Category Archives: WRTG

Reading Analysis 5

Reading Analysis 5

In the last chapter City of Rhetoric, Fleming concludes his argument by serving the readers with a summary of the existing  enviable problems that lie, and forever will lie, In our cities today. Fleming states that these physical entities, which we call cities, act too much like a private space. Cities, weather intentionally or unintentionally, segregate and gentrify societies into categories. Fleming realizes that there and pros and cons to both low income housing as well as prestigious neighborhoods. Low income housings are more dangerous and have poor standards of living. However on then flip side, prestigious housing lacks diversity and social interaction. Fleming sees this as a problem. He believes buildings shouldn’t be designed for low income or higher income individuals, they should just be designed for humans. All humans are humans, therefore we shouldn’t be broken up in to categories that label us according to our income level or race. All humans are equal and cities should be designed to embrace that similarity. Fleming argues that the ideal cities should have the nessieties to sustain human life such as a close proximity to jobs, schools, parks etc. The most important quality that cities should have, however, is the adjacency to other people. Part of Flemings main thesis is that cities should cause public discourse and conversation whilst embracing the diversity that metropolitan areas are blessed with. This idea of public discourse and conversation can best be embraced if everyone, rich or poor, the majority or the minorities, lived within close proximity to each other. ” We need spaces that… not just as private individuals- as family members, friends, workers shareholders-  but as citizens who are irreducibly different from one another”

ab 9+10

“Reimagining Union Station.” The Washington Post, WP Company,

This source is a special one. This article touches on eventing we discuss in our class. This article touches on the gentrification of D.C, the evolution of D.C as an architectural city and, most importantly talks in depth about the development about Union Station. Union was never the grand masterpiece that it was today. It was built then renovated into something much grander then it previously was. Another interesting thing about this website is that it breaks down the development of Union station. There are three separate sections; Past, present and future. The past describes how the station started. The present describes what its currently evolved into. All the improvements to make what Union is today. The furure section of the article outlines the future plans of the station. They plan on expanding it by digging a tunnel under H street to expand the station and cover two blocks instead of one. This can be read as the literal, as an expeansion of a building. This could also be read as the ever expanding and improving city of D.C. Having to expand due to the gentrification and rise in population and popularity.  I see this article serving as all elements of the BEAM model. Because this article is so in depth and covers a lot, it can be used in multiple ways. Im going to be using this article as an exhibit because I can analyze the transformation and design of the station overall.

Union Station: Washington DC.” Union Station: Washington, D.C., American Planning Association

I believe that this source qualifies as a method. This article is really good at illustrating the planning and design of the building. This article is similar to many of my other sources, however it differs by adding photos and small little  of the photo. This source also talks a lot about the architects that were involved in the project. This source is a pretty good overview of the station.


The painting that I am writing about for this weeks commonplace is a very famous painting from one of my all time favorite painters. This is titled “nighthawks” by Edward Hopper. The first thing to notice when looking at this painting is the diner. The thing that hopper was famous for was the way he painted his windows; or lack thereof. Hopper never painted glass, it was always just assumed to be there. This is very prominent in this image. The dinner consists of a large curved glass wall, yet you can’t actually see the glass. It’s like the glass isn’t actually there. This is done to show the relationship between the subject and their surroundings. Here we can look at the people as the subjects or even the diner itself as a subject. We see a lit up diner in the middle of a lights out, empty street. This painting was done right around the time of pearl harbor, where the U.S would have blackout drills. Everyone would turn off their lights and close their blinds in case there as another bombing. So maybe hopper wanted to show the fearlessness of these people in the middle of maybe one of these blackout drills. 

Commonplace 12

The image that I am writing about for this weeks commonplace is a painting by René Magritte. This painting is titled “The Son of Man”. There are many speculations regarding this painting including the man’s relationship to water and any religious affiliations. However, I believe that this painting shares similar ideologies to the painting I wrote about in last weeks commonplace. Magritte liked to challenge the idea of identity and viewer’s relationship to something they assume to be a fact. In this painting, viewers assume there to be a man’s face under the apple. But because this is a painting the only thing there is a painting of an apple. There is no mans face painted under the apple. That’s just what we assume. Just like we assume the word apple to represent a physical apple. We assume there to be a face under the apple here. Magritte liked the idea that language assumed hierarchy. That the word apple is greater than the apple itself. An apple would never be an apple without its label. This painting is almost a visual representation of that idea. That assumptions are even made visually, not only verbally.  

