Research Post #7: Qualitative Data Sources

Through my analysis of the literature within the topic of the semiotics of music I have been able to distill common themes and approaches to self-reported interpretations of music, namely the use of scaled measurements. [1] For my independent variable I will use a  metric developed by Tyson and McLaughlin in their RAP (rap music attitude and perception) study of male/female constructs of rap music, adjusted to my independent variables to fit within the framework of national anthems. [2] When put into practice of qualitative studies, the RAP scale yields high levels of consistency. [3] I will retain one of the variables measured in the scale, the “violent” measurement, and switch the other two to tempo and an understanding of history behind the national anthem, which will be measured through surveys. Perception of anthem data taken from surveys on three national anthems, Malaysia, The United States, and France, will be used to operationalize my independent variable. [4] These cases have been chosen due to the wide array of literature available for their anthems as well as the variance in the meaning of their lyrics, historical background, and tempo. Instead of 

As discussed within the development of the RAP scale, analyzing potential differences between groups is an important direction to begin research to ensure validity across group lines. Original sheet music retrieved from the will be used to determine the intended tempo of the anthems, and will be operationalized into a case study of differences or similarities in the tempo and cadences of the anthems. [5] The same database will be used to access the original lyrics, if applicable, to the anthems of the selected cases. These lyrics will be operationalized by addressing their level of “implicit violence-” namely the mentioning of narratives of violence in the lyrics. The operationalized connection between violent tendencies and song lyrics has been studied, but I will investigate if any hidden variables exist within the realm of national anthems and cause the outcome to change due to their role as national symbols. [6] The indicators for my dependant variable will be the adjusted indicators from the RAP scale, changed from “views of rap music” of certain cases to an analysis of national anthems. In a similar study, Tyson found out that owning more rap media corresponds to a higher perception of rap music. [7] Echoing Tyson, I will assume that recognizing a national anthem by the melody for a country as well as being able to describe the historical background of the case’s anthem will indicate a positive perception of that anthem. 

[1]  Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1995). Constructing validity: Basic issues in objective scale development. Psychological Assessment, 7(3), 309-319. Retrieved from:

[2] Edgar H. Tyson and Alicia McLaughlin, “Do Males and Females Report Similar Constructs of Rap Music? A Cross-Gender Validity Study of the Rap Music Attitude and Perception Scale,” Gender & Behaviour; Ile-Ife 10, no. 2 (December 2012): 4926–48.

[3] Edgar H. Tyson, “Rap-Music Attitude and Perception Scale: A Validation Study,” Research on Social Work Practice 16, no. 2 (March 1, 2006): 211–23,

[4]Cheong Soon Gan, “The National Anthem: Contested and Volatile Symbol of Post-Colonial Malaysia, 1957–69,” South East Asia Research 23, no. 1 (2015): 61–78,; Naomi Winstone and Kirsty Witherspoon, “‘It’s All about Our Great Queen’: The British National Anthem and National Identity in 8–10-Year-Old Children,” Psychology of Music 44, no. 2 (March 2016): 263–77,; Also Avi Gilboa and Ehud Bodner, “What Are Your Thoughts When the National Anthem Is Playing? An Empirical Exploration,” Psychology of Music 37, no. 4 (October 2009): 459–84,

[5] “Nationalanthems.Info,” accessed October 27, 2019,

[6] Craig A. Anderson, Nicholas L. Carnagey, and Janie Eubanks, “Exposure to Violent Media: The Effects of Songs with Violent Lyrics on Aggressive Thoughts and Feelings.,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84, no. 5 (2003): 960–71, 

[7]  Edgar H. Tyson, “The Rap Music Attitude and Perception (RAP) Scale,” Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment 11, no. 3–4 (October 12, 2005): 59–82,



Author: Price

I am a student at the American University School of International Service pursuing a degree in International Affairs.

One thought on “Research Post #7: Qualitative Data Sources”

  1. Price — adapting an exsiting scale or measurement to capture your DV is a fine idea, but the post could be more clear in stating which potential values the DV could take as well as what specific values you think the variable takes in each of your cases based on the primary data sources you’ve examined (just as Saunders would write “I’m analyzing the shift in intervention strategy between Kennedy and Johnson from a transformative to a non-transformative strategy” and then cite several documents that demonstrate that the DV took the “transformative” value in the Kennedy administration and the “non-transformative” value in the Johnson administration.). Beyond sheet music, what primary data sources would tell you about the value of the DV in each of the cases that you propose to analyze?

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