Sciencegeist: I love gin and tonics

Originally posted January 28, 2011

That’s what kind of man I am. It’s science.

January 28, 2011

I have a confession to make. I really don’t like gin. There is something about that flavor that doesn’t sit right with me. I tend to prefer vodka martinis (blasphemy, I know). If I do have a gin martini, I certainly want more than just a hint of dry vermouth in my drink. I also require olives. Copious olives. In that same vein, I don’t like tonic water either. In fact, I abhor tonic water. It is too bitter for me. I just don’t understand how people can drink tonic water. I realize that I’m probably oversensitive (a supertaster, if you will). I want to like each of these drinks; believe me, I do!

My noted aversions to both gin and tonic make it all the more incredible that I love gin and tonics. I can’t remember when I had my first gin and tonic. I just remember it being a revelation. A good gin and tonic, to me, is wonderfully crisp, strangely sweet, and aromatic. While they are considered a summer drink, I am perfectly happy to have one in hand any time of year. In fact, my fabulous wife made me a gin and tonic two nights ago. It was fantastic.

Why do I like gin and tonic but dislike both gin and tonic?

There must be some reason for this, right? Of course there is. And you can bet, if I’m writing about it, there is some science behind my inclinations. And in this case it all comes down to what gin and tonic each look like at the molecular level.

Let’s start with the gin. Gin is typically a grain alcohol that has been redistilled with juniper berries or other natural flavorings (citrus peel and other spices). While the alcohol itself lacks much flavor (think vodka), the primary flavors attributed to gin are those from the juniper berries. During the distillation, the alcohol is able to draw several oils – flavors – out of the cells in the berries. Some of the primary flavor oils look like this:

The essential oils of the juniper berry. (Top) From left to right: pinene, camphene, sabinene, cineole. (Bottom) From left to right: terpinene, cymene, terpinen-4-ol. If you’re not a chemist, the names aren’t important. The structures, however, are important, and I will bring them up again later. These are the molecules that give junipers, and gin, their distinctive flavors and aromas.

Tonic water is flavored with quinine. Quinine tastes bitter. It is a base (the opposite of an acid – see my post on pH and acidity from last week). Quinine was used to treat malaria from the 1600s all the way through the 1940s. It was the British living in India who first mixed quinine tonic with gin to make tonic more palatable. (Humans’ general aversion to bitter foods likely evolved due to the fact that many poisons are also bitter. Even quinine is poisonous in large enough doses. Don’t worry, your tonic water is perfectly safe.)

The chemical structure of quinine. Quinine is a basic compound. (Mixtures of water and quinine have a high pH.) Humans experience basic liquids as having a bitter taste.

When gin and tonic are mixed, quinine and the flavor molecules from the juniper berries combine to make a perceived flavor that is different than just the sum of the individual parts. The molecules from the gin and the tonic can do this because they look alike; the molecules are similar.

Molecules are Homosexual

Yes, you read that right. Molecules are homosexual. Molecules that are alike are attracted to one another. Molecules that look nothing alike tend to stay away from each other. You are all familiar with this phenomenon. We have all seen water and oil separating. This happens because water molecules are nothing like fatty oil molecules. After mixing, the oil molecules come together, forming droplets amid all of the water.

Oil and water separate upon mixing because they are molecules that are not similar. Note: water and oil molecules not drawn to scale. (Image modified from here)

Gin and tonics operate on this same principle, only in reverse. The difference being that the flavor molecules from the gin and tonic are attracted to one another. They are similar. Let’s have another look at these molecules.

Gin Flavorings:


These pictures, rendered differently, show how parts of the quinine molecule look like the different flavor molecules from the gin. The parts of these molecules that look alike (red matching with red and blue matching with blue) are attracted to one another. When they are mixed together in a gin and tonic, the molecules come together to create an aggregate. In the aggregate a quinine molecule is nestled up closely to one of the juniper molecules. These aggregates create a taste sensation that is completely different from just gin and tonic on their own. This is why a gin and tonic doesn’t taste exactly like gin plus tonic. (This is also the reason why I don’t do vodka tonics. Vodka has no flavoring other than alcohol, and the quinine from the tonic has no molecules to mingle with, which leaves the taste of tonic in my mouth.)

These molecular attractions are the reasons why other food pairings are so appealing to our senses. Martin Lersch (a professional inorganic chemist, by the way) has compiled a list of flavor pairings (some of them intuitive, some of them seemingly odd) on his wonderful blog on food science, khymos. (A quick note. Many of these are taken from articles from The Guardian by Heston Blumenthal, the man behind one of the most highly regarded restaurants in the world, The Fat Duck.) All of these flavor pairings “work” because each pair contains specific flavor molecules that are similar to one another. The attraction of these molecules alters their flavor profile. This effect was captured beautifully by a scene in Ratatouille.

Scene from Ratatouille where Remy creates a new flavor sensation by having a bite of strawberry and cheese at the same time.

The weekend ahead

Thankfully, we still have some bottles of tonic at home and some Bombay Sapphire (one humble man’s preference) in the freezer. I plan on going home and putting my knowledge of chemistry to good use this weekend.



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46 Responses to I Love Gin and Tonics

  1. sciencegeist says:

    A completely off context note. As I was writing this last night, Purple Rain was on TV. I love that movie. If it is on, I HAVE to watch it. So many emotions. Prince. Appolonia. Morris Day. The Time. The Revolution. Dave Chapelle. I. Would. Die. 4. U.

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  4. sciencegeist says:

    Special thanks to David Lindsay for pointing out the error in my original quinine structure (missing OH group). Poor editing on my part to not catch that. Good thing we have smart readers.

  5. Sharon says:

    I’m going to have to give gin & tonics another try after this! If nothing else, I think knowing what’s going on behind-the-scenes in my glass will make it taste better.

  6. Mike says:

    Gin goes with a splash of vermouth…

  7. Chris says:

    science says you should know that even molecules with similar polarity do not like mixing when one or the other or both are cooler (also, the aromatics will be subdued!). mixology-wise…no, you just don’t freeze gin.

  8. sciencegeist says:

    Chris … noted. This is true. However, the cold sensation is also something that I want with my drinks. And, because any form of enjoyment with eating or drinking is dependent upon personal taste, that is what I choose to do. Will have to try mixing my gin at different temps to see if I can tell the difference.

  9. sciencegeist says:

    By the way … to do this mixology stuff well, you should all be reading Chris’s blog

  10. Kate at UCSB says:

    I just read an interesting article about Hendrick’s gin in, of all places, United Airlines Hemisphere’s Magazine. The master formula was invented by a female Chemist!

  11. sciencegeist says:

    Awesome Kate! Everybody has been raving to me about Hendricks. I really really need to try some. Thanks for sharing the article!

  12. sciencegeist says:

    by the way. I made some G&Ts last night. As per Chris’s suggestion, I had my G at room temp. I mixed 1 part G to 2 parts T in a cup. Then, I poured the mixture over ice in a high-ball glass and garnished with a lime.

    The taste was different! It was good. The G&T made with cold gin tasted more like alcohol. The G&T made at room temp had a fuller flavor.

    An experiment that was well worth the effort.

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  15. BalticSailor says:

    I’m a new reader here, and I don’t really remember how I stumbled upon this blog, but as it happens, I was drinking gin and tonic when I found this post (perhaps that’s what caused it – the not remembering part, I mean, not stumbling upon this blog). Just wanted to say, I’m a chemistry student, a fan of G&T’s, and one of those people who believe Bombay Sapphire to be one of the best beverages this world has to offer – therefore, I’m adding your blog to my favorites, and will visit it more often.

  16. sciencegeist says:

    Baltic Sailor,
    Gin and stumbling and a little good chemistry make for a good night! Glad you found your way over here!!

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  18. Pedro says:

    I’m like you :) I hate gin and tonic, but I love both.
    But I recommend Brokmans Gin if you really want to try new flavors of botanical berries. It’s amazing. A drink to enjoy peacefully.

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  20. Dr Woo says:

    I find that backyard gin from a copper still and Fever Tree tonic is awesome at a men’s meat festival and if you run out of tonic, well heck, just tell jokes and drink the gin by itself and yes this is real.

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  24. Becky says:

    Hey everyone,
    I need some help!! My boyfriend is currently getting his Phd in chemistry and he loves gin. I was hoping to etch the molecule for gin on a glass for him for christmas, but I have no idea what that looks like. I came across this article and it was helpful but I was hoping for one molecule to put on the glass that he will be able to tell means gin. Can anyone help???
    Thank you in advance!

  25. How do I love thee (article), let me count the ways. You have gin, you have tonic, you have G&Ts, you have Heston, you have science, you have popular science, you have Remy, you have flavour chemistry. Bless you ScienceGeist. Now, if only you could tell me why I love Hendricks and Cucumber G&Ts but am only meh about Tanqueray and Grapefruit G&Ts…

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  27. diablus says:


    you should try gin four pillars.
    Best in the world


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  29. Dawn McBean says:

    You might well ask why it is that I am leaving a comment nearly 5yrs after you have posted this article? It is one of the wonders of the ‘web’ – new knowledge is never old news.

    I have surfing to try and find ideas to inspire a photo print to design a T-shirt for a charity fundraising initiative. I wanted to do something with subtle humour that would be popular. I remember that decades ago when I was about 13yrs old, I made a scarf for my dad with the words printed in various bright colours – ‘Whisky is Alcohol’ (it was a running joke between my dad and my nan. The scarf became my older brother’s signature fashion statement when he went off to University a year or so later).

    I thought about recreating the scarf for the charity event but with my favourite alcohol, Gin. It then occurred to me that (apart from some vague memory of organic chemistry and a brief period working as an assistant chemistry lab technician) I know very little about Gin. So I made use of my IT resources and was not let down by this find. So thank you for sharing your expertise, because of your clear and to the point article I am now able to initiate a conversation about the molecular structure of Gin. And budget permitting I would like to use juniper berries to create the molecular structure in a sort of cartoon style.

  30. jody says:

    s the best tonic?

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  34. Mark says:

    Have always enjoyed a Gin & Tonic. It’s great to know it’s origin!

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  43. Christine says:

    I’m a little confused… quinine is a base, therefore a quinine solution is basic. Carbonated water is slightly acidic pH 4 or 5 (due to carbonic acid I presume). So why is tonic water acidic (pH 2.1 or so)? The reason I’m asking is that I am now hooked on G&T made from Empress Gin which contains Butterfly Pea flower extract. This gin is a deep blue/purple in color and when you add tonic water (acid) the color shifts to a lovely pink color.

  44. Christine says:

    Never mind, I looked up the ingredients – duh! Carbonated Water, Sugar, Citric Acid, Acidity Regulator (Sodium Citrate), Flavourings (Including Quinine), Sweetener.