Annotated Bib 78

“Washington, DC Fact Sheet.”,, 9 Mar. 2017,

The first first source that I am chasing to write about is an collection of statistics about D.C.  Everything from demographic information of the citizens of D.C to the climate to different information about the universities in D.C. However the most valuable parts of information on this website that are helpful to my website are the traveling information. The specific information that I am planning on using from this website are the statistics on the transportation and visitor statistics. The transportation information illustrates the number of translations, train stops, types of public transportation including busses, trains and taxis. The visitor stats illustrate how many visitors per year visit the attractions such as the monuments, memorials and museums. I think that this source is mainly a background source. I could also argue that this is an exhibit source too. I could use specific facts from this article to analyze the frequency and practicality of Union Station. However, I feel that doing that sort of analysis would require a lot of assumptions due to the lack of specific information regarding Union Station. I would mainly be drawing conclusions basesed on the travel statistics and about of visitors to the attractions. This source acts as a background source much better because it offers me context to the popularity and visitation frequency of D.C.

“Burnham Place at Union Station .” Burnham Place at Union Station

The second source that I am writing about is an article that outlines the goals and the mindset of the main architect that designed Union Station, Daniel Burnham. This article is short but actually really informative on the purpose of the station. This article illustrates how versatile Union station can be. Not only is it a transportation Mecca for people all around the country, but it also serves as a shopping center and a national landmark. The article describes Union Station as a ” Multi- Modal station”. The article comments on the unique architectural design that allows for more then the conventional about of people to occupy the station. This was a practical decision that is perfect for the use of a train station. This article is exactly what I was looking for when trying to connect the design of the station to its practicality. For this reason, Im going to be using this source as a method, using the concepts regarding the design of the train station and apply it to my rhetorical analysis.

Annotated Bib 5+6


“Union Station’s ‘Forgotten’ Historic Interior Spaces.” Streets of Washington, Streets of Washington, Accessed 9 Apr. 2017.

I am going to be using this source as my exhibit. Because my main topic of discussion throughout this essay is talking about the effects of the aesthetics of union station, this article is perfect. The main point of this article is analyzing and giving context to the different rooms and structures. The article talks about the structures on the inside and outside of the building. This source also has pictures to go with the descriptions, just like my essay. I am easily able to implicate this source in to my essay. For most of the essay I am analyzing different aesthetic aspects of the station. With this source as my exhibit, I am able to use examples from the text to not only give me a better understanding of the station it self, but also use the specific examples in the text as evidence to my claims throughout the essay.

“Washington – Union Station, DC (WAS).” Great American Stations, Great American Stations

This source is the perfect background source for my essay. This article gives a brief overview of the history of the train station’s history. The article also talks about L’Enfant. L’Enfant was the architect who built the mall and who strategically placed the station at the top of the mall. In my essay I speak about the rhetorical effect of the station being placed where it is. What I really like about this article is that it talks an immense about about the design of the station as well as the design of DC as a whole. This article also offers statistical information regarding the station. I can use both the information about the construction of D.C/ Union Station as well as use the statistical information to have a better understanding of the rhetorical meaning of the D.C train station as a whole. With this information readily available, my essay can flow better

Digital archives

With this view of the interior train station, its easy to notice the sheer beauty of the design of the station. The soaring ceiling gives the traveler a sense of openness and potential just like traveling should. The cultural influences that are shown here are most definitely roman and neoclassical architecture. The doors are lined with the big grand arch way just like the arch of Constantine. Also, the freezes that line the inside of the station is also pays homage to the roman style architecture. This roman culture plays a big role in the aesthetics of union station.

Annotated bib 3+4


National Parks Service. “Union Station.” National Parks Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, 2016,

I will be using this source as a background source. This source goes in depth on the history of union station from the earliest of times. This source talks about how Union was designed to be and how it is strategically placed in the mall. This source will provide all the context that I need regarding Union Station. By having historical context to the train station, I can be more confident when making a claim about the architecture or the design or purpose of the building. The historical context gives me grounds on which I am able to argue. I can also use this source as my exhibit. I can analyze what was going on in the time of this station being built and apply what its original rhetoric effect was compared to what it has evolved to today due to the change of times. This is both an exhibit and background source


“Union Station.” DCNRHS – Washington, D.C. Chapter NRHS, DC National Railroad Historical Society

I will be using this source as my exhibit. For a lot of my paper, I am analyzing the aesthetics of union station and the station’s intended rhetorical effect on the people inside the station. This cite gives me detailed analysis of the structures. This site also provides historical context by providing dates. Union station has been renovated several times and this cite clearly shows which renovations were made and when. These renovations all were for are for a reason. I’m going to analyze these renovations and talk about their rhetoric effect. This source could also be used as a background source. Even Though I feel that I will be taking quotes directly from this source and analyzing their effect, I can also see me just reading through this source to get a better grasp of how this trainstation came to be. Just like my previous background source, this source and be very informative by keeping the information in the back of my mind so I have a more solid grasp on the station.


Gander, Kashmira. “How Architecture Uses Space, Light and Material to Affect Your Mood.”The Independent, Independent Digital News and Media, 19 Apr. 2016

I’m going to be using this source as my argument. My main thesis is that buildings have an equal effect on the people just as the people have an effect on the building. This article discusses how architects use the buildings light, space and material to effect the users of the building. This article gives examples of already pre existing modern buildings that utilize light and design to send a subconscious method on the people inhabiting the buildings. This article stresses that buildings are built first and foremost for the occupants. I feel that this parallels with the intentions of the design of union station.


Tudorica, Alexandria. “The Influence of Train Stations’ Environment on Travelers’ Origin Station Choice Behavior: a TOD Approach .” Technical University of Eindhoven, 2014.

I am going to be using this source as my Method. This essay focuses on the environmental influences that transactions give because of their design. So this essay is quite different from the point that I’m trying to convey in my essay, however, the concepts are similar. Tudorica talks about how train stations have some sort of rhetorical influence on the environment around them, that’s more or less the same message that I’m trying to convey in my essay.

Reading Analysis 4


In this chapter of the City of Rhetoric, David Fleming aims to draw conclusions about all of the subcategories of the built environments. He looks at a low income African American ghetto, and affluent white suburb, a mixed income “urban village” and a highrise city. Fleming continues in this chapter by individually listing and analyzing the effects of the different social spaces. For example, one of the social scapes he talks about is the urban district near the north side of chicago. He describes the urban district as an amalgamation of the good and the bad, the successful and the failures. “the Near North Side of Chicago, one at the crossroads of a troubled past, a conflicted present, and an uncertain future.” (Fleming Part 3). This quote illustrates the juxtaposition and contrast of the living styles and socioeconomics inside this diverse city. At first one might think that diversity conflict is good. However fleming argues that the city of Chicago does a poor job and embracing and harboring these differences. This poor coordination between the ever so different lifestyles in the urban environment is detrimental to the success of the individuals living in them. Fleming concludes his analysis on the urban environment in the north side of chicago by saying “Without a healthy attitude toward conflict, its inevitability and virtue, we will be unable to build either good cities in particular or good public spheres in general.” ( Flemming part 2). He concludes that chicago isn’t fostering the diversity that it holds. Diversity is a blessing, and given that most parts of chicago are either in the ghetto or in the suburbs, both of which lack diversity, when one place that has diversity isn’t being embraced, this blessing of a melting pot of individuals becomes a curse. This whole chapter is supporting evidence to his main thesis statement, that built environments have an effect on every part of human’s life. From their productivity, to their economy to their socioeconomic status.  


RA 3


In City of Rhetoric by David Flemming, Flemming aims to convey to the readers that all built environments influence the way people interact with each other. These interactions can be through conversation, public discourse or language. In part two of the book, Flemming provides commentary on different types of subcultures and societies within cities. In this section, he focuses on the suburbs. Fleming talks about why academics have a “thinly veiled disdain” for suburbia as well as talks about the history of suburbia and the suburbs effect of society and vice versa. A man by the name of Gautreaux implemented the Gautreaux Assisted Housing Program in the late 70’s. This was a private, non profit housing program that moved family out of the main city of Chicago and put them in affluent, mainly white, neighborhoods. This new conglomeration of housing soon became the  definition suburbs that we picture today. Fleming gives the definition of what this new housing program turns into. “makes low-density density housing (2) possible, while the fear of urban heterogeneity (3) makes it attractive. As Dolores Hayden has put it, suburbia is the physical expression of the middle-class desire for living in a detached house (2) with like-minded neighbors (3) in a quasi-pastoral setting (1)” ( Fleming pt. 2). The result is a very homogenous group of homes where the look and the personality of the people living in these homes are similar and alike, this negates all types of diversity for the most part, given that a majority of the people living in these homes were alike in race and socioeconomic status. This is a perfect example of how society can be shaped by history. This also exemplifies how long the effects of these subcultures, such as the suburbs, can last.