“The Extraterritorial Gap” refers to the lack of literature and analysis on extraterritorial state power and specifically practices of transnational repression.Political scientist Dana M. Moss demonstrates how states exercise coercive power across borders in her comparative case study of Libyan and Syrian exile communities and encourages further research into other states, including Russia and the other former Soviet Republics.
Scholars have argued that the extensive Soviet history of eliminating “traitors” abroad has been inherited by the Russian Federation.  This form of transnational repression has also been borrowed by a number of other post-Soviet states, including Uzbekistan.My research aims to explain the Soviet tendency to export repression across sovereign borders and the inheritance of such policies by its successor states. Specifically, my dependent variable is operationalized as the intensity of extraterritorial repression (low, medium, or high) by a former Soviet state in comparison to the USSR (high). In other words, the specific outcome I seek to explain is the inheritance of a Soviet “wetwork” policy by former Soviet states and the different levels of intensity of this form of extraterritorial repression.
Previously classified KGB materials reveal the importance that successive Soviet leaders attached to “liquidating” traitors. From 1972 to 1984, intelligence officer Vasily Mitrokhin took extensive manuscript notes of KGB operations all around the globe. Another important primary source I plan to use is a declassified CIA report from 1964 that chronicles the policies and techniques of the KGB’s special liquidation operations, also known as “wetwork” (Mokryee Dela). The report outlines the various methods, organizational aspects, techniques, types of targets, and overall trends of USSR extraterritorial repression. This basic structure of the report offers various indicators of the operationalization and intensity of Soviet repression abroad.
I plan on borrowing a similar classifying procedure and using various primary and secondary sources to inform my own observations. Reports from Amnesty International and the Foreign Policy Centre are especially helpful in informing the techniques and targets of extraterritorial repression by the former Soviet States. Additionally, the Central Asian Political Exiles (CAPE) database charts the extra-territorial security measures deployed by Central Asian states — more than 75 % of which relate to Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.The dataset delineates four categories of exiles and three stages of extra-territorial security: put on notice through Interpol, arrest and/or detention, rendition and/or attacks.
Emmanuela Dalmasso, et al., “Intervention: Extraterritorial Authoritarian Power,” Political Geography (2017), p. 1:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2017.07.003
Dana M. Moss, “Transnational Repression, Diaspora Mobilization, and the Case of The Arab Spring,” Social Problems, Volume 63, Issue 4, 1 November 2016, p.494
Calder, Walton. “Russia Has a Long History of Eliminating ‘Enemies of the State’.” The Washington Post. March 13, 2018. Accessed October 29, 2018. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2018/03/13/russia-has-a-long-history-of-eliminating-enemies-of-the-state/?utm_term=.ece9edc971ce.
David Lewis “Illiberal Spaces:” Uzbekistan’s extraterritorial security practices and the spatial politics of contemporary authoritarianism,” Nationalities Papers, 43:1, (January 2015) p. 140-159
Vasiliy Mitrokhin, “The Papers of Vasiliy Mitrokhin.” Churchill Archives Centre MITN, Accessed October 29, 2018. https://janus.lib.cam.ac.uk/db/node.xsp?id=EAD/GBR/0014/MITN. The Mitrokhin Archive documents can be accessed through this website portal and all of the documents are in Russian.
Central Intelligence Agency, “Soviet Use of Assassination and Kidnapping” CIA Historical Review Program, Written. Feb. 1964, Declassified Sept. 1993,https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/kent-csi/vol19no3/html/v19i3a01p_0001.htm, Accessed September 28th, 2018.
Amnesty International, “Return to Torture: Extradition, Forcible Returns, and Removals to Central Asia,”July 2013, Accessed Oct. 28, 2018: https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/12000/eur040012013en.pdf. As well as — Adam Hug, The Foreign Policy compiled a report: “No Shelter: The harassment of Activists Abroad by Intelligence Services from the Former Soviet Union,” The Foreign Policy Centre , Nov. 2016 Accessed Oct. 28, 2018: https://fpc.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/1786.pdf
John Heathershaw, Rosa Brown, and Eve Bishop, “Practices and Patterns of Extraterritorial Security: Introducing the Central Asian Political Exiles (CAPE) Database.”The Foreign Policy Centre. November 21, 2016. Accessed Oct. 29, 2018: https://fpc.org.uk/practices-patterns-extraterritorial-security-introducing-central-asian-political-exiles-cape-database/