Tag: Arduino

Feeding Experimentation Device (FED) part 2: new design and code

fed-front3           fed-gif-3

The Feeding Experimentation Device (FED) is a free, open-source system for measuring food intake in rodents. FED uses an Arduino processor, a stepper motor, an infrared beam detector, and an SD card to record time-stamps of 20mg pellets eaten by singly housed rodents. FED is powered by a battery, which allows it to be placed in colony caging or within other experimental equipment. The battery lasts ~5 days on a charge, providing uninterrupted feeding records over this duration.  The electronics for building each FED cost around $150USD, and the 3d printed parts cost between $20 and $400, depending on access to 3D printers and desired print quality.

The Kravitz lab has published a large update of their Feeding Experimentation Device (FED) to their Github site (https://github.com/KravitzLab/fed), including updated 3D design files that print more easily and updates to the code to dispense pellets more reliably.  Step-by-step build instructions are available here: https://github.com/KravitzLab/fed/wiki

Nose-Poke System – Kelly Tan Research Group

The Kelly Tan research group at the University of Basel, Switzerland investigates the neural correlates of motor behavior, focusing on the role of the basal ganglia in controlling various aspects of motor actions. To aid in their investigation, the group has developed an open-source nose-poke system utilizing an Arduino microcontroller, several low-cost electronic components, and a PVC behavioral arena. These researchers have shared the following information about the project:

Giorgio Rizzi, Meredith E. Lodge, Kelly R Tan.
MethodsX 3 (2016) 326-332
Operant behavioral tasks for animals have long been used to probe the function of multiple brain regions. The recent development of tools and techniques has opened the door to refine the answer to these same questions with a much higher degree of specificity and accuracy, both in biological and spatial-temporal domains. A variety of systems designed to test operant behavior are now commercially available, but have prohibitive costs. Here, we provide a low-cost alternative to a nose poke system for mice. Adapting a freely available sketch for ARDUINO boards, in combination with an in-house built PVC box and inexpensive electronic material we constructed a four-port nose poke system that detects and counts port entries.
  • We provide a low cost alternative to commercially available nose poke system.
  • Our custom made apparatus is open source and TTL compatible.
  • We validate our system with optogenetic self-stimulation of dopamine neurons in mice.

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The Kelly Tan research group provides further documentation for this device, including SketchUp design files, Arduino source code, and a full bill of materials, as supplementary data in their 2016 paper.

ArduiPod Box

ArduiPod Box is a simple, comprehensive touchscreen-based operant conditioning chamber that utilizes an iPod Touch in conjunction with an Arduino microcontroller to present visual and auditory stimuli, record behavior in the form of nose-pokes or screen touches, and deliver liquid reward. In his 2014 paper, Oskar Pineño introduces ArduinoPod Box and demonstrates the use of the device in a visual discrimination task.

ArduiPod Box relies on an open-source iOS app named Shaping that can be downloaded for free at the iTunes store, as well as, on Dr. Pineno’s website. Detailed instructions for assembly of the ArduiPod Box are also detailed on the website. In addition, video demonstrating of ArduiPod can be found here.



Pineño, Oskar (2014). ArduiPod Box: a low-cost and open-source Skinner box using an iPod Touch and an Arduino microcontroller. Behav Res Methods. 46(1): 196–205

Visual Stimuli Presentation Device

This apparatus is designed to present complex visual stimuli in rodent behavioral experiments, such as visual discrimination tasks, or visually guided choice paradigms. This low-cost device utilizes an Arduino Uno microcontroller, and three (green) 8×8 LED matrices to present a montage of visual cues across a behavioral arena. Diffusion filters were used to decrease the luminance of the visual cues in order to render them more suitable for rodent visual discrimination. The present design incorporates three light displays to be mounted above three choice ports (nose pokes, levers, etc.); however as many as 8 light displays can be controlled by a single Arduino. This flexible device can be programmed to display a multitude of distinct static and dynamic visual cues, can easily be integrated into an existing behavioral chamber, and seamlessly interface with commercial systems such as MedPC. The wiring diagram and schematic below detail the configuration of this apparatus in a MedPC-based system; however, this device can be controlled by any comparable system, TTL signal, or other device in a behavioral chamber.

SchematicWiring Diagram

Adafruit provides extensive documentation on assembly and programming of these components on their website.

Please contact openbehavior@gmail.com for Arduino source code and the 3D design files of the mounts used to install this device into a behavioral chamber.

Feeding Experimentation Device (FED)

WP_20160320_003Feeding Experimentation Device (FED) is a home cage-compatible feeding system that measures food intake with high accuracy and temporal resolution. FED offers a low-cost alternative (~$350) to commercial feeders, with the convenience of use in tradition colony rack caging.

In their 2016 paper, “Feeding Experimentation Device (FED): A flexible open-source device for measuring feeding behavior,” Katrina P. Nguyen, Timothy J. O’Neal, Olurotimi A. Bolonduro, Elecia White, and Alexxai V. Kravitz validate the reliability of food delivery and precise measurement of feeding behavior provided by FED, as well as, demonstrate the application of FED in an experiment examining light and dark-cycle feeding trends, and another measuring optogenetically-evoked feeding.


KravitzLab has shared the Arduino scripts for controlling FED, as well as, the python code used to analyze the feeding data collected by FED on the KravitzLab Github. Additionally, build instructions and power considerations are detailed on the FED Wiki page and 3D Design Files provided through TinkerCAD.

Nguyen, Katrina; O’Neal, Timothy; Bolonduro, Olurotimi; White, Elecia; Kravitz, Alexxai (2016). Feeding Experimentation Device (FED): A flexible open-source device for measuring feeding behavior. J Neurosci Methods, 267:108-14.

Rodent Operant Bucket (ROBucket)

Horizontal Figure 1-01The Rodent Operant Bucket (ROBucket), designed by Dr. Alexxai Kravitz and Kavya Devarakonda of the Eating and Addiction Section, Diabetes Endocrinology and Obesity Branch, NIDDK, is an inexpensive and easily assembled open-source operant chamber, based on the Arduino microcontroller platform, that can be used to train mice to respond for a reward.

The apparatus contains two nose pokes, a drinking well, and a solenoid-controlled sucrose delivery system. The chamber can easily run magazine training, fixed ratio and progressive ratio training schedules, and can be programmed to run more complicated behavioral paradigms.

rodent operant bucket

In their 2016 paper, “ROBucket: A low cost operant chamber based on the Arduino microcontroller,” Kavya Devarakonda, Katrina P. Nguyen, and Alexxai V. Kravitz validate ROBucket by demonstrating its application in an operant conditioning paradigm, as well as, detail the hardware comprising ROBucket, and the flexible software controlling it.

Further documentation of this device can be found on the NIDDK website, where Dr. Kravitz and his lab share ROBucket construction instructions, ROBucket design files, ROBucket source code, and 3D printing design files.

 Kavya Devarakonda, Katrina P. Nguyen, Alexxai V. Kravitz (2016). ROBucket: A low cost operant chamber based on the Arduino microcontroller. Behav Res Methods 48(2): 503–509.