prisoners breaks free and escapes the cave, seeing the world for what it really is. After being blinded by the sunlight, he returns back to the cave to tell the other two prisoners what he witnessed. The other prisoners think he’s crazy, not deviating from the only truth they know for such a radical alternative.

This quote highlights how trapped and hopeless the prisoners are. In a metaphoric sense, how trapped and hopeless the greater population is, living in ignorance and not making efforts to look beyond what they know. “ never allowed to move their heads” encaptures how the greater population ( not philosophers) are so controlled and given such a narrow point of view by the government.  Socrates and Plato mean two things by this analogy. They first believe that this is how it feels to be a philosopher. Philosophers are always seeking and discovering new truth that the rest of the world, governments and pre existing social standards don’t understand.  I feel that this is how socrates felt as he was sentenced to death for “ corrupting the youth”. In socrates mind, he was just trying to expose the truth to the ignorant, trapped and hopeless individuals who are scared of difference and change.

Annotated Bibliography


Built Environment Annotated Bibliography

Castaneda, Ruben. “Addiction Battled Ambition For Reporter Caught In D.C.’s Crack Epidemic.” NPR, NPR, 3 July 2014. Accessed 15 Feb. 2017.

The reason why I chose this article is because it will provide the proper amount of context and explanation of the tone and cultural mood of the time the book was written. I see this source as more of a contextual source, to help align my essay with Castaneda’s personal experiences. Also, given that this is a direct interview with castaneda, rather than a traditional article, it will have the actual words spoken by castaneda which includes the emotion that is portrayed through his vocabulary and diction. This article goes in depth when describing the aura surrounding drugs, crack and murder. This source also does a really good job describing Castaneda’s personal experiences in D.C. regarding these drug epidemics. I can directly quote this article when I need to provide matter-of-fact quotes regarding Castaneda’s experience in this city, more specifically, how this city was back in the crack era versus how it is now given the gentrification and development of built structures.

“Washington, DC :: History of the Station.” Union Station, Union Station, 2016, Accessed 15 Feb. 2017.

The reason why I chose this article is because it will provide the proper historical and, somewhat, a cultural context to my location, Union Station. This article provides almost more information then I actually need, detailing every advancement of the interior and exterior of the station. Along with these aesthetic additions, the Government, economic and social influence is all detailed in this article as well. I believe that this article will provide good context, not only in my essay, but also to me personally. As I read about this building, I am able to get a better grasp on the history of the building, therefore I am able to more easily make inferences and draw conclusions regarding its social effect on the social environment at the time. I see this article as a background source almost. I believe I will be using bits of this article throughout my essay somewhat, but I feel that the importance of this article is its information to me personally. To understand a concepts, you have to know the history surrounding it. It would be quite difficult to write about A building I know nothing about.


Union Station Interior

Here is the inside of union station. You can see how beautiful the pillars are. The pillars are, again, inspired by the roman architectures as well as the domed ceiling. The high gloss marble floor resembles classic works of architecture like the sistine chapel, and the arch way resembles the arch of Constantine.  The building is meant to look grand and inviting. The high ceilings give a never ending and free tone to the building.

Commonplace 4


For this weeks commonplace I am going to be talking about the lyrics from Kanye West’s song “Blood on the leaves”

“I throw these Maybach keys

I wear my heart on the sleeve

I know that we the new slaves

I see the blood on the leaves

I see the blood on the leaves

I see the blood on the leaves

I know that we the new slaves

I see the blood on the leaves

They throwin’ hate at me

Want me to stay at ease

Fuck you and your corporation

Y’all niggas can’t control me” (West verse 1)

I find this song to be one of West’s’ best songs for multiple reasons. Not only is the production amazing, with the organ type synths along with the melodic simplistic quarter notes scattered throughout the song, but also, the song contrasts and juxtaposes the relationship between the old slaves and the new modern day slaves. Here Kanye is referring to the fashion world, making consumers slaves to the brand name. In these lyrics, Kanye gives the example of the luxurious car, Maybach, and the luxurious clothing line,Comme des Garçons

, trademarked by their red heat logo. What I find interesting about Kanyes point of view in this song is that he acknowledges the fact that he is a slave to the cooperation. “ I know that we the new slaves” and “ I wear the heart on my sleeves” both demonstrate kanye’s understanding that he is part of the problem of the modern day slavery, however later in the verse he states “ fuck you and your cooperation”. Therefore, even though he sees this as a problem, he is still subject to the appeal of the clothing. “ I see the blood on the leaves” this lyric not only refers to slavery as a whole, but also is an homage to another song on his album that has its only political and social undertones. This album is a masterpiece made up of masterpieces.


Using Man Made Environments to Stimulate Economy, diversity and Density in Metropolitan Areas

Patrick Muyskens


8 February 2017

In David fleming’s book “ The City of Rhetoric”, Fleming argues that the man made and built environments that make up our city evoke conversation, conflict, public discourse and even capital. The specific way in which these cities are designed alter the way that communities act with one another as well as interact with the world around them. In the preface of the book, flemming claims that the organization the United States between 1865 and 1915 aided the emergence of the country as a whole buy structuring the city scapes in such a manner that was inviting to the immigrant population as well as enticing enough to move the country further economically.  

“…the massive urbanization of the United States, as the size and population of the nation’s cities swelled from both foreign immigration and internal migration; the heightened diversification of those cities, as residents from different racial, ethnic, religious, economic, and linguistic backgrounds suddenly came into close contact with one another; the rapid industrialization of the period, which saw not only increased capital concentration but also recurring financial panic” (Flemming 39)

In this particular example, Flemming’s main point is to highlight the success of America and how it’s grown over the years due to the infrastructure of the City. In this specific example, the political affiliation and conflict that cities conjure is less prominent. However the more positive aspects of the effects of these cities are illustrated. The urbanization of america offers a meeting place for immigrants all over, the advancement of technology is demonstrated throughout the cities, thus inviting a more diverse crowd.

This description of America during the 1900’s was merely an example of how influential and persuasive the infrastructure and rising of cities can be. America grew from nothing to one of the most diverse cities in the world. Immigrants referred to America as the new world because of the potential and the diversity that this country offered. This example was merely just the surface of the influence and power that cities have

Works Cited

David Fleming. City of Rhetoric: Revitalizing the Public Sphere in Metropolitan America (Kindle Locations 42-47). Kindle Edition